56 Works

Data from: Mating affects resource selection and modulates associational effects between neighbouring resources

Thomas A. Verschut, Peter A. Hambäck & Peter Anderson
Associational effects occur when the attack rate on a resource depends on neighbouring resources in the environment. These effects are predicted to result from mismatches experienced by the consumer organism in resource selection along hierarchical search levels. As resource selection depends on sensory information used during search behaviour, we expected that different physiological states of an insect might modulate the outcome of associational effects due to differences in resource selection. We used Drosophila melanogaster, as...

Data from: The importance of species identity and interactions on multifunctionality depends on how ecosystem functions are valued

Eleanor M. Slade, Laura Kirwin, Thomas Bell, Christopher D. Philipson, Owen T. Lewis & Tomas Roslin
Studies investigating how biodiversity affects ecosystem functioning increasingly focus on multiple functions measured simultaneously (‘multifunctionality’). However, few such studies assess the role of species interactions, particularly under alternative environmental scenarios, despite interactions being key to ecosystem functioning. Here we address five questions of central importance to ecosystem multifunctionality using a terrestrial animal system: 1) Does the contribution of individual species differ for different ecosystem functions?; 2) Do inter-species interactions affect the delivery of single functions...

Data from: Winter warming effects on tundra shrub performance are species-specific and dependent on spring conditions

Eveline J. Krab, Jonas Rönnefarth, Marina Becher, Gesche Blume-Werry, Frida Keuper, Jonatan Klaminder, Juergen Kreyling, Kobayashi Makoto, Ann Milbau, Ellen Dorrepaal & Jonas Roennefarth
1. Climate change driven increases in winter temperatures positively affect conditions for shrub growth in arctic tundra by decreasing plant frost damage and stimulation of nutrient availability. However, the extent to which shrubs may benefit from these conditions may be strongly dependent on the following spring climate. Species-specific differences in phenology and spring frost sensitivity likely affect shrub growth responses to warming. Additionally, effects of changes in winter and spring climate may differ over small...

Data from: Isotopic methods for non-destructive assessment of carbon dynamics in shrublands under long-term climate change manipulation

Louise C. Andresen, Maria T. Dominguez, Sabine Reinsch, Andy R. Smith, Inger Kappel Schmidt, Per Ambus, Claus Beier, Pascal Boeckx, Roland Bol, Giovanbattista De Dato, Bridget A. Emmett, Marc Estiarte, Mark H. Garnett, György Kröel-Dulay, Sharon L. Mason, Cecilie S. Nielsen, Josep Penuelas, Albert Tietema & Andrew R. Smith
1.Long-term climate change experiments are extremely valuable for studying ecosystem responses to environmental change. Examination of the vegetation and the soil should be non-destructive to guarantee long-term research. In this paper, we review field methods using isotope techniques for assessing carbon dynamics in the plant-soil-air continuum, based on recent field experience and examples from a European climate change manipulation network. 2.Eight European semi-natural shrubland ecosystems were exposed to warming and drought manipulations. One field site...

Data from: Trade-offs in berry production and biodiversity under prescribed burning and retention regimes in Boreal forests

Gustaf Granath, Jari Kouki, Samuel Johnson, Osmo Heikkala, Antonio Rodríguez & Joachim Strengbom
1. Green tree retention and prescribed burning are practices used to mitigate negative effects of forestry. Beside their effects on biodiversity, these practices should also promote non-timber forest products (NTFPs). We assessed: (1) how prescribed burning and tree retention influence NTFPs by examining production of bilberry Vaccinium myrtillus and cowberry; Vaccinium vitis-idaea (2) if there are synergies or trade-offs in the delivery of these NTFPs in relation to delivery of species richness, focusing on five...

Data from: Competition between apex predators? Brown bears decrease wolf kill rate on two continents

Aimee Tallian, Andres Ordiz, Matthew C. Metz, Cyril Milleret, Camilla Wikenros, Douglas W. Smith, Daniel R. Stahler, Jonas Kindberg, Daniel R. MacNulty, Petter Wabakken, Jon E. Swenson & Håkan Sand
Trophic interactions are a fundamental topic in ecology, but we know little about how competition between apex predators affects predation, the mechanism driving top-down forcing in ecosystems. We used long-term datasets from Scandinavia (Europe) and Yellowstone National Park (North America) to evaluate how grey wolf (Canis lupus) kill rate was affected by a sympatric apex predator, the brown bear (Ursus arctos). We used kill interval (i.e. the number of days between consecutive ungulate kills) as...

Data from: Migration in geographic and ecological space by a large herbivore

Wibke Peters, Mark Hebblewhite, Atle Mysterud, Derek Spitz, Stefano Focardi, Ferdinando Urbano, Nicolas Morellet, Marco Heurich, Petter Kjellander, John D.C. Linnell, Francesca Cagnacci & John D. C. Linnell
Partial migration, when only part of the population migrates seasonally while the other part remains resident on the shared range, is the most common form of migration in ungulates. Migration is often defined by spatial separation of seasonal ranges and consequently, classification of individuals as migrants or residents is usually only based on geographic criteria. However, the underlying mechanism for migration is hypothesized to be movement in response to spatiotemporal resource variability and thus, migrants...

Data from: Trophic cascades in the bryosphere: The impact of global change factors on top-down control of cyanobacterial N2-fixation

Paul Kardol, Clydecia M. Spitzer, Michael J. Gundale, Marie-Charlotte Nilsson & David A. Wardle
Trophic cascades in which predatory organisms regulate organisms at lower trophic levels are important drivers of species dynamics, but effects of trophic cascades on ecosystem fluxes and processes, and the conditions under which top-down control is important, remain unresolved. We manipulated the structure of food webs in boreal mosses to show that moss-inhabiting microfauna exerted top-down control of N2-fixation by moss-associated cyanobacteria. However, organisms of higher trophic levels alleviated this top-down control, likely through feeding...

Data from: Berry production drives bottom-up effects on body mass and reproductive success in an omnivore

Anne G. Hertel, Richard Bischof, Ola Langvall, Atle Mysterud, Jonas Kindberg, Jon E. Swenson, Andreas Zedrosser & Ola Langval
Obligate herbivores dominate studies of the effects of climate change on mammals, however there is limited empirical evidence for how changes in the abundance or quality of plant food affect mammalian omnivores. Omnivores can exploit a range of different food resources over the course of a year, but they often rely on seasonally restricted highly nutritious fruiting bodies during critical life stages. Brown bears Ursus arctos in Sweden are dependent on berries for fattening before...

Data from: The best of both worlds: a combined approach for analyzing microalgal diversity via metabarcoding and morphology-based methods

Sophie Groendahl, Maria Kahlert & Patrick Fink
An increasing number of studies use next generation sequencing (NGS) to analyze complex communities, but is the method sensitive enough when it comes to identification and quantification of species? We compared NGS with morphology-based identification methods in an analysis of microalgal (periphyton) communities. We conducted a mesocosm experiment in which we allowed two benthic grazer species to feed upon benthic biofilms, which resulted in altered periphyton communities. Morphology-based identification and 454 (Roche) pyrosequencing of the...

Data from: Coordinated responses of soil communities to elevation in three subarctic vegetation types

G. F. Ciska Veen, Jonathan R. De Long, Paul Kardol, Maja K. Sundqvist, L. Basten Snoek & David A. Wardle
Global warming has begun to have a major impact on the species composition and functioning of plant and soil communities. However, long-term community and ecosystem responses to increased temperature are still poorly understood. In this study, we used a well-established elevational gradient in northern Sweden to elucidate how plant, microbial and nematode communities shift with elevation and associated changes in temperature in three highly contrasting vegetation types (i.e. heath, meadow and Salix vegetation). We found...

Data from: Experience buffers extrinsic mortality in a group-living bird species

Michael Griesser, Emeline Mourocq, Jonathan Barnaby, Katharine Bowegen, Sönke Eggers, Kevin Fletcher, Radoslav Kozma, Franziska Kurz, Anssi Laurila, Magdalena Nystrand, Enrico Sorato, Jan Ekman & Katharine M. Bowgen
Extrinsic mortality has a strong impact on the evolution of life-histories, prey morphology and behavioural adaptations, but for many animals the causes of mortality are poorly understood. Predation is an important driver of extrinsic mortality and mobile animals form groups in response to increased predation risk. Furthermore, in many species juveniles suffer higher mortality than older individuals, which may reflect a lower phenotypic quality, lower competitiveness, or a lack of antipredator or foraging skills. Here...

Data from: A cross-scale trophic cascade from large predatory fish to algae in coastal ecosystems

Serena Donadi, Åsa N. Austin, Ulf Bergström, B. Klemens Eriksson, Joakim P. Hansen, Philip Jacobson, Göran Sundblad, Marin Van Regteren & Johan S. Eklöf
Trophic cascades occur in many ecosystems, but the factors regulating them are still elusive. We suggest that an overlooked factor is that trophic interactions (TIs) are often scale-dependent and possibly interact across spatial scales. To explore the role of spatial scale for trophic cascades, and particularly the occurrence of cross-scale interactions (CSIs), we collected and analysed food-web data from 139 stations across 32 bays in the Baltic Sea. We found evidence of a four-level trophic...

Data from: Temperature-dependent body size effects determine population responses to climate warming

Max Lindmark, Magnus Huss, Jan Ohlberger & Anna Gårdmark
Current understanding of animal population responses to rising temperatures is based on the assumption that biological rates such as metabolism, which governs fundamental ecological processes, scale independently with body size and temperature, despite empirical evidence for interactive effects. Here we investigate the consequences of interactive temperature- and size-scaling of vital rates for the dynamics of populations experiencing warming using a stage-structured consumer-resource model. We show that interactive scaling alters population and stage-specific responses to rising...

Data from: Forest restoration as a double-edged sword: the conflict between biodiversity conservation and pest control

Simon Kärvemo, Christer Björkman, Therese Johansson, Jan Weslien & Joakim Hjältén
1. Forestry has markedly changed a large proportion of the world’s boreal forests, often with negative effects on biodiversity. As a result, forest restoration is increasingly implemented to counteract the negative effects. However, restoration measures aimed at mimicking natural disturbance regimes could simultaneously increase the risk of unwanted negative effects, such as damage by forest pest species. This study compares the effect of two restoration methods (prescribed burning and gap-cutting), on both biodiversity conservation and...

Data from: Spatio-temporal dynamics of a fish predator: density-dependent and hydrographic effects on Baltic Sea cod population

Valerio Bartolino, Huidong Tian, Ulf Bergström, Pekka Jounela, Eero Aro, Christian Dieterich, H.E. Markus Meier, Massimiliano Cardinale, Barbara Bland, Michele Casini & H. E. Markus Meier
Understanding the mechanisms of spatial population dynamics is crucial for the successful management of exploited species and ecosystems. However, the underlying mechanisms of spatial distribution are generally complex due to the concurrent forcing of both density-dependent species interactions and density-independent environmental factors. Despite the high economic value and central ecological importance of cod in the Baltic Sea, the drivers of its spatio-temporal population dynamics have not been analytically investigated so far. In this paper, we...

Data from: Trade-offs in the multi-use potential of managed boreal forests

Joachim Strengbom, E. Petter Axelsson, Tomas Lundmark & Annika Nordin
1. Implementing multi-use forest management to account for both commercial and non-commercial ecosystem services is gaining increased global recognition. Despite its spatial extent, and great economic and ecological values, few studies have evaluated the boreal forest and its management to assess the potential for simultaneous delivery of a suite of ecosystem services. 2. Using data from a Swedish long-term experiment this study explores how biodiversity of the ground vegetation and potential delivery of multiple ecosystem...

Data from: How bird clades diversify in response to climatic and geographic factors

Genoveva Rodriguez-Castaneda, Anouschka R. Hof & Roland Jansson
While the environmental correlates of global patterns in standing species richness are well understood, it is poorly known which environmental factors promote diversification (speciation minus extinction) in clades. We tested several hypotheses for how geographic and climatic variables should affect diversification using a large dataset of bird sister genera endemic to the New World. We found support for the area, evolutionary speed, environmental predictability and climatic stability hypotheses, but productivity and topographic complexity were rejected...

Data from: The role of bryophytes for tree seedling responses to winter climate change: implications for the stress gradient hypothesis

Signe Lett, David A. Wardle, Marie-Charlotte Nilsson, Laurenz M. Teuber & Ellen Dorrepaal
1.When tree seedlings establish beyond the current tree line due to climate warming, they encounter existing vegetation, such as bryophytes that often dominate in arctic and alpine tundra. The stress gradient hypothesis (SGH) predicts that plant interactions in tundra become increasingly negative as climate warms and conditions become less harsh. However, for seedlings climate warming might not result in lower winter stress, if insulating snow cover is reduced. 2.We aimed to understand to if bryophytes...

Data from: A test of the hierarchical model of litter decomposition

Mark A. Bradford, G. F. Veen, Anne Bonis, Ella M. Bradford, Aimee T. Classen, J. Hans C. Cornelissen, Thomas W. Crowther, Jonathan R. De Long, Gregoire T. Freschet, Paul Kardol, Marta Manrubia-Freixa, Daniel S. Maynard, Gregory S. Newman, Richard S. P. Van Logtestijn, Maria Viketoft, David A. Wardle, William R. Wieder, Stephen A. Wood & Wim H. Van Der Putten
Our basic understanding of plant litter decomposition informs the assumptions underlying widely applied soil biogeochemical models, including those embedded in Earth system models. Confidence in projected carbon cycle-climate feedbacks therefore depends on accurate knowledge about the controls regulating the rate at which plant biomass is decomposed into products such as CO2. Here, we test underlying assumptions of the dominant conceptual model of litter decomposition. The model posits that a primary control on the rate of...

Data from: Organic farming increases richness of fungal taxa in the wheat phyllosphere

Ida Karlsson, Hanna Friberg, Anna-Karin Kolseth, Christian Steinberg & Paula Persson
Organic farming is often advocated as an approach to mitigate biodiversity loss on agricultural land. The phyllosphere provides a habitat for diverse fungal communities that are important for plant health and productivity. However, it is still unknown how organic farming affects the diversity of phyllosphere fungi in major crops. We sampled wheat leaves from 22 organically and conventionally cultivated fields in Sweden, paired based on their geographical location and wheat cultivar. Fungal communities were described...

Data from: The evolutionary origin of variation in song length and frequency in the avian family Cettiidae

Chentao Wei, Trevor D. Price, Jiayu Liu, Per Alström & Yanyun Zhang
Aspects of bird song have been shown to correlate with morphological and ecological features, including beak and body size, and habitat. Here we study evolution of song length and song frequency among 30 species belonging to the Cettiidae. Frequency is negatively correlated with body size, and song length increases with latitude. Although migration distance correlates with latitude, the association of song length with latitude is only present within the non-migratory species, implying the association is...

Data from: Higher predation risk for insect prey at low latitudes and elevations

Tomas Roslin, Bess Hardwick, Vojtech Novotny, William K. Petry, Nigel R. Andrew, Ashley Asmus, Isabel C. Barrio, Yves Basset, Andrea Larissa Boesing, Timothy C. Bonebrake, Erin K. Cameron, Wesley Dáttilo, David A. Donoso, Pavel Drozd, Claudia L. Gray, David S. Hik, Sarah J. Hill, Tapani Hopkins, Shuyin Huang, Bonny Koane, Benita Laird-Hopkins, Liisa Laukkanen, Owen T. Lewis, Sol Milne, Isaiah Mwesige … & Eleanor M. Slade
Biotic interactions underlie ecosystem structure and function, but predicting interaction outcomes is difficult. We tested the hypothesis that biotic interaction strength increases toward the equator, using a global experiment with model caterpillars to measure predation risk. Across an 11,660-kilometer latitudinal gradient spanning six continents, we found increasing predation toward the equator, with a parallel pattern of increasing predation toward lower elevations. Patterns across both latitude and elevation were driven by arthropod predators, with no systematic...

Data from: Temperature and consumer type dependencies of energy flows in natural communities

Birgit Lang, Roswitha B. Ehnes, Ulrich Brose & Björn C. Rall
With the world continuously warming, a mechanistic understanding of how temperature affects interaction strengths, which are fundamental to food-web stability, is needed. As interaction strengths are determined by the flows of energy from resources to consumers, we investigated effects of temperature on animal energetics. We used newly compiled datasets on respiration rates and assimilation efficiencies to assess how temperature affects the energy use (respiration rates) and the efficiency of energy gain (assimilation efficiency) for different...

Data from: Calcicolous plants colonize limed mires after long-distance dispersal

Niklas Lönnell & Kristoffer Hylander
Aim Dispersal range is a key factor for understanding species’ persistence in dynamic landscapes. However, dispersal, especially over long distances, is inherently difficult to study. Making use of a unique system of anthropogenically disturbed, geographically isolated mires, we assessed dispersal ranges for a group of plants restricted to wet calcareous conditions via empirical studies of colonization patterns. We hypothesized that more species would have colonized the less isolated mires and that colonization frequencies would be...

Registration Year

  • 2017
    56

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    56

Affiliations

  • Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
    55
  • Wageningen University & Research
    6
  • University of Helsinki
    5
  • Lund University
    4
  • Uppsala University
    4
  • Nanyang Technological University
    3
  • Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute
    3
  • Norwegian University of Life Sciences
    3
  • Umeå University
    3
  • Estación Biológica de Doñana
    2