81 Works

Data from: Effects of seal predation on a modelled marine fish community and consequences for a commercial fishery

Jennifer E. Houle, Francisco De Castro, Michelle A. Cronin, Keith D. Farnsworth, Martha Gosch & David G. Reid
We constructed a size- and trait-based dynamic marine community model of the Celtic Sea/Biologically Sensitive Area, including grey seals Halichoerus grypus (Fabricius 1791) and harbour seals Phoca vitulina vitulina (Linnaeus 1758) to examine potential resource conflict between seals and commercial trawl fisheries. The model incorporates seal diet preference, population size and commercial fishery catch, with survey data to quantify ecological interactions between seals and fisheries. Total annual consumption by seals was an order of magnitude...

Data from: Population genomic analyses of early phase Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) domestication/captive breeding.

Hannu Mäkinen, Anti Vasemägi, Philip McGinnity, Tom F. Cross, Craig Primmer & Craig R. Primmer
Domestication can have adverse genetic consequences, which may reduce the fitness of individuals once released back into the wild. Many wild Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) populations are threatened by anthropogenic influences and they are supplemented with captively bred fish. The Atlantic salmon is also widely used in selective breeding programs to increase the mean trait values for desired phenotypic traits. We analyzed a genome-wide set of SNPs in three domesticated Atlantic salmon strains and...

Data from: The signature of fine scale local adaptation in Atlantic salmon revealed from common garden experiments in nature

Ciar L O'Toole, Thomas E. Reed, Deborah Bailie, Caroline Bradley, Deirdre Cotter, Jamie Coughlan, Tom Cross, Eileen Dillane, Sarah McEvoy, Niall O'Maoileidigh, Paulo Prodöhl, Ger Rogan & Philip McGinnity
Understanding the extent, scale and genetic basis of local adaptation (LA) is important for conservation and management. Its relevance in salmonids at microgeographic scales, where dispersal (and hence potential gene flow) can be substantial, has however been questioned. Here, we compare the fitness of communally reared offspring of local and foreign Atlantic salmon Salmo salar from adjacent Irish rivers and reciprocal F1 hybrid crosses between them, in the wild ‘home’ environment of the local population....

Data from: Where the lake meets the sea: strong reproductive isolation is associated with adaptive divergence between lake resident and anadromous three-spined sticklebacks

Mark Ravinet, Rosaleen Hynes, Russell Poole, Tom F. Cross, Phil McGinnity, Harrod Harrod & Paulo A. Prodöhl
Contact zones between divergent forms of the same species are often characterised by high levels of phenotypic diversity over small geographic distances. What processes are involved in generating such high phenotypic diversity? One possibility is that introgression and recombination between divergent forms in contact zones results in greater phenotypic and genetic polymorphism. Alternatively, strong reproductive isolation between forms may maintain distinct phenotypes, preventing homogenisation by gene flow. Contact zones between divergent freshwater-resident and anadromous stickleback...

Multiple factors affect discrimination learning performance, but not between-individual variation, in wild mixed-species flocks of birds

Michael Reichert, Sam Crofts, Gabrielle Davidson, Josh Firth, Ipek Kulahci & John Quinn
Cognition arguably drives most behaviours in animals, but whether and why individuals in the wild vary consistently in their cognitive performance is scarcely known, especially under mixed-species scenarios. One reason for this is that quantifying the relative importance of individual, contextual, ecological and social factors remains a major challenge. We examined how many of these factors, and sources of bias, affected participation, and performance, in an initial discrimination learning experiment and two reversal learning experiments...

Quality of advertisements for prescription drugs in family practice medical journals published in Australia, Canada, and the United States with different regulatory controls: a cross-sectional study

Dion Diep, Abnoos Mosleh-Shirazi & Joel Lexchin
OBJECTIVE: To assess if different forms of regulation lead to differences in the quality of journal advertisements. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty advertisements from family practice journals published from 2013-2015 were extracted for three countries with distinct regulatory pharmaceutical promotion systems: Australia, Canada, and the United States (US). PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Advertisements under each regulatory system were compared concerning three domains: information included in the advertisement, references to scientific evidence, and pictorial appeals...

Data from: Evolution of iris colour in relation to cavity nesting and parental care in passerine birds

Gabrielle Davidson, Alex Thornton, Nicola Clayton, Gabrielle L. Davidson & Nicola S. Clayton
Strong selection pressures are known to act on animal coloration. Although many animals vary in eye colour, virtually no research has investigated the functional significance of these colour traits. Passeriformes have a range of iris colours, making them an ideal system to investigate how and why iris colour has evolved. Using phylogenetic comparative methods, we tested the hypothesis that conspicuous iris colour in passerine birds evolved in response to (a) coordination of offspring care and...

Drivers of spatiotemporal variability in bycatch of a top marine predator: First evidence for the role of water turbidity in protected species bycatch

Cian Luck, Michelle Cronin, Martha Gosch, Kieran Healy, Ronan Cosgrove, Oliver Tully, Emer Rogan & Mark Jessopp
1. Bycatch of protected species in static net fisheries is a global conservation concern and is currently considered the dominant anthropogenic threat to many marine mammal species worldwide. Effective bycatch mitigation remains challenging, contingent on an understanding of the underlying mechanisms that cause individuals to become entangled. 2. We combined data collected by scientific observers and fishers to identify predictors of seal bycatch in static net fisheries along the west, southwest, and south coasts of...

Data from: Wintering grounds, population size and evolutionary history of a cryptic passerine species from isotopic and genetic data

Ivan De La Hera, Jordi Gomez, Eileen Dillane, Azaitz Unanue, Anton Perez-Rodriguez, Javier Perez-Tris & Maria Torres-Sanchez
Cryptic species pose a particular challenge to biologists in the context of life history investigations because of the difficulty in their field discrimination. Additionally, there is normally a lag in their widespread acceptance by the scientific community once they are formally recognised. These two factors might constrain our ability to properly assess the conservation status of the different species conforming a cryptic complex. In this study, we analysed isotopic and genetic data to shed light...

Data from: State-space modelling of the flight behaviour of a soaring bird provides new insights to migratory strategies

Enrico Pirotta, Todd Katzner, Tricia A. Miller, Adam E. Duerr, Melissa A. Braham & Leslie New
1. Characterizing the spatiotemporal variation of animal behaviour can elucidate the way individuals interact with their environment and allocate energy. Increasing sophistication of tracking technologies paired with novel analytical approaches allows the characterisation of movement dynamics even when an individual is not directly observable. 2. In this study, high-resolution movement data collected via global positioning system (GPS) tracking in three dimensions were paired with topographical information and used in a Bayesian state-space model to describe...

Associations between metabolic traits and growth rate in brown trout (Salmo trutta) depend on thermal regime

Louise Archer
Metabolism defines the energetic cost of life, yet we still know relatively little about why intraspecific variation in metabolic rate arises and persists. Spatiotemporal variation in selection potentially maintains differences, but relationships between metabolic traits (standard metabolic rate (SMR), maximum metabolic rate (MMR), and aerobic scope) and fitness across contexts are unresolved. We show that associations between SMR, MMR, and growth rate (a key fitness-related trait) vary depending on thermal regime (a potential selective agent)...

Cognition and covariance in the producer-scrounger game

Michael Reichert, Julie Morand-Ferron, Ipek Kulahci, Josh Firth, Gabrielle Davidson, Sam Crofts & John Quinn
1. The producer-scrounger game is a key element of foraging ecology in many systems. Producing and scrounging typically covary negatively, but partitioning this covariance into contributions of individual plasticity and consistent between individual differences is key to understanding population level consequences of foraging strategies. Furthermore, little is known about the role cognition plays in the producer-scrounger game. 2. We investigated the role of cognition in these alternative foraging tactics in wild mixed-species flocks of great...

The opportunity for selection: an important but slippery concept in ecology and evolution.

Thomas Reed, Thomas Reed, Marcel E. Visser & Robin Waples
1. The concept of the opportunity for selection (I), measured as the variance in relative fitness, is over 60 years old, yet remains poorly understood by, or even unknown to, many ecologists and evolutionary biologists. This essay aims to clarify key conceptual and practical issues concerning use and estimation of I, which represents a theoretical upper limit on the rate of evolutionary adaptation. 2. The component of I caused by linear selection on a single...

Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic review and Meta-Analysis Protocols (PRISMA-P) checklist and flow diagram

Elizabeth Bodunde, Daire Buckley, Eimear O'Neill, Gillian M. Maher, Karen Matvienko-Sikar, Karen O'Connor., Fergus P. McCarthy & Ali S. Khashan
PRISMA-P Checklist PRISMA flow diagram

Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic review and Meta-Analysis Protocols (PRISMA-P) checklist and flow diagram

Elizabeth Bodunde, Daire Buckley, Eimear O'Neill, Gillian M. Maher, Karen Matvienko-Sikar, Karen O'Connor., Fergus P. McCarthy & Ali S. Khashan
PRISMA-P Checklist PRISMA flow diagram

Data from: Postglacial climate changes and rise of three ecotypes of harbor porpoises, Phocoena phocoena, in western Palearctic waters

Michaël C. Fontaine, Kathleen Roland, Isabelle Calves, Frederic Austerlitz, Friso P. Palstra, Krystal A. Tolley, Sean Ryan, Marisa Ferreira, Thierry Jauniaux, Angela Llavona, Bayram Öztürk, Ayaka A. Öztürk, Vincent Ridoux, Emer Rogan, Ursula Siebert, Marina Sequeira, Gísli A. Vikingsson, Asunción Borrell, Johan R. Michaux & Alex Aguilar
Despite no obvious barriers to gene flow in the marine realm, environmental variation and ecological specializations can lead to genetic differentiation in highly mobile predators. Here, we investigated the genetic structure of the harbor porpoise over the entire species distribution range in western Palearctic waters. Combined analyses of ten microsatellite loci and a 5,085 bases-pairs portion of the mitochondrial genome revealed the existence of three ecotypes, equally divergent at the mitochondrial genome, distributed in the...

Data from: Idiosyncratic species effects confound size-based predictions of responses to climate change

Marion Twomey, Eva Brodte, Ute Jacob, Ulrich Brose, Tasman P. Crowe & Mark C. Emmerson
Understanding and predicting the consequences of warming for complex ecosystems and indeed individual species remains a major ecological challenge. Here, we investigated the effect of increased seawater temperatures on the metabolic and consumption rates of five distinct marine species. The experimental species reflected different trophic positions within a typical benthic East Atlantic food web, and included a herbivorous gastropod, a scavenging decapod, a predatory echinoderm, a decapod and a benthic-feeding fish. We examined the metabolism–body...

Data from: SNP-array reveals genome wide patterns of geographical and potential adaptive divergence across the natural range of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)

Vincent Bourret, Matthew P. Kent, Craig R. Primmer, Anti Vasemägi, Sten Karlsson, Kjetil Hindar, Philip McGinnity, Eric Verspoor, Louis Bernatchez & Sigbjørn Lien
Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) is one of the most extensively studied fish species in the world due to its significance in aquaculture, fisheries and ongoing conservation efforts to protect declining populations. Yet, limited genomic resources have hampered our understanding of genetic architecture in the species and the genetic basis of adaptation to the wide range of natural and artificial environments it occupies. In this paper, we describe the development of a medium density Atlantic salmon...

Data from: Low fossilization potential of keratin protein revealed by experimental taphonomy

Evan T. Saitta, Chris Rogers, Richard A. Brooker, Geoffrey D. Abbott, Sumit Kumar, Shane S. O'Reilly, Paul Donohoe, Suryendu Dutta, Roger E. Summons & Jakob Vinther
Recent studies have suggested the presence of keratin in fossils dating back to the Mesozoic. However, ultrastructural studies revealing exposed melanosomes in many fossil keratinous tissues suggest that keratin should rarely, if ever, be preserved. In this study, keratin's stability through diagenesis was tested using microbial decay and maturation experiments on various keratinous structures. The residues were analysed using pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and compared to unpublished feather and hair fossils and published fresh and fossil...

Evidence of links between haematological condition and foraging behaviour in Northern gannets (Morus bassanus)

Mark Jessopp, Zaraa Malvat, Sharon Lynch & Ashley Bennison
Haematological analyses can reveal the physiological condition of birds, who are known to efficiently disguise symptoms of stress and disease. However, interpretation of such analyses requires species-specific baseline data, which are lacking for most free-living seabird species. We provide baseline reference data for several haematological parameters in Northern gannets (Morus bassanus) and combine this with telemetry and dietary data to understand the links between haemotologic condition and foraging behaviour. Blood samples were collected from breeding...

Experimental investigation of insect deposition in lentic environments and implications for formation of Konservat-Lagerstätten

Qingyi Tian, Shengyu Wang, Zixiao Yang, Maria McNamara, Michael Benton & Baoyu Jiang
Terrestrial insects are often remarkably well preserved in lacustrine Konservat-Lagerstätten. However, the assumption that carcasses should sink fast through the water column seems to contradict evidence that this scenario is unlikely due to excessive buoyancy and surface tension. The mechanisms that promote rapid and permanent emplacement onto the sediment surface (RPESS) of such terrestrial animal remains are not fully understood. Here we use taphonomic experiments to show that floating in water, growth of microbial biofilms...

Data from: Medical school selection criteria as predictors of medical student empathy: a cross-sectional study of medical students, Ireland

Donnchadh M. O'Sullivan, Joseph Moran, Paul Corcoran, Siun O'Flynn, Colm O'Tuathiagh & Aoife M. O'Sullivan
Objectives: To determine whether performance in any of the HPAT sections, most specifically the interpersonal understanding section, correlates with self-reported empathy levels in medical students. Setting: The study was conducted in University College Cork, Ireland. Participants: 290 students participated in the study. Matching HPAT scores were available for 263 students. All male and female undergraduate students were invited to participate. Post graduate and international students were excluded. Primary and secondary outcome measures: HPAT-Ireland and JSPE...

A time-lagged association between the gut microbiome, nestling weight and nestling survival in wild great tits

Gabrielle Davidson, Shane Somers, Niamh Wiley, Crystal Johnson, Micheal Reichert, R. Paul Ross, Catherine Stanton & John Quinn
Natal body mass is a key predictor of viability and fitness in many animals. While variation in body mass and therefore viability of juveniles may be explained by genetic and environmental factors, emerging evidence points to the gut microbiota as an important factor influencing host health. The gut microbiota is known to change during development, but it remains unclear whether the microbiome predicts fitness, and if it does, at which developmental stage it affects fitness...

Data from: Opposing patterns of intraspecific and interspecific differentiation in sex chromosomes and autosomes

Peter A. Moran, Sonia Pascoal, Timothée Cezard, Judith E. Risse, Michael G. Ritchie & Nathan W. Bailey
Linking intraspecific and interspecific divergence is an important challenge in speciation research. X chromosomes are expected to evolve faster than autosomes and disproportionately contribute to reproductive barriers, and comparing genetic variation on X and autosomal markers within and between species can elucidate evolutionary processes that shape genome variation. We performed RADseq on a 16-population transect of two closely-related Australian cricket species, Teleogryllus commodus and T. oceanicus, covering allopatry and sympatry. This classic study system for...

Latitudinal influence on gametogenesis and host-parasite ecology in a marine bivalve model

Kate Mahony, Sharon Lynch, Sian Egerton, Rebecca Laffan, Simão Correia, Xavier De Montaudouin, Nathalie Mesmer-Dudons, Rosa Maria Freitas & Sarah Culloty
Reproduction and parasites have significant impacts on marine animal populations globally. This study aimed to investigate the associative effects of host reproduction and a host-parasite interplay on a marine bivalve, along a geographic gradient of latitude. Cockles Cerastoderma edule were sampled from five European sites (54°N to 40°N), between April 2018 and October 2019. A histological survey provided data on trematode (metacercaria and sporocyst life stages), prevalence and cockle stage of gametogenesis to assess the...

Registration Year

  • 2023
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Resource Types

  • Dataset


  • University College Cork
  • University of Cambridge
  • University of Oxford
  • Queen's University Belfast
  • Marine Institute
  • University of Glasgow
  • Oklahoma State University
  • Nederlands Instituut voor Ecologie
  • University of Exeter
  • University of Aveiro