10 Works

The role of cloud–infrared radiation feedback in tropical cyclone development

J.H. Ruppert, A.A. Wing, X. Tang & E.L. Duran
This archive contains the data and code used by Ruppert et al. (2020) in their journal publication (DOI placeholder; "The role of cloud–infrared radiation feedback in tropical cyclone development"). It contains 1) the WRF model code and namelist files required to run the pre-processing and simulations of Typhoon Haiyan and Hurricane Maria, and 2) the forcing and circulation output from Sawyer–Eliassen equation computations. Gridded output files are in NetCDF format. Additional datasets required to conduct...

Cave-adapted evolution in the North American Amblyopsid fishes inferred using phylogenomics and geometric morphometrics

Pamela Hart, Matthew Niemiller, Edward Burress, Jonathan Armbruster, William Ludt & Prosanta Chakrabarty
Cave adaptation has evolved repeatedly across the Tree of Life, famously leading to pigmentation and eye degeneration and loss, yet its macroevolutionary implications remain poorly understood. We use the North American amblyopsid fishes, a family spanning a wide degree of cave adaptation, to examine the impact of cave specialization on the modes and tempo of evolution. We reconstruct evolutionary relationships using ultraconserved element loci, estimate the ancestral histories of eye-state, and examine the impact of...

Pronounced genetic separation among varieties of the Primula cusickiana species complex, a Great Basin endemic

Austin Koontz, William Pearse & Paul Wolf
Distinguishing between populations with strong genetic structure and unique species is a common challenge in systematics, especially for taxa occurring in fragmented habitats where allopatric speciation may be widespread and distinct groups may be morphologically similar. Such is often the case with species complexes across sky island environments. In these scenarios, biogeography may help to explain the taxonomic relations between species complex members, and restriction site-associated DNA (RAD) sequencing methods are commonly used to compare...

Tropical tree species differ in damage and mortality from lightning

Stephen P. Yanoviak, Jeannine Richards, Evan Gora, Cesar Gutierrez, Jeffrey Burchfield & Phillip Bitzer
Lightning is an important agent of mortality for large tropical trees with implications for tree demography and forest carbon budgets. We evaluated interspecific differences in susceptibility to lightning damage using a unique dataset of systematically located lightning strikes on Barro Colorado Island, Panama. We measured differences in mortality among trees damaged by lightning and related those to damage frequency and tree functional traits. Eighteen of 30 focal species had lightning mortality rates that deviated from...

The contributions of lightning to biomass turnover, gap formation, and plant mortality in a tropical forest

Evan Gora, Phillip Bitzer, Jeffrey Burchfield, Cesar Gutierrez & Stephen Yanoviak
Lightning is a common source of disturbance, but its ecological effects in tropical forests are largely undescribed. Here we quantify the contributions of lightning strikes to forest turnover and plant mortality in a lowland Panamanian forest using a real-time lightning monitoring system. We examined 2195 lightning-damaged trees distributed among 93 different strikes. None exhibited scars or fires. On average, each strike disturbed 451 m2 (95% CI: 365-545 m2), created canopy gaps of 304 m2 (95%...

Data from: Transcriptional variation associated with cactus host plant adaptation in Drosophila mettleri

Kim Hoang, Luciano M. Matzkin & Jeremy M. Bono
Although the importance of host plant chemistry in plant–insect interactions is widely accepted, the genetic basis of adaptation to host plants is not well understood. Here, we investigate transcriptional changes associated with a host plant shift in Drosophila mettleri. While D. mettleri is distributed mainly throughout the Sonoran Desert where it specializes on columnar cacti (Carnegiea gigantea and Pachycereus pringleii), a population on Santa Catalina Island has shifted to chemically divergent coastal prickly pear cactus...

Data from: A mechanistic and empirically-supported lightning risk model for forest trees

Evan Gora, Jeffrey Burchfield, Helene Muller-Landau, Phillip Bitzer, Stephen Hubbell & Stephen Yanoviak
Tree death due to lightning influences tropical forest carbon cycling and tree community dynamics. However, the distribution of lightning damage among trees in forests remains poorly understood. We developed models to predict direct and secondary lightning damage to trees based on tree size, crown exposure, and local forest structure. We parameterized these models using data on the locations of lightning strikes and censuses of tree damage in strike zones, combined with drone-based maps of tree...

Summer land surface temperature from MODIS Aqua and Terra satellites for Houston in 2014 and Phoenix in 2003 at 1km resolution

Gavin Collins, Leiqiu Hu & Matthew Heaton
Satellite remote-sensing is used to collect important atmospheric and geophysical data at various spatial resolutions, providing insight into spatiotemporal surface and climate variability globally. These observations are often plagued with missing spatial and temporal information of Earth’s surface due to (1) cloud cover at the time of a satellite passing and (2) infrequent passing of polar-orbiting satellites. While many methods are available to model missing data in space and time, in the case of land...

Data from: Pantropical geography of lightning-caused disturbance and its implications for tropical forests

Evan Gora, Jeffrey Burchfield, Helene Muller-Landau, Phillip Bitzer & Stephen Yanoviak
Lightning is a major agent of disturbance, but its ecological effects in the tropics are unquantified. Here, we used ground and satellite sensors to quantify the geography of lightning strikes in terrestrial tropical ecosystems, and to evaluate whether spatial variation in lightning frequency is associated with variation in tropical forest structure and dynamics. Between 2013 and 2018, tropical terrestrial ecosystems received an average of 100.4 million lightning strikes per year, and the frequency of strikes...

Data from: Behavioural evolution accompanying host shifts in cactophilic Drosophila larvae

Joshua M. Coleman, Kyle M. Benowitz, Alexandra G. Jost & Luciano M. Matzkin
For plant utilizing insects, the shift to a novel host is generally accompanied by a complex set of phenotypic adaptations. Many such adaptations arise in response to differences in plant chemistry, competitive environment, or abiotic conditions. One less well-understood factor in the evolution of phytophagous insects is the selective environment provided by plant shape and volume. Does the physical structure of a new plant host favour certain phenotypes? Here, we use cactophilic Drosophila, which have...

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  • University of Alabama in Huntsville
  • University of Louisville
  • Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute
  • Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County
  • The Ohio State University
  • Morton Arboretum
  • Nanjing University
  • Auburn University
  • University of Arizona
  • Imperial College London