417 Works

Data associated with the manuscript \"On Lake Methane: Spatial Variability in Stable Carbon Isotopic Composition and the Potential Importance of Groundwater Input\"

Jonathan Schenk, Henrique Oliveira Sawakuchi, Anna Sieczko, Gustav Pajala, David Rudberg, Emelie Hagberg, Kjell Fors, Hjalmar Laudon, Jan Karlsson & David Bastviken

Data from: Disentangling the roles of history and local selection in shaping clinal variation of allele frequencies and gene expression in Norway spruce (Picea abies)

Jun Chen, Thomas Källman, Xiaofei Ma, Niclas Gyllenstrand, Giusi Zaina, Michele Morgante, Jean Bousquet, Andrew Eckert, Jill Wegrzyn, David B. Neale, Ulf Lagercrantz, Martin Lascoux & David Neale
Understanding the genetic basis of local adaptation is challenging due to the subtle balance among conflicting evolutionary forces that are involved in its establishment and maintenance. One system with which to tease apart these difficulties are clines in adaptive characters. Here we analyzed genetic and phenotypic variation in bud set, a highly heritable and adaptive trait, among 18 populations of Norway spruce (Picea abies), arrayed along a latitudinal gradient ranging from 47°N to 68°N. We...

Data from: Stoichiometric imbalances between detritus and detritivores are related to shifts in ecosystem functioning

André Frainer, Jérémy Jabiol, Mark O. Gessner, Andreas Bruder, Eric Chauvet, Brendan McKie & Brendan G. McKie
How are resource consumption and growth rates of litter-consuming detritivores affected by imbalances between consumer and litter C:N:P ratios? To address this question, we offered leaf litter as food to three aquatic detritivore species, which represent a gradient of increasing body N:P ratios: a crustacean, a caddisfly and a stonefly. The detritivores were placed in microcosms and submerged in a natural stream. Four contrasting leaf species were offered, both singly and in two-species mixtures, to...

Data from: No place like home? A test of the natal habitat-biased dispersal hypothesis in Scandinavian wolves

Ana Sanz Pérez, Andres Ordiz, Håkan Sand, Jon Swenson, Petter Wabakken, Camilla Wikenros, Barbara Zimmermann, Mikael Åkesson & Cyril Milleret
Natal dispersal is an important mechanism for the viability of populations. The influence of local conditions or experience gained in the natal habitat could improve fitness if dispersing individuals settle in an area with similar habitat characteristics. This process, defined as “natal habitat-biased dispersal” (NHBD), has been used to explain distribution patterns in large carnivores, but actual studies evaluating it are rare. We tested whether gray wolf Canis lupus territory establishment was influenced by the...

Data from: Bottom trawling affects fish condition through changes in the ratio of prey availability to density of competitors

Jan Geert Hiddink, Joan Moranta, Stephen Balestrini, Marija Sciberras, Marine Cendrier, Rosie Bowyer, Michel J. Kaiser, Mattias Sköld, Patrik Jonsson, Francois Bastardie & Hilmar Hinz
Bottom-trawl fisheries are widespread and cause mortality of benthic invertebrates, which in turn may lead to a decrease in the availability of prey for target fish species. Exploitation also reduces the abundance of the fish species themselves. Modelling studies have shown that bottom trawling could lead to both increases and decreases in fish production, but so far empirical evidence to test these ideas has been very limited. We hypothesize that the effect of bottom trawling...

Data from: Trade-offs in berry production and biodiversity under prescribed burning and retention regimes in Boreal forests

Gustaf Granath, Jari Kouki, Samuel Johnson, Osmo Heikkala, Antonio Rodríguez & Joachim Strengbom
1. Green tree retention and prescribed burning are practices used to mitigate negative effects of forestry. Beside their effects on biodiversity, these practices should also promote non-timber forest products (NTFPs). We assessed: (1) how prescribed burning and tree retention influence NTFPs by examining production of bilberry Vaccinium myrtillus and cowberry; Vaccinium vitis-idaea (2) if there are synergies or trade-offs in the delivery of these NTFPs in relation to delivery of species richness, focusing on five...

Data from: The nutritional balancing act of a large herbivore: an experiment with captive moose (Alces alces L)

Annika M. Felton, Adam Felton, David Raubenheimer, Stephen J. Simpson, Sophie J. Krizsan, Per-Ola Hedwall & Caroline Stolter
The nutrient balancing hypothesis proposes that, when sufficient food is available, the primary goal of animal diet selection is to obtain a nutritionally balanced diet. This hypothesis can be tested using the Geometric Framework for nutrition (GF). The GF enables researchers to study patterns of nutrient intake (e.g. macronutrients; protein, carbohydrates, fat), interactions between the different nutrients, and how an animal resolves the potential conflict between over-eating one or more nutrients and under-eating others during...

Data from: Migration in geographic and ecological space by a large herbivore

Wibke Peters, Mark Hebblewhite, Atle Mysterud, Derek Spitz, Stefano Focardi, Ferdinando Urbano, Nicolas Morellet, Marco Heurich, Petter Kjellander, John D.C. Linnell, Francesca Cagnacci & John D. C. Linnell
Partial migration, when only part of the population migrates seasonally while the other part remains resident on the shared range, is the most common form of migration in ungulates. Migration is often defined by spatial separation of seasonal ranges and consequently, classification of individuals as migrants or residents is usually only based on geographic criteria. However, the underlying mechanism for migration is hypothesized to be movement in response to spatiotemporal resource variability and thus, migrants...

Data from: Consequences of a demographic bottleneck on genetic structure and variation in the Scandinavian brown bear

Georgios Xenikoudakis, Erik Ersmark, Lisette Waits, Jonas Kindberg, Jon E. Swenson & Love Dalén
The Scandinavian brown bear went through a major decline in population size approximately 100 years ago, due to intense hunting. After being protected, the population subsequently recovered and today numbers in the thousands. The genetic diversity in the contemporary population has been investigated in considerable detail, and it has been shown that the population consists of several subpopulations that display relatively high levels of genetic variation. However, previous studies have been unable to resolve the...

Data from: Extensive trans-specific polymorphism at the mating type locus of the root decay fungus Heterobasidion

Linda T. A. Van Diepen, Åke Olson, Ihrmark Katarina, Jan Stenlid & Timothy Y. James
Incompatibility systems in which individuals bearing identical alleles reject each other favor the maintenance of a diversity of alleles. Mushroom mating type loci (MAT) encode for dozens or hundreds of incompatibility alleles whose loss from the population is greatly restricted through negative frequency selection, leading to a system of alleles with highly divergent sequences. Here we use DNA sequences of homeodomain (HD) encoding genes the MAT locus of five closely related species of the root...

Data from: Winter warming effects on tundra shrub performance are species-specific and dependent on spring conditions

Eveline J. Krab, Jonas Rönnefarth, Marina Becher, Gesche Blume-Werry, Frida Keuper, Jonatan Klaminder, Juergen Kreyling, Kobayashi Makoto, Ann Milbau, Ellen Dorrepaal & Jonas Roennefarth
1. Climate change driven increases in winter temperatures positively affect conditions for shrub growth in arctic tundra by decreasing plant frost damage and stimulation of nutrient availability. However, the extent to which shrubs may benefit from these conditions may be strongly dependent on the following spring climate. Species-specific differences in phenology and spring frost sensitivity likely affect shrub growth responses to warming. Additionally, effects of changes in winter and spring climate may differ over small...

Data from: Above-ground and below-ground responses to long-term nutrient addition across a retrogressive chronosequence

David A. Wardle, Micael Jonsson, Jordan R. Mayor & Daniel B. Metcalfe
1. There is much interest in understanding ecosystem responses to local-scale soil fertility variation, which has often been studied using retrogressive chronosequences that span thousands of years and show declining fertility and plant productivity over time. There have been few attempts to experimentally test how plant nutrient limitation changes during retrogression. 2. We studied a well-characterized system of 30 forested lake islands in northern Sweden that collectively represent a 5350-year post-fire retrogressive chronosequence, with fertility...

Data from: Dramatic niche shifts and morphological change in two insular bird species

Per Alström, Jon Fjeldså, Knud Andreas Jønsson, Anders Ödeen, Per G. P. Ericson, Martin Irestedt, J. Fjeldsa, K. A. Jonsson, P. Alstrom & A. Odeen
Colonizations of islands are often associated with rapid morphological divergence. We present two previously unrecognized cases of dramatic morphological change and niche shifts in connection with colonization of tropical forest-covered islands. These evolutionary changes have concealed the fact that the passerine birds madanga, Madanga ruficollis, from Buru, Indonesia, and São Tomé shorttail, Amaurocichla bocagii, from São Tomé, Gulf of Guinea, are forest-adapted members of the family Motacillidae (pipits and wagtails). We show that Madanga has...

Data from: Organic management in apple orchards: higher impacts on biological control than on pollination

Mario Porcel, Georg K.S. Andersson, Joakim Pålsson, Marco Tasin & Georg K. S. Andersson
1. Intensive agricultural management negatively affects both natural enemies of pests and pollinators. Such management also has the potential to adversely affect the ecosystem services that these communities confer. Organic management has been proposed as an alternative method to mitigate such problems by restoring the services provided by arthropod communities. 2. We evaluated the effect of organic management on two ecosystem services provided by arthropods in apple orchards: pollination and biological control. We used relative...

Data from: Mating affects resource selection and modulates associational effects between neighbouring resources

Thomas A. Verschut, Peter A. Hambäck & Peter Anderson
Associational effects occur when the attack rate on a resource depends on neighbouring resources in the environment. These effects are predicted to result from mismatches experienced by the consumer organism in resource selection along hierarchical search levels. As resource selection depends on sensory information used during search behaviour, we expected that different physiological states of an insect might modulate the outcome of associational effects due to differences in resource selection. We used Drosophila melanogaster, as...

Data from: Genome-Wide Analyses Suggest Mechanisms Involving Early B-Cell Development in Canine IgA Deficiency

Mia Olsson, Katarina Tengvall, Marcel Frankowiack, Marcin Kierczak, Kerstin Bergvall, Erik Axelsson, Linda Tintle, Eliane Marti, Petra Roosje, Tosso Leeb, Åke Hedhammar, Lennart Hammarström & Kerstin Lindblad-Toh
Immunoglobulin A deficiency (IgAD) is the most common primary immune deficiency disorder in both humans and dogs, characterized by recurrent mucosal tract infections and a predisposition for allergic and other immune mediated diseases. In several dog breeds, low IgA levels have been observed at a high frequency and with a clinical resemblance to human IgAD. In this study, we used genome-wide association studies (GWAS) to identify genomic regions associated with low IgA levels in dogs...

Data from: Landscape context and farm uptake limit effects of bird conservation in the Swedish Volunteer & Farmer Alliance

Jonas Josefsson, Tomas Pärt, Ake Berg, Anne Marike Lokhorst & Sönke Eggers
1. In Europe, agri-environmental schemes (AES) have been unsuccessful in halting biodiversity declines to any great extent. Two particular shortcomings of AES include the low farm uptake and the modest efficacy of many AES options. Partly in response to these shortcomings, initiatives encouraging farmers to take an active role in biodiversity conservation have gained in popularity. However, almost no evaluations of such initiatives exist. 2. We evaluated uptake of conservation advice on farms in the...

Data from: Competition between apex predators? Brown bears decrease wolf kill rate on two continents

Aimee Tallian, Andres Ordiz, Matthew C. Metz, Cyril Milleret, Camilla Wikenros, Douglas W. Smith, Daniel R. Stahler, Jonas Kindberg, Daniel R. MacNulty, Petter Wabakken, Jon E. Swenson & Håkan Sand
Trophic interactions are a fundamental topic in ecology, but we know little about how competition between apex predators affects predation, the mechanism driving top-down forcing in ecosystems. We used long-term datasets from Scandinavia (Europe) and Yellowstone National Park (North America) to evaluate how grey wolf (Canis lupus) kill rate was affected by a sympatric apex predator, the brown bear (Ursus arctos). We used kill interval (i.e. the number of days between consecutive ungulate kills) as...

Data from: Effects of elevation and nitrogen and phosphorus fertilization on plant defence compounds in subarctic tundra heath vegetation

Jonathan R. De Long, Maja K. Sundqvist, Michael J. Gundale, Reiner Giesler & David A. Wardle
1. Plant chemical and structural defence compounds are well known to impact upon herbivory of fresh leaves and influence decomposition rates after leaf senescence. A number of theories predict that alleviating nutrient limitation and reducing other environmental stressors will result in decreased production of plant chemical defences. 2. In this study, we measured plant defence properties [total polyphenols (TP), condensed tannins (CT) and lignin concentrations, and protein complexation capacity (PCC)] in both fresh and senesced...

Data from: Dung beetle species interactions and multifunctionality are affected by an experimentally warmed climate

Eleanor M. Slade & Tomas Roslin
While substantial effort has been invested in modelling changes in species distribution with climate change, less attention has been given to how climate warming will affect interactions among co-occurring species, and the cascading functional consequences. In this study, realistic dung beetle communities were subjected to an experimental warming treatment and the net effect on the functions of dung decomposition (in terms of dung mass) and plant productivity (in terms of biomass production of ryegrass grown...

Data from: Relative impacts of environmental variation and evolutionary history on the nestedness and modularity of tree-herbivore networks.

Kathryn M. Robinson, Céline Hauzy, Nicolas Loeuille & Benedicte R. Albrectsen
Nestedness and modularity are measures of ecological networks whose causative effects are little understood. We analyzed antagonistic plant–herbivore bipartite networks using common gardens in two contrasting environments comprised of aspen trees with differing evolutionary histories of defence against herbivores. These networks were tightly connected owing to a high level of specialization of arthropod herbivores that spend a large proportion of the life cycle on aspen. The gardens were separated by ten degrees of latitude with...

Data from: Short-term climate change manipulation effects do not scale up to long-term legacies: effects of an absent snow cover on boreal forest plants

Gesche Blume-Werry, Juergen Kreyling, Hjalmar Laudon & Ann Milbau
1. Despite time lags and non-linearity in ecological processes, the majority of our knowledge about ecosystem responses to long-term changes in climate originates from relatively short-term experiments. 2. We utilized the longest ongoing snow removal experiment in the world and an additional set of new plots at the same location in northern Sweden to simultaneously measure the effects of long-term (11 winters) and short-term (1 winter) absence of snow cover on boreal forest understorey plants,...

Data from: Indirect effects of habitat disturbance on invasion: nutritious litter from a grazing resistant plant favors alien over native Collembola

Hans Petter Leinaas, Jan Bengtsson, Charlene Janion-Scheepers & Steven L. Chown
Biological invasions are major threats to biodiversity, with impacts that may be compounded by other forms of environmental change. Observations of high density of the invasive springtail (Collembola), Hypogastrura manubrialis in heavily grazed renosterveld vegetation in the Western Cape, South Africa, raised the question of whether the invasion was favored by changes in plant litter quality associated with habitat disturbance in this vegetation type. To examine the likely mechanisms underlying the high abundance of H....

Data from: Differences in Al sensitivity affect establishment of Populus genotypes on acidic forest land

Böhlenius Henrik, Håkan Asp, Karin Hjelm & Henrik Böhlenius
Forest lands hold great potential for Populus plantations, but in native boreal forests, soils normally have low pH and thus higher levels of aluminum ions (Al3+ and hydroxides). Aluminum (Al) is one of the major factors limiting plant growth on these soils by inhibiting root growth, thus reducing water and nutrient uptake and slowing growth. There is a large variation in Al resistance both among and within species. In this study, growth responses of greenhouse-grown...

Data from: Preference for outbred host plants and positive effects of inbreeding on egg survival in a specialist herbivore

Aino Kalske, Anne Muola, Pia Mutikainen & Roosa Leimu
Inbreeding can profoundly affect the interactions of plants with herbivores as well as with the natural enemies of the herbivores. We studied how plant inbreeding affects herbivore oviposition preference, and whether inbreeding of both plants and herbivores alters the probability of predation or parasitism of herbivore eggs. In a laboratory preference test with the specialist herbivore moth Abrostola asclepiadis and inbred and outbred Vincetoxicum hirundinaria plants, we discovered that herbivores preferred to oviposit on outbred...

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