57 Works

Data from: Trait patterns of epiphytes compared to other plant life forms along a tropical elevation gradient

David Schellenberger Costa, Gerhard Zotz, Andreas Hemp & Michael Kleyer
Compared to other plant life forms, epiphytes remain understudied. Understanding the responses of epiphytes to changing environmental conditions is necessary to predict changes in ecosystem functioning especially in subtropical and tropical regions. We investigated the functional traits of epiphytes along a large elevation gradient on Mount Kilimanjaro, Tanzania. We measured traits of co-occurring trees and terrestrial non-tree life forms, and compared changes in community-weighted means of traits (CWM) and trait spread, the range of observed...

Data from: Competitor or facilitator? The ambiguous role of alpine grassland for the early establishment of tree seedlings at treeline

Hannah Loranger, Gerhard Zotz & Maaike Y. Bader
Alpine treelines are expected to move upslope with a warming climate. However, so far treelines have responded inconsistently and future shifts remain difficult to predict since many factors unrelated to temperature, such as biotic interactions, affect responses at the local scale. Especially during the earliest regeneration stages, trees can be strongly influenced by alpine vegetation via both competition and facilitation. We aimed to understand the relative importance of these two types of interaction in different...

Data from: Non-native species spread in a complex network: the interaction of global transport and local population dynamics determines invasion success

Hanno Seebens, Elizabeta Briski, Sara Ghabooli, Tamara Shiganova, Hugh MacIsaac & Bernd Blasius
The number of released individuals, which is a component of propagule pressure, is considered to be a major driver for the establishment success of non-native species. However, propagule pressure is often assumed to result from single or few release events, which does not necessarily apply to the frequent releases of invertebrates or other taxa through global transport. For instance, the high intensity of global shipping may result in frequent releases of large numbers of individuals,...

Data from: Idenitfying hybrids & the genomics of hybridization: mallards & American black ducks of Eastern North America

Philip Lavretsky, Thijs Janzen & Kevin G. McCracken
Resolving evolutionary relationships and establishing population structure depends on molecular diagnosability that is often limited for closely related taxa. Here, we use 3,200 ddRAD-seq loci across 290 mallards, American black ducks, and putative hybrids to establish population structure and estimate hybridization rates. We test between traditional assignment probability and accumulated recombination events based analyses to assign hybrids to generational classes. For hybrid identification, we report the distribution of recombination events complements ADMIXTURE simulation by extending...

Global gradients in intraspecific variation in vegetative and floral traits are partially associated with climate and species richness

Jonas Kuppler, Cécile H. Albert, Gregory M. Ames, W. Scott Armbruster, Gerhard Boenisch, Florian C. Boucher, Diane R. Campbell, Liedson T. Carneiro, Eduardo Chacón-Madrigal, Brian J. Enquist, Carlos R. Fonseca, José M. Gómez, Antoine Guisan, Pedro Higuchi, Dirk N. Karger, Jens Kattge, Michael Kleyer, Nathan J. B. Kraft, Anne-Amélie C. Larue-Kontić, Amparo Lázaro, Martin Lechleitner, Deirdre Loughnan, Vanessa Minden, Ülo Niinemets, Gerhard E. Overbeck … & Robert R. Junker
Aim Intraspecific trait variation (ITV) within natural plant communities can be large, influencing local ecological processes and dynamics. Here, we shed light on how ITV in vegetative and floral traits responds to large-scale abiotic and biotic gradients (i.e. climate and species richness). Specifically, we tested if associations of ITV with temperature, precipitation and species richness were consistent with any of from four hypotheses relating to stress-tolerance and competition. Furthermore, we estimated the degree of correlation...

Humpback whale song presence in the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean

Elena Schall, Karolin Thomisch, Olaf Boebel, Gabriele Gerlach, Sari Mangia Woods, Irene Roca & Ilse Van Opzeeland
Humpback whale song most likely fulfills a multi-purpose role in the humpback whale mating system including both inter- and intrasexual interactions. Humpback whale males produce most of their songs on the low-latitude breeding grounds, but evidences increase, showing that songs are also produced ‘off-season’ on the feeding grounds or during migration. This opens exciting opportunities to investigate migratory aggregations, study humpback whale behavioral plasticity and potentially even assign individual singers to specific breeding grounds. In...

Humpback whale acoustic presence in the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean

Elena Schall, Karolin Thomisch, Olaf Boebel, Gabriele Gerlach, Ilse Van Opzeeland, Stefanie Spiesecke & Sari Mangia Woods
In the Atlantic Sector of the Southern Ocean (ASSO), the investigation of baleen whale distribution by sighting surveys is temporally restricted to the austral summer. The implementation of autonomous passive acoustic monitoring, in turn, allows studying vocal baleen whales year-round. This study describes the results of analyzing passive acoustic data spanning 12 recording positions throughout the ASSO applying a combination of automatic and manual analysis methods to register humpback whale acoustic activity. Humpback whales were...

Cross-continental analysis of coastal biodiversity change

Helmut Hillebrand, Gavin M. Rishworth, Janine B. Adams, Matthew S. Bird, Nicola K. Carrasco, Andreas Dänhardt, Jennifer Dannheim, Daniel A. Lemley, Pierre A. Pistorius & Gregor Scheiffarth
Whereas the anthropogenic impact on marine biodiversity is undebated, the quantification and prediction of this change is not trivial. Simple traditional measures of biodiversity (e.g., richness, diversity indices) do not capture the magnitude and direction of changes in species or functional composition. In this paper, we apply recently developed methods for measuring biodiversity turnover to time-series data of four broad taxonomic groups from two coastal regions: the southern North Sea (Germany) and the South African...

Geometric morphometric wing analysis represents a robust tool to identify female mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in Germany

Felix Gregor Sauer, Linda Jaworski, Laura Erdbeer, Anna Heitmann, Jonas Schmidt-Chanasit, Ellen Kiel & Renke Lühken
Accurate species identification is the prerequisite to assess the relevance of mosquito specimens, but is often hindered by missing or damaged morphological features. The present study analyses the applicability of wing geometric morphometrics as a low-cost and practical alternative to identify native mosquitoes in Germany. Wing pictures were collected for 502 female mosquitoes of five genera and 19 species from 80 sampling sites. The reliable species identification based on interspecific wing geometry of 18 landmarks...

Comparative Phylogeography of Veronica spicata and V. longifolia (Plantaginaceae) Across Europe: Integrating Hybridization and Polyploidy in Phylogeography

Khan Gulzar, Buono Daniele, Bernhard Von Hagen, Petr A. Kosachev, Eike Mayland-Quellhorst, Sergei L. Mosyakin & Dirk C. Albach
Climatic fluctuations in the Pleistocene caused glacial expansion-contraction cycles in Eurasia and other parts of the world. Consequences of these cycles, such as population expansion and subsequent subdivision, have been studied in many taxa at intraspecific population level across much of the Northern Hemisphere. However, the consequences for the potential of hybridization and polyploidization are poorly understood. Here, we investigated the phylogeographic structure of two widespread, closely related species, Veronica spicata and Veronica longifolia, across...

Data from: Drought, post-dispersal seed predation and the establishment of epiphytic bromeliads (Tillandsia spp.)

Nahlleli Chilpa-Galván, Gerhard Zotz, Guillermo J. Sánchez-Fuente, Celene Espadas-Manrique, José Luis Andrade & Casandra Reyes-García.
Post-dispersal predation in epiphytes is poorly documented. In the course of a study on in situ germination of two Tillandsia species in a deciduous forest in Yucatan, Mexico, post-dispersal seed predation rates by the Yucatan deer mouse (Peromyscus yucatanicus) averaged 90%. Post-dispersal predation was thus more limiting than drought.

Data from: A barrier island perspective on species-area-relationships

Christoph Scherber, Hagen Andert, Rolf Niedringhaus & Teja Tscharntke
Predictions of species richness by island area are a classical cornerstone in ecology, while the specific features of barrier islands have been little appreciated. Many shorelines are occupied by barrier islands, which are shaped by offshore sedimentation processes and annual storm tide events. Hence, the appearance of these islands may vary between years if they are not protected by dykes. Here, we analyzed more than 2,990 species across 36 taxonomic groups (including vertebrates, invertebrates and...

Data from: Phylogeographic analysis of Ligia oceanica (Crustacea: Isopoda) reveals two deep divergent mitochondrial lineages

Michael Raupach, Olaf Bininda-Emonds, Thomas Knebelsberger, Silke Laakmann, Jobst Pfaender & Florian Leese
Isopods of the species Ligia oceanica are typical inhabitants of the rocky intertidal of the northern European coastline. The aim of this study was to assess the genetic structure of this species using mitochondrial and nuclear sequence data. We analysed partial mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (CO1) and 16S rRNA gene sequence data of 161 specimens collected from ten sites ranging from Spain to Norway. For selected specimens, we also sequenced the hypervariable V7...

Data from: Morphological and molecular diagnostic species characters of Staurozoa (Cnidaria) collected on the coast of Helgoland (German Bight, North Sea)

Sabine Holst, Anneke Heins & Silke Laakmann
Scientific knowledge and records on staurozoans are limited probably because of their inconspicuous life habit and the small number of specialists for this taxon. To increase the awareness for Staurozoa, we identified morphological and molecular features of the three staurozoan species Haliclystus tenuis Kishinouye, 1910, Haliclystus auricula Clark, 1863, and Craterolophus convolvulus (Johnston, 1835) collected on the coast of the island Helgoland to evaluate their suitability as diagnostic characters. Useful macromorphological diagnostic features were the...

Data from: Functional genomic analysis of corals from natural CO2-seeps reveals core molecular responses involved in acclimatization to ocean acidification

Carly D. Kenkel, Aurelie Moya, Julia Strahl, Craig Humphrey & Line K. Bay
Little is known about the potential for acclimatization or adaptation of corals to ocean acidification and even less about the molecular mechanisms underpinning these processes. Here we examine global gene expression patterns in corals and their intracellular algal symbionts from two replicate population pairs in Papua New Guinea that have undergone long-term acclimatization to natural variation in pCO2. In the coral host, only 61 genes were differentially expressed in response to pCO2 environment, but the...

Aquaculture at the crossroads of global warming and antimicrobial resistance

Miriam Reverter, Samira Sarter, Domenico Caruso, Jean-Christophe Avarre, Marine Combe, Elodie Pepey, Laurent Pouyaud, Hugues De Verdal, Sarahi Vega-Heredía & Rodolphe Gozlan
In many developing countries, aquaculture is key to ensuring food security for millions of people. It is thus important to measure the full implications of environmental changes on the sustainability of aquaculture. We conducted a double meta-analysis (460 articles) to explore how global warming and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) impacts aquaculture. We calculated a Multi-Antibiotic Resistance index (MAR) of aquaculture-related bacteria (11,274 strains) for 40 countries, of which mostly low- and middle-income countries present high AMR...

Including dynamics in the equation: Tree growth rates and host specificity of vascular epiphytes

Katrin Wagner & Gerhard Zotz
1. The forest canopy is home to a rich biota. One salient feature are the dynamics of the habitat-building trees, which are growing and eventually vanishing. Tree species strongly differ in growth rates, final size and longevity. Nevertheless, these inherent dynamics have been a blind spot in studies on host specificity of vascular epiphytes (vascular plants dwelling on trees without parasitizing them) – not least because tree growth rates and longevity are usually unknown in...

Alternate patterns of temperature variation bring about very different disease outcomes at different mean temperatures

Charlotte Kunze, Pepijn Luijckx, Andrew L. Jackson & Ian Donohui
The dynamics of host-parasite interactions are highly temperature-dependent and may be modified by increasing frequency and intensity of climate-driven heat events. Here, we show that altered patterns of temperature variance lead to an almost order-of-magnitude shift in thermal performance of host and pathogen life history traits over and above the effects of mean temperature and, moreover, that different temperature regimes affect these traits differently. We found that diurnal fluctuations of ±3°C lowered infection rates and...

Data from: Drivers of global pre-industrial patterns of species turnover in planktonic foraminifera

Marina C. Rillo, Skipton Woolley & Helmut Hillebrand
Anthropogenic climate change is altering global biogeographical patterns. However, it remains difficult to quantify how bioregions are changing because pre-industrial records of species distributions are rare. Marine microfossils, such as planktonic foraminifera, are preserved in seafloor sediments and allow the quantification of bioregions in the past. Using a recently compiled data set of pre-industrial species composition of planktonic foraminifera in 3802 worldwide seafloor sediments, we employed multivariate and statistical model-based approaches to study spatial turnover...

Data from: Adaptive genomic divergence under high gene flow between freshwater and brackish-water ecotypes of prickly sculpin (Cottus asper) revealed by Pool-Seq

Stefan Dennenmoser, Steven M. Vamosi, Arne W. Nolte & Sean M. Rogers
Understanding the genomic basis of adaptive divergence in the presence of gene flow remains a major challenge in evolutionary biology. In prickly sculpin (Cottus asper), an abundant euryhaline fish in northwestern North America, high genetic connectivity among brackish-water (estuarine) and freshwater (tributary) habitats of coastal rivers does not preclude the build-up of neutral genetic differentiation and emergence of different life history strategies. Because these two habitats present different osmotic niches, we predicted high genetic differentiation...

Data from: Antarctic krill population genomics: apparent panmixia, but genome complexity and large population size muddies the water

Bruce E. Deagle, Cassandra Faux, So Kawaguchi, Bettina Meyer & Simon N. Jarman
Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba; hereafter krill) are an incredibly abundant pelagic crustacean which has a wide, but patchy, distribution in the Southern Ocean. Several studies have examined the potential for population genetic structuring in krill, but DNA-based analyses have focused on a limited number of markers and have covered only part of their circum-Antarctic range. We used mitochondrial DNA and restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (RAD-seq) to investigate genetic differences between krill from five sites, including...

Data from: The influence of balanced and imbalanced resource supply on biodiversity-functioning relationship across ecosystems

Aleksandra M. Lewandowska, Antje Biermann, Elizabeth T. Borer, Miguel A. Cebrian-Piqueras, Steven A. J. Declerck, Luc De Meester, Ellen Van Donk, Lars Gamfeldt, Daniel S. Gruner, Nicole Hagenah, W. Stanley Harpole, Kevin P. Kirkman, Christopher A. Klausmeier, Michael Kleyer, Johannes M. H. Knops, Pieter Lemmens, Eric M. Lind, Elena Litchman, Jasmin Mantilla-Contreras, Koen Martens, Sandra Meier, Vanessa Minden, Joslin L. Moore, Harry Olde Venterink, Eric W. Seabloom … & Helmut Hillebrand
Numerous studies show that increasing species richness leads to higher ecosystem productivity. This effect is often attributed to more efficient portioning of multiple resources in communities with higher numbers of competing species, indicating the role of resource supply and stoichiometry for biodiversity–ecosystem functioning relationships. Here, we merged theory on ecological stoichiometry with a framework of biodiversity–ecosystem functioning to understand how resource use transfers into primary production. We applied a structural equation model to define patterns...

Data from: Trait correlation network analysis identifies biomass allocation traits and stem specific length as hub traits in herbaceous perennial plants

Michael Kleyer, Juliane Trinogga, Miguel A. Cebrián-Piqueras, Anastasia Trenkamp, Camilla Fløjgaard, Rasmus Ejrnæs, Tjeerd J. Bouma, Vanessa Minden, Martin Maier, Jasmin Mantilla-Contreras, Dirk C. Albach, Bernd Blasius & Rasmus Ejrnaes
Correlations among plant traits often reflect important trade‐offs or allometric relationships in biological functions like carbon gain, support, water uptake, and reproduction that are associated with different plant organs. Whether trait correlations can be aggregated to “spectra” or “leading dimensions,” whether these dimensions are consistent across plant organs, spatial scale, and growth forms are still open questions. To illustrate the current state of knowledge, we constructed a network of published trait correlations associated with the...

Data from: Ontogenetic resource utilization and migration reconstruction with δ13C values of essential amino acids in the Cynoscion acoupa otolith

Kim Vane, Thomas Larsen, Barbara M. Scholz-Böttcher, Bernd Kopke & Werner Ekau
1. With the increasing anthropogenic impacts on fish habitats, it has become more important to understand which primary resources sustain fish populations. This resource utilization can differ between fish life stages and individuals can migrate between habitats in search of resources. Such lifetime information is difficult to obtain due to the large spatial and temporal scales of fish behaviour. The otolith organic matrix has the potential to indicate this resource utilization and migration with δ13C...

Data from: Internally coupled middle ears enhance the range of interaural time differences heard by the chicken

Christine Koeppl
Interaural time differences (ITD) are one of several principle cues for localizing sounds. However, ITD are in the sub-millisecond range for most animals. Because the neural processing of such small ITDs pushes the limit of temporal resolution, the precise ITD-range for a given species and its usefulness - relative to other localization cues - was a powerful selective force in the evolution of the neural circuits involved. Birds and other non-mammals have internally coupled middle...

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  • Carl von Ossietzky University of Oldenburg
  • University of Göttingen
  • University of Würzburg
  • University of Groningen
  • University of Minnesota
  • GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel
  • Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research
  • Ghent University
  • Duke University
  • Nederlands Instituut voor Ecologie