62 Works

Data associated to: A bioenergetics approach to understanding sex differences in the foraging behaviour of a sexually monomorphic species

Ashley Bennison
Many animals show sexually divergent foraging behaviours reflecting different physiological constraints or energetic needs. We used a bioenergetics approach to examine sex differences in foraging behaviour of the sexually monomorphic northern gannet. We used the relationship between dynamic body acceleration and energy expenditure to investigate energetic cost of prey capture attempts (plunge dives). Fourteen gannets were tracked using GPS, TDR, and accelerometers. All plunge dives in a foraging trip represented <4% of total energy expenditure,...

Data from: Parasite genetic distance and local adaptation in coevolving bacteria-bacteriophage populations

Pauline D. Scanlan, Alex R. Hall & Angus Buckling
Antagonistic coevolution between hosts and parasites can lead to local adaptation (LA), such that parasite fitness is greatest in sympatric hosts (or vice versa). The magnitude of LA typically increases with geographic distance, which is assumed to be because genetic (and hence phenotypic) distance increases with geographic distance. Here we explicitly test the relationships between parasite genetic and phenotypic distance and LA using isolates of coevolved viral parasites (lytic bacteriophage ϕ2) and the host bacterium...

Data from: Salient eyes deter conspecific nest intruders in wild jackdaws (Corvus monedula)

Gabrielle L. Davidson, Nicola S. Clayton & Alex Thornton
Animals often respond fearfully when encountering eyes or eye-like shapes. Although gaze aversion has been documented in mammals when avoiding group-member conflict, the importance of eye coloration during interactions between conspecifics has yet to be examined in non-primate species. Jackdaws (Corvus monedula) have near-white irides, which are conspicuous against their dark feathers and visible when seen from outside the cavities where they nest. Because jackdaws compete for nest sites, their conspicuous eyes may act as...

Data from: Synchrotron-X-ray absorption spectroscopy of melanosomes in vertebrates and cephalopods: implications for the affinity of Tullimonstrum

Christopher Rogers, Timothy Astrop, Maria McNamara, Samuel Webb, Shosuke Ito & Kazumasa Wakamatsu
Screening pigments are essential for vision in animals. Vertebrates utilise melanins bound in melanosomes as screening pigments, whereas cephalopods are assumed to use ommochromes. Preserved eye melanosomes in the controversial fossil Tullimonstrum (Mazon Creek, Illinois) display size-and/or shape-specific are present in geometrically distinct layers that resemble tissue-specific melanosome populations considered unique to the vertebrate eye. Here, we show that extant cephalopod eyes also show tissue-specific size- and/or shape-specific partitioning of melanosomes; these differ from vertebrate...

Raw data for: No reproductive benefits of dear enemy recognition in a territorial songbird

Michael Reichert, Jodie Crane, Gabrielle Davidson, Eileen Dillane, Ipek Kulahci, James O'Neill, Kees Van Oers, Ciara Sexton & John Quinn
Territorial animals often learn to distinguish their neighbors from unfamiliar conspecifics. This cognitive ability facilitates the dear enemy effect, where individuals respond less aggressively to neighbors than to other individuals, and is hypothesized to be adaptive by reducing unnecessary aggressive interactions with individuals that are not a threat to territory ownership. A key prediction of this hypothesis, that individuals with better ability to learn to recognize neighbors should have higher fitness, has never been tested....

Data from: MHC-mediated spatial distribution in brown trout (Salmo trutta) fry

Brian O'Farrell, E De Eyto, J A H Benzie, P McGinnity, J Carlsson, E Dillane, C Graham, J Coughlan & T Cross
Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I-linked microsatellite data and parental assignment data for a group of wild brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) provide evidence of closer spatial aggregation among fry sharing greater numbers of MHC class I alleles under natural conditions. This result confirms predictions from laboratory experiments demonstrating a hierarchical preference for association of fry sharing MHC alleles. Full-siblings emerge from the same nest (redd), and a passive kin association pattern arising from limited...

Data from: A high density SNP chip for genotyping great tit (Parus major) populations and its application to studying the genetic architecture of exploration behaviour

Jun-Mo Kim, Anna W. Santure, Henry J. Barton, John L. Quinn, Eleanor F. Cole, Marcel E. Visser, Ben C. Sheldon, Martien A.M. Groenen, Kees Van Oers, Jon Slate & J.-M. Kim
High density SNP microarrays (‘SNP chips’) are a rapid, accurate and efficient method for genotyping several hundred thousand polymorphisms in large numbers of individuals. While SNP chips are routinely used in human genetics and in animal and plant breeding, they are less widely used in evolutionary and ecological research. In this paper we describe the development and application of a high density Affymetrix Axiom chip with around 500 000 SNPs, designed to perform genomics studies...

Data from: Tidal drift removes the need for area restricted search in foraging Atlantic puffins

Ashley Bennison, John Quinn, Alison Debney & Mark Jessopp
Understanding how animals forage is a central objective in ecology. Theory suggests that where food is uniformly distributed, Brownian movement ensures maximum prey encounter rate, but when prey is patchy, the optimal strategy resembles a Lévy walk where Area Restricted Search (ARS) is interspersed with commuting between prey patches. Such movement appears ubiquitous in high trophic level marine predators. Here we report foraging and diving behaviour in a seabird with a high cost of flight,...

Data from: Parasitism in early life: environmental conditions shape intra-brood variation in responses to infection

Hanna M. V. Granroth-Wilding, Sarah J. Burthe, Sue Lewis, Thomas E. Reed, Katherine A. Herborn, Mark A. Newell, Emi A. Takahashi, Francis Daunt & Emma J. A. Cunningham
Parasites play key ecological and evolutionary roles through the costs they impose on their host. In wild populations, the effect of parasitism is likely to vary considerably with environmental conditions, which may affect the availability of resources to hosts for defense. However, the interaction between parasitism and prevailing conditions is rarely quantified. In addition to environmental variation acting on hosts, individuals are likely to vary in their response to parasitism, and the combined effect of...

Data from: Shy birds play it safe: personality in captivity predicts risk responsiveness during reproduction in the wild

Ella F. Cole & John L. Quinn
Despite a growing body of evidence linking personality to life-history variation and fitness, the behavioural mechanisms underlying these relationships remain poorly understood. One mechanism thought to play a key role is how individuals respond to risk. Relatively reactive and proactive (or shy and bold) personality types are expected to differ in how they manage the inherent trade-off between productivity and survival, with bold individuals being more risk-prone with lower survival probability, and shy individuals adopting...

Data from: Do personality and innovativeness influence competitive ability? An experimental test in the great tit

William O'Shea, Eva Serrano-Davies & John L. Quinn
Competitive ability is a major determinant of fitness, yet why individuals vary in their ability to compete for resources is often unclear. Rather than simply reflecting inherent differences in the ability of individuals to reach an assumed optimum behavior quality, empirical evidence suggests that competitive ability may also reflect alternative strategies that arise because of correlations with other behaviors, such as innovativeness and personality. We examined experimentally how two behavioral traits - exploration of a...

Guppy MHC and microsatellite genotypes, gyrodactylid infection trials, and analysis code

Karl Phillips
Natural host populations differ in their susceptibility to infection by parasites, and these intra-population differences are still an incompletely understood component of host-parasite dynamics. In this study, we used controlled infection experiments with wild-caught guppies (Poecilia reticulata) and their ectoparasite Gyrodactylus turnbulli to investigate the roles of local adaptation and host genetic composition (immunogenetic and neutral) in explaining differences in susceptibility to infection. We found differences between our four study host populations that were consistent...

Data from: The signature of fine scale local adaptation in Atlantic salmon revealed from common garden experiments in nature

Ciar L O'Toole, Thomas E. Reed, Deborah Bailie, Caroline Bradley, Deirdre Cotter, Jamie Coughlan, Tom Cross, Eileen Dillane, Sarah McEvoy, Niall O'Maoileidigh, Paulo Prodöhl, Ger Rogan & Philip McGinnity
Understanding the extent, scale and genetic basis of local adaptation (LA) is important for conservation and management. Its relevance in salmonids at microgeographic scales, where dispersal (and hence potential gene flow) can be substantial, has however been questioned. Here, we compare the fitness of communally reared offspring of local and foreign Atlantic salmon Salmo salar from adjacent Irish rivers and reciprocal F1 hybrid crosses between them, in the wild ‘home’ environment of the local population....

Data from: State-space modelling of the flight behaviour of a soaring bird provides new insights to migratory strategies

Enrico Pirotta, Todd Katzner, Tricia A. Miller, Adam E. Duerr, Melissa A. Braham & Leslie New
1. Characterizing the spatiotemporal variation of animal behaviour can elucidate the way individuals interact with their environment and allocate energy. Increasing sophistication of tracking technologies paired with novel analytical approaches allows the characterisation of movement dynamics even when an individual is not directly observable. 2. In this study, high-resolution movement data collected via global positioning system (GPS) tracking in three dimensions were paired with topographical information and used in a Bayesian state-space model to describe...

Data from: Population genomic analyses of early phase Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) domestication/captive breeding.

Hannu Mäkinen, Anti Vasemägi, Philip McGinnity, Tom F. Cross, Craig Primmer & Craig R. Primmer
Domestication can have adverse genetic consequences, which may reduce the fitness of individuals once released back into the wild. Many wild Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) populations are threatened by anthropogenic influences and they are supplemented with captively bred fish. The Atlantic salmon is also widely used in selective breeding programs to increase the mean trait values for desired phenotypic traits. We analyzed a genome-wide set of SNPs in three domesticated Atlantic salmon strains and...

Data from: Evolution of iris colour in relation to cavity nesting and parental care in passerine birds

Gabrielle Davidson, Alex Thornton, Nicola Clayton, Gabrielle L. Davidson & Nicola S. Clayton
Strong selection pressures are known to act on animal coloration. Although many animals vary in eye colour, virtually no research has investigated the functional significance of these colour traits. Passeriformes have a range of iris colours, making them an ideal system to investigate how and why iris colour has evolved. Using phylogenetic comparative methods, we tested the hypothesis that conspicuous iris colour in passerine birds evolved in response to (a) coordination of offspring care and...

Data from: Effects of seal predation on a modelled marine fish community and consequences for a commercial fishery

Jennifer E. Houle, Francisco De Castro, Michelle A. Cronin, Keith D. Farnsworth, Martha Gosch & David G. Reid
We constructed a size- and trait-based dynamic marine community model of the Celtic Sea/Biologically Sensitive Area, including grey seals Halichoerus grypus (Fabricius 1791) and harbour seals Phoca vitulina vitulina (Linnaeus 1758) to examine potential resource conflict between seals and commercial trawl fisheries. The model incorporates seal diet preference, population size and commercial fishery catch, with survey data to quantify ecological interactions between seals and fisheries. Total annual consumption by seals was an order of magnitude...

Data from: Where the lake meets the sea: strong reproductive isolation is associated with adaptive divergence between lake resident and anadromous three-spined sticklebacks

Mark Ravinet, Rosaleen Hynes, Russell Poole, Tom F. Cross, Phil McGinnity, Harrod Harrod & Paulo A. Prodöhl
Contact zones between divergent forms of the same species are often characterised by high levels of phenotypic diversity over small geographic distances. What processes are involved in generating such high phenotypic diversity? One possibility is that introgression and recombination between divergent forms in contact zones results in greater phenotypic and genetic polymorphism. Alternatively, strong reproductive isolation between forms may maintain distinct phenotypes, preventing homogenisation by gene flow. Contact zones between divergent freshwater-resident and anadromous stickleback...

Drivers of spatiotemporal variability in bycatch of a top marine predator: First evidence for the role of water turbidity in protected species bycatch

Cian Luck, Michelle Cronin, Martha Gosch, Kieran Healy, Ronan Cosgrove, Oliver Tully, Emer Rogan & Mark Jessopp
1. Bycatch of protected species in static net fisheries is a global conservation concern and is currently considered the dominant anthropogenic threat to many marine mammal species worldwide. Effective bycatch mitigation remains challenging, contingent on an understanding of the underlying mechanisms that cause individuals to become entangled. 2. We combined data collected by scientific observers and fishers to identify predictors of seal bycatch in static net fisheries along the west, southwest, and south coasts of...

Multiple factors affect discrimination learning performance, but not between-individual variation, in wild mixed-species flocks of birds

Michael Reichert, Sam Crofts, Gabrielle Davidson, Josh Firth, Ipek Kulahci & John Quinn
Cognition arguably drives most behaviours in animals, but whether and why individuals in the wild vary consistently in their cognitive performance is scarcely known, especially under mixed-species scenarios. One reason for this is that quantifying the relative importance of individual, contextual, ecological and social factors remains a major challenge. We examined how many of these factors, and sources of bias, affected participation, and performance, in an initial discrimination learning experiment and two reversal learning experiments...

Cognition and covariance in the producer-scrounger game

Michael Reichert, Julie Morand-Ferron, Ipek Kulahci, Josh Firth, Gabrielle Davidson, Sam Crofts & John Quinn
1. The producer-scrounger game is a key element of foraging ecology in many systems. Producing and scrounging typically covary negatively, but partitioning this covariance into contributions of individual plasticity and consistent between individual differences is key to understanding population level consequences of foraging strategies. Furthermore, little is known about the role cognition plays in the producer-scrounger game. 2. We investigated the role of cognition in these alternative foraging tactics in wild mixed-species flocks of great...

Associations between metabolic traits and growth rate in brown trout (Salmo trutta) depend on thermal regime

Louise Archer
Metabolism defines the energetic cost of life, yet we still know relatively little about why intraspecific variation in metabolic rate arises and persists. Spatiotemporal variation in selection potentially maintains differences, but relationships between metabolic traits (standard metabolic rate (SMR), maximum metabolic rate (MMR), and aerobic scope) and fitness across contexts are unresolved. We show that associations between SMR, MMR, and growth rate (a key fitness-related trait) vary depending on thermal regime (a potential selective agent)...

Data from: Wintering grounds, population size and evolutionary history of a cryptic passerine species from isotopic and genetic data

Ivan De La Hera, Jordi Gomez, Eileen Dillane, Azaitz Unanue, Anton Perez-Rodriguez, Javier Perez-Tris & Maria Torres-Sanchez
Cryptic species pose a particular challenge to biologists in the context of life history investigations because of the difficulty in their field discrimination. Additionally, there is normally a lag in their widespread acceptance by the scientific community once they are formally recognised. These two factors might constrain our ability to properly assess the conservation status of the different species conforming a cryptic complex. In this study, we analysed isotopic and genetic data to shed light...

Quality of advertisements for prescription drugs in family practice medical journals published in Australia, Canada, and the United States with different regulatory controls: a cross-sectional study

Dion Diep, Abnoos Mosleh-Shirazi & Joel Lexchin
OBJECTIVE: To assess if different forms of regulation lead to differences in the quality of journal advertisements. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty advertisements from family practice journals published from 2013-2015 were extracted for three countries with distinct regulatory pharmaceutical promotion systems: Australia, Canada, and the United States (US). PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Advertisements under each regulatory system were compared concerning three domains: information included in the advertisement, references to scientific evidence, and pictorial appeals...

Data from: Quantifying heritable variation in fitness-related traits of wild, farmed and hybrid Atlantic salmon families in a wild river environment

Philip McGinnity, Thomas E. Reed, P. Prodohl, Rosaleen Hynes, Tom Cross & Andy Ferguson
Farmed fish are typically genetically different from wild conspecifics. Escapees from fish farms may contribute one-way gene flow from farm to wild gene pools, which can depress population productivity, dilute local adaptations and disrupt coadapted gene complexes. Here, we reanalyse data from two experiments (McGinnity et al., 1997, 2003) where performance of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) progeny originating from experimental crosses between farm and wild parents (in three different cohorts) were measured in a natural...

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  • University College Cork
  • University of Cambridge
  • Marine Institute
  • University of Oxford
  • Queen's University Belfast
  • Oklahoma State University
  • University of Exeter
  • University of Aveiro
  • University of Glasgow
  • Nederlands Instituut voor Ecologie