76 Works

Inhibition of Cdc42 activity extends lifespan and decreases circulating inflammatory cytokines in aged female C57BL/6 mice

Maria Carolina Florian, Hanna Leins, Michael Gobs, Yang Han, Gina Marka, Karin Soller, Angelika Vollmer, Vadim Sakk, Kalpana J. Nattamai, Ahmad Rayes, Xueheng Zhao, Kenneth Setchell, Medhanie Mulaw, Wolfgang Wagner, Yi Zheng & Hartmut Geiger
Cdc42 is a small RhoGTPase regulating multiple functions in eukaryotic cells. The activity of Cdc42 is significantly elevated in several tissues of aged mice, while the Cdc42 gain-of-activity mouse model presents with a pre-mature aging-like phenotype and with decreased lifespan. These data suggest a causal connection between elevated activity of Cdc42, aging and reduced lifespan. Here, we demonstrate that systemic treatment of aged (75-week old) female C57BL/6 mice with a Cdc42 activity specific inhibitor (CASIN)...

Increase in coercive measures in psychiatric hospitals during the COVID-19 Pandemic

Erich Flammer
Objective: To examine whether the pandemic in 2020 caused changes in psychiatric hospital cases, the percentage of patients exposed to coercive interventions, and aggressive incidents. Results: The number of cases in adult psychiatry decreased by 7.6% from 105,782 to 97,761. The percentage of involuntary cases increased from 12.3 to 14.1%, and the absolute number of coercive measures increased by 4.7% from 26,269 to 27,514. The percentage of cases exposed to any kind of coercive measure...

Data from: Sexual selection on cuticular hydrocarbons of male sagebrush crickets in the wild

Sandra Steiger, Geoffrey D. Ower, Johannes Stökl, Christopher Mitchell, John Hunt, Scott K. Sakaluk & J. Stokl
Cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) play an essential role in mate recognition in insects but the form and intensity of sexual selection on CHCs has only been evaluated in a handful of studies, and never in a natural population. We quantified sexual selection operating on CHCs in a wild population of sagebrush crickets, a species in which nuptial feeding by females imposes an unambiguous phenotypic marker on males. Multivariate selection analysis revealed a saddle-shaped fitness surface, suggesting...

Data from: Female choice for male cuticular hydrocarbon profile in decorated crickets is not based on similarity to their own profile

Sandra Steiger, Alexandra Capodeanu-Nägler, Susan N. Gershman, Carie B. Weddle, James Rapkin, Scott K. Sakaluk & John Hunt
Indirect genetic benefits derived from female mate choice comprise additive (good genes) and non-additive genetic benefits (genetic compatibility). Although good genes can be revealed by condition-dependent display traits, the mechanism by which compatibility alleles are detected is unclear because evaluation of the genetic similarity of a prospective mate requires the female to assess the genotype of the male and compare it to her own. Cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs), lipids coating the exoskeleton of most insects, influence...

Data from: Species divergence in offspring begging and parental provisioning is linked to nutritional dependency

Alexandra Capodeanu-Nägler, Anne-Katrin Eggert, Heiko Vogel, Scott K. Sakaluk & Sandra Steiger
In animal species in which parents provide food to their dependent young, offspring often display conspicuous begging signals. These solicitation behaviors are important components of parent–offspring communication, but it is currently unclear how they and the parental response covary with offspring dependency on parental food provisioning across species. Burying beetles (Nicrophorus) are well known for providing elaborate biparental care, including provisioning of begging larvae. By using a multispecies approach, we show that larval begging intensity,...

Data from: Home-made cost effective preservation buffer is a better alternative to commercial preservation methods for microbiome research

Sebastian Menke, Mark A. F. Gillingham, Kerstin Wilhelm & Simone Sommer
The investigation of wildlife gastrointestinal microbiomes by next-generation sequencing approaches is a growing field in microbial ecology and conservation. Such studies often face difficulties in sample preservation if neither freezing facilities nor liquid nitrogen (LQN) are readily available. Thus, in order to prevent microbial community changes because of bacterial growth after sampling, preservation buffers need to be applied to samples. However, the amount of microbial community variation attributable to the different preservation treatments and potentially...

Data from: Acoustic identification of Mexican bats based on taxonomic and ecological constraints on call design

Veronica Zamora-Gutierrez, Celia Lopez-Gonzalez, M. Cristina MacSwiney Gonzalez, Brock Fenton, Gareth Jones, Elisabeth K. V. Kalko, Sebastien J. Puechmaille, Vassilios Stathopoulos & Kate E. Jones
Monitoring global biodiversity is critical for understanding responses to anthropogenic change, but biodiversity monitoring is often biased away from tropical, megadiverse areas that are experiencing more rapid environmental change. Acoustic surveys are increasingly used to monitor biodiversity change, especially for bats as they are important indicator species and most use sound to detect, localise and classify objects. However, using bat acoustic surveys for monitoring poses several challenges, particularly in megadiverse regions. Many species lack reference...

Data from: Disentangling synergistic disease dynamics: Implications for the viral biocontrol of rabbits

Konstans Wells, Damien A. Fordham, Barry W. Brook, Phillip Cassey, Tarnya Cox, Robert B. O’Hara, Nina I. Schwensow & Robert B. O'Hara
European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) have been exposed to rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) and myxoma virus (MYXV) in their native and invasive ranges for decades. Yet, the long‐term effects of these viruses on rabbit population dynamics remain poorly understood. In this context, we analysed 17 years of detailed capture–mark–recapture data (2000–2016) from Turretfield, South Australia, using a probabilistic state‐space hierarchical modelling framework to estimate rabbit survival and epidemiological dynamics. While RHDV infection and disease‐induced death...

Data from: Nectar sugar composition of European Caryophylloideae (Caryophyllaceae) in relation to flower length, pollination biology and phylogeny

Taina Witt, Andreas Jürgens & Gerhard Gottsberger
Floral nectar composition has been explained as an adaptation to factors that are either directly or indirectly related to pollinator attraction. However, it is often unclear whether the sugar composition is a direct adaptation to pollinator preferences. Firstly, the lower osmolality of sucrose solutions means that they evaporate more rapidly than hexose solutions, which might be one reason why sucrose-rich nectar is typically found in flowers with long tubes (adapted to long-tongued pollinators), where it...

Images obtained by fluorescence microscopy technique for monitoring diffusion of PI molecules into pressure-treated Listeria monocytogenes cells

Bahareh Nikparvar, Alicia Subires, Marta Capellas, Manuela Hernandez-Herrero, Peter Crauwels, Christian U. Riedel & Nadav Bar
The effect of environmental stresses on microorganisms is well studied and cellular response to stresses such as heat, cold, acids, and salts was extensively discussed. Although high pressure processing (HPP) as a preservation method is becoming more popular in the food industry, the characteristics of the cellular damage caused by high pressure are unclear, and the microbial response to this stress is not well explored yet. We exposed the pathogen Listeria monocytogenes to HPP (400...

Altering transcription factor binding reveals comprehensive transcriptional kinetics of a basic gene

Achim P. Popp, Johannes Hettich & J. Christof M. Gebhardt
Transcription is a vital process activated by transcription factor (TF) binding. The active gene releases a burst of transcripts before turning inactive again. While the basic course of transcription is well understood, it is unclear how binding of a TF affects the frequency, duration and size of a transcriptional burst. We systematically varied the residence time and concentration of a synthetic TF and characterized the transcription of a synthetic reporter gene by combining single molecule...

Data from: Phylogeny of haemosporidian blood parasites revealed by a multi-gene approach

Janus Borner, Christian Pick, Jenny Thiede, Olatunji Matthew Kolawole, Manchang Tanyi Kingsley, Jana Schulze, Veronika M. Cottontail, Nele Wellinghausen, Jonas Schmidt-Chanasit, Iris Bruchhaus & Thorsten Burmester
The apicomplexan order Haemosporida is a clade of unicellular blood parasites that infect a variety of reptilian, avian and mammalian hosts. Among them are the agents of human malaria, parasites of the genus Plasmodium, which pose a major threat to human health. Illuminating the evolutionary history of Haemosporida may help us in understanding their enormous biological diversity, as well as tracing the multiple host switches and associated acquisitions of novel life-history traits. However, the deep-level...

Data from: A hormone-related female anti-aphrodisiac signals temporary infertility and causes sexual abstinence to synchronize parental care

Katharina C. Engel, Johannes Stökl, Rebecca Schweizer, Heiko Vogel, Manfred Ayasse, Joachim Ruther & Sandra Steiger
The high energetic demand of parental care requires parents to direct their resources towards the support of existing offspring rather than investing into the production of additional young. However, how such a resource flow is channelled appropriately is poorly understood. In this study, we provide the first comprehensive analysis of the physiological mechanisms coordinating parental and mating effort in an insect exhibiting biparental care. We show a hormone-mediated infertility in female burying beetles during the...

Data from: Effects of abiotic environmental factors and land use on the diversity of carrion-visiting silphid beetles (Coleoptera: Silphidae): a large scale carrion study

Christian Von Hoermann, Dennis Jauch, Carolin Kubotsch, Kirsten Reichel-Jung, Sandra Steiger & Manfred Ayasse
Silphidae_AbundanceThe file Silphidae_Abundance includes abundance data of all captured silphid species per plot and day after piglet cadaver exposition.

Data from: Sensory-based niche partitioning in a multiple predator-multiple prey community

Jay J. Falk, Hannah M. Ter Hofstede, Patricia L. Jones, Marjorie M. Dixon, Paul A. Faure, Elisabeth K. V. Kalko & Rachel A. Page
Many predators and parasites eavesdrop on the communication signals of their prey. Eavesdropping is typically studied as dyadic predator–prey species interactions; yet in nature, most predators target multiple prey species and most prey must evade multiple predator species. The impact of predator communities on prey signal evolution is not well understood. Predators could converge in their preferences for conspicuous signal properties, generating competition among predators and natural selection on particular prey signal features. Alternatively, predator...

Data from: Meta-analysis reveals that hydraulic traits explain cross-species patterns of drought-induced tree mortality across the globe

William R. L. Anderegg, Tamir Klein, Megan Bartlett, Lawren Sack, Adam F. A. Pellegrini, Brendan Choat & Steven Jansen
Drought-induced tree mortality has been observed globally and is expected to increase under climate change scenarios, with large potential consequences for the terrestrial carbon sink. Predicting mortality across species is crucial for assessing the effects of climate extremes on forest community biodiversity, composition, and carbon sequestration. However, the physiological traits associated with elevated risk of mortality in diverse ecosystems remain unknown, although these traits could greatly improve understanding and prediction of tree mortality in forests....

Data from: Mitotic chromosome binding predicts transcription factor properties in interphase

Mahé Raccaud, Elias T. Friman, Andrea B. Alber, Harsha Agarwal, Cédric Deluz, Timo Kuhn, J. Christof M. Gebhardt & David M. Suter
Mammalian transcription factors (TFs) differ broadly in their nuclear mobility and sequence-specific/non-specific DNA binding. How these properties affect their ability to occupy specific genomic sites and modify the epigenetic landscape is unclear. The association of TFs with mitotic chromosomes observed by fluorescence microscopy is largely mediated by non-specific DNA interactions and differs broadly between TFs. Here we combine quantitative measurements of mitotic chromosome binding (MCB) of 501 TFs, TF mobility measurements by fluorescence recovery after...

Data from: Single-molecule imaging correlates decreasing nuclear volume with increasing TF-chromatin associations during zebrafish development

Matthias Reisser, Anja Palmer, Achim P. Popp, Christopher Jahn, Gilbert Weidinger & J. Christof M. Gebhardt
Zygotic genome activation (ZGA), the onset of transcription after initial quiescence, is a major developmental step in many species, which occurs after ten cell divisions in zebrafish embryos. How transcription factor (TF)-chromatin interactions evolve during early development to support ZGA is largely unknown. We establish single molecule tracking in live developing zebrafish embryos using reflected light-sheet microscopy to visualize two fluorescently labeled TF species, mEos2-TBP and mEos2-Sox19b. We further develop a data acquisition and analysis...

Data from: Very high MHC Class IIB diversity without spatial differentiation in the Mediterranean population of Greater Flamingos

Mark A. F. Gillingham, Arnaud Béchet, Alexandre Courtiol, Manuel Rendón-Martos, Juan A. Amat, Boudjéma Samraoui, Ortaç Onmuş, Simone Sommer & Frank Cézilly
Background: Selective pressure from pathogens is thought to shape the allelic diversity of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes in vertebrates. In particular, both local adaptation to pathogens and gene flow are thought to explain a large part of the intraspecific variation observed in MHC allelic diversity. To date, however, evidence that adaptation to locally prevalent pathogens maintains MHC variation is limited to species with limited dispersal and, hence, reduced gene flow. On the one hand...

Hydraulic prediction of drought-induced plant dieback and top-kill depends on leaf habit and growth form

Ya-Jun Chen, Brendan Choat, Frank Sterck, Phisamai Maenpuen, Masatoshi Katabuchi, Shu-Bin Zhang, Kyle Tomlinson, Rafael Oliveira, Yong-Jiang Zhang, Kun-Fang Cao & Steven Jansen
Hydraulic failure caused by severe drought contributes to aboveground dieback and whole-plant death. The extent to which dieback or whole-plant death can be predicted by plant hydraulic traits has rarely been tested among species with different leaf habits and/or growth forms. We investigated 19 hydraulic traits in 40 woody species in a tropical savanna and their potential correlations with drought response during an extreme drought event during the El Niño–Southern Oscillation in 2015. Plant hydraulic...

Bimodal activity of diurnal flower visitation at high elevation

Xin Xu, Zong-Xin Ren, Judith Trunschke, Jonas Kuppler, Yan-Hui Zhao, Eva Knop & Hong Wang
Successful pollination in animal-pollinated plants depends on the temporal overlap between flower presentation and pollinator foraging activity. Variation in the temporal dimension of plant-pollinator networks has been investigated intensely across flowering seasons. However, over the course of a day, the dynamics of plant-pollinator interactions may vary strongly due environmental fluctuations. It is usually assumed there is a unimodal, diurnal, activity pattern, while alternative multi-modal types of activity patterns are often neglected and deserve greater investigation....

Contribution of males to brood care can compensate for their food consumption from a shared resource

Sandra Steiger, Eva M. Keppner & Manfred Ayasse
The sharing of the same food source among parents and offspring can be a driver of the evolution of family life and parental care. However, if all family members desire the same meal, competitive situations can arise, especially if resource depletion is likely. When food is shared for reproduction and the raising of offspring, parents have to decide whether they should invest in self-maintenance or in their offspring and it is not entirely clear how...

Adaptive changes in the genomes of wild rabbits after 16 years of viral epidemics

Stephen Pederson & Nina Schwensow
Since its introduction to control overabundant alien rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus), the highly virulent Rabbit Haemorrhagic Disease Virus (RHDV) has caused regular annual disease outbreaks in Australian rabbit populations. Although initially reducing rabbit abundance by 60%, continent-wide, experimental evidence has since indicated increased genetic resistance in wild rabbits that have experienced RHDV-driven selection. To identify genetic adaptations, which explain the increased resistance to this biocontrol virus, we investigated genome-wide SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) allele frequency changes...

Data from: Resistance to RHD virus in wild Australian rabbits: comparison of susceptible and resistant individuals using a genomewide approach

Nina I. Schwensow, Harald Detering, Stephen Pederson, Camila Mazzoni, Ron Sinclair, David Peacock, John Kovaliski, Brian Cooke, Joerns Fickel & Simone Sommer
Deciphering the genes involved in disease resistance is essential if we are to understand host–pathogen coevolutionary processes. The rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) was imported into Australia in 1995 as a biocontrol agent to manage one of the most successful and devastating invasive species, the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). During the first outbreaks of the disease, RHDV caused mortality rates of up to 97%. Recently, however, increased genetic resistance to RHDV has been reported. Here,...

Data from: Investigating the zoonotic origin of the West African Ebola epidemic

Almudena Marí Saéz, Sabrina Weiss, Kathrin Nowak, Vincent Lapeyre, Fee Zimmermann, Ariane Düx, Hjalmar S. Kühl, Moussa Kaba, Sébastien Regnaut, Kevin Merkel, Andreas Sachse, Ursula Thiesen, Lili Villányi, Christophe Boesch, Piotr W. Dabrowski, Aleksandar Radonic, Andreas Nitsche, Siv Aina J. Leendertz, Stefan Petterson, Stephan Becker, Verena Krähling, Emmanuel Couacy-Hymann, Chantal Akoua-Koffi, Natalie Weber, Lars Schaade … & Fabian H. Leendertz
The severe Ebola virus disease epidemic occurring in West Africa stems from a single zoonotic transmission event to a 2-year-old boy in Meliandou, Guinea. We investigated the zoonotic origins of the epidemic using wildlife surveys, interviews, and molecular analyses of bat and environmental samples. We found no evidence for a concurrent outbreak in larger wildlife. Exposure to fruit bats is common in the region, but the index case may have been infected by playing in...

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  • University of Ulm
  • Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute
  • University of Exeter
  • Institute of Organic Chemistry
  • University of Bayreuth
  • University of Adelaide
  • Illinois State University
  • Massachusetts General Hospital
  • University of Hamburg
  • University of Nottingham