22 Works

Using local ecological knowledge as evidence to guide management: A community-led harvest calculator for muskoxen in Greenland

Christine Cuyler, Colin Daniel, Martin Enghoff, Nette Levermann, Nukka Møller-Lund, Per Nukaaraq Hansen, Ditlev Damhus & Finn Danielsen
Indigenous peoples manage or have tenure rights on over a quarter of the world’s land surface. While there is growing interest in “evidence-based” natural resource management, there are few documented experiences with “evidence-based” practice in community-managed lands. We explore the evidence required for decisions about harvesting of a community-managed muskox herd in Greenland, and the collaboration needed to acquire this evidence. We present the development, application and outcome of a user-friendly demographic model - a...

Data from: Use of glacial fronts by narwhals (Monodon monoceros) in West Greenland

Kristin L. Laidre, Twila Moon, Donna D.W. Hauser, Richard McGovern, Mads Peter Heide-Joergensen, Rune Dietz, Benjamin Hudson, Donna D. W. Hauser & Ben Hudson
Glacial fronts are important summer habitat for narwhals (Monodon monoceros), however, no studies have quantified which glacial properties attract whales. We investigated the importance of glacial habitats using telemetry data from n=15 whales in September 1993-1994 and 2006-2007 in Melville Bay, West Greenland. For 41 marine-terminating glaciers, we estimated 1) narwhal presence/absence, 2) number of 24 h periods spent at glaciers, and 3) the fraction of narwhals that visited each glacier (at 5, 7, and...

Data from: Seabird diversity hotspot linked to ocean productivity in the Canary Current Large Marine Ecosystem

W. James Grecian, Matthew J. Witt, Martin J. Attrill, Stuart Bearhop, Peter H. Becker, Carsten Egevang, Robert W. Furness, Brendan J. Godley, Jacob González-Solís, David Grémillet, Matthias Kopp, Amélie Lescroël, Jason Matthiopoulos, Samantha C. Patrick, Hans-Ulrich Peter, Richard A. Phillips, Iain J. Stenhouse & Stephen C. Votier
Upwelling regions are highly productive habitats targeted by wide-ranging marine predators and industrial fisheries. In this study, we track the migratory movements of eight seabird species from across the Atlantic; quantify overlap with the Canary Current Large Marine Ecosystem (CCLME) and determine the habitat characteristics that drive this association. Our results indicate the CCLME is a biodiversity hotspot for migratory seabirds; all tracked species and more than 70% of individuals used this upwelling region. Relative...

Data from: Spatiotemporal SNP analysis reveals pronounced biocomplexity at the northern range margin of Atlantic cod Gadus morhua

Nina Overgaard Therkildsen, Jakob Hemmer-Hansen, Rasmus Berg Hedeholm, Mary S. Wisz, Dorte Meldrup, Sara Bonanomi, Anja Retzel, Steffen Malskær Olsen, Einar Eg Nielsen & Christophe Pampoulie
Accurate prediction of species distribution shifts in the face of climate change requires a sound understanding of population diversity and local adaptations. Previous modeling has suggested that global warming will lead to increased abundance of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) in the ocean around Greenland, but the dynamics of earlier abundance fluctuations are not well understood. We applied a retrospective spatiotemporal population genomics approach to examine the temporal stability of cod population structure in this region...

Data for: Parasitoids indicate major climate-induced shifts in Arctic communities

Tuomas Kankaanpää, Eero Vesterinen, Bess Hardwick, Niels Martin Martin Schmidt, Tommi Andersson, Paul Eric Aspholm, Isabel Barrio, Niklas Beckers, Joël Bêty, Tone Birkemoe, Melissa DeSiervo, Katherine Drotos, Dorothee Ehrich, Olivier Gilg, Vladimir Gilg, Nils Hein, Toke Høye, Kristian Jakobsen, Camille Jodouin, Jesse Jorna, Mikhail Kozlov, Jean-Claude Kresse, Don-Jean Leandri-Breton, Nicolas Lecomte, Maia Olsen … & Tomas Roslin
Climatic impacts are especially pronounced in the Arctic, which as a region is warming twice as fast as the rest of the globe. Here, we investigate how mean climatic conditions and rates of climatic change impact parasitoid insect communities in 16 localities across the Arctic. We focus on parasitoids in a wide-spread habitat, Dryas heathlands, and describe parasitoid community composition in terms of larval host use (i.e. parasitoid use of herbivorous Lepidoptera versus pollinating Diptera)...

Blue light attracts nocturnally migrating birds

Xuebing Zhao, Min Zhang, Xianli Che & Fasheng Zou
Light pollution is increasing and artificial light sources have great impacts on animals. For migrating birds, collisions caused by artificial light pollution are a significant source of mortality. Laboratory studies have demonstrated that birds have different visual sensitivities to different colors of light, but few field experiments have compared birds’ responses to light of different wavelengths. We used three monochromatic lights (red, green, and blue) and polychromatic yellow light to study the impact of wavelength...

Data from: Genome- and transcriptome-assisted development of nuclear insertion/deletion markers for Calanus species (Copepoda: Calanoida) identification

Irina Smolina, Spyros Kollias, Marloes Poortvliet, Torkel Nielsen, Penelope Lindeque, Claudia Castellani, Eva Møller, Leocadio Blanco-Bercial & Galice Hoarau
Copepods of the genus Calanus are key zooplankton species in temperate to arctic marine ecosystems. Despite their ecological importance, species identification remains challenging. Furthermore, the recent report of hybrids among Calanus species highlights the need for diagnostic nuclear markers in order to efficiently identify parental species and hybrids. Using Next Generation Sequencing analysis of both the genome and transcriptome from two sibling species, C. finmarchichus and C. glacialis, we developed a panel of 12 nuclear...

Data from: Implications of the circumpolar genetic structure of polar bears for their conservation in a rapidly warming Arctic

Elizabeth Peacock, Sarah A. Sonsthagen, Martyn E. Obbard, Andrei Boltunov, Eric V. Regehr, Nikita Ovsyanikov, Jon Aars, Stephen N. Atkinson, George K. Sage, Andrew G. Hope, Eve Zeyl, Lutz Bachmann, Dorothee Ehrich, Kim T. Scribner, Steven C. Amstrup, Stanislav Belikov, Erik W. Born, Andrew E. Derocher, Ian Stirling, Mitchell K. Taylor, Øystein Wiig, David Paetkau & Sandra L. Talbot
We provide an expansive analysis of polar bear (Ursus maritimus) circumpolar genetic variation during the last two decades of decline in their sea-ice habitat. We sought to evaluate whether their genetic diversity and structure have changed over this period of habitat decline, how their current genetic patterns compare with past patterns, and how genetic demography changed with ancient fluctuations in climate. Characterizing their circumpolar genetic structure using microsatellite data, we defined four clusters that largely...

Data from: The use of archived tags in retrospective genetic analysis of fish

Sara Bonanomi, Nina Overgaard Therkildsen, Rasmus Berg Hedeholm, Jakob Hemmer-Hansen & Einar Eg Nielsen
Collections of historical tissue samples from fish (e.g. scales and otoliths) stored in museums and fisheries institutions are precious sources of DNA for conducting retrospective genetic analysis. However, in some cases only external tags used for documentation of spatial dynamics of fish populations have been preserved. Here we test the usefulness of fish tags as a source of DNA for genetic analysis. We extract DNA from historical tags from cod collected in Greenlandic waters between...

Data from: Geographic extent of introgression in Sebastes mentella and its effect on genetic population structure

Atal Saha, Torild Johansen, Rasmus Hedeholm, Einar E. Nielsen, Jon-Ivar Westgaard, Lorenz Hauser, Benjamin Planque, Steven X. Cadrin & Jesper Boje
Genetic population structure is often used to identify management units in exploited species, but the extent of genetic differentiation may be inflated by geographic variation in the level of hybridization between species. We identify the genetic population structure of Sebastes mentella and investigate possible introgression within the genus by analyzing 13 microsatellites in 2,562 redfish specimens sampled throughout the North Atlantic. The data support an historical divergence between the “shallow” and “deep” groups, beyond the...

Negative frequency dependent selection maintains shell banding polymorphisms in two marine snails (Littorina fabalis and L. saxatilis)

Daniel Estévez-Barcia, Juan Galindo & Emilio Rolán-Alvarez
The presence of shell bands is common in gastropods. The marine snails, Littorina fabalis and L. saxatilis, are both polymorphic for this trait. Such polymorphism would be expected to be lost by the action of genetic drift or directional selection, but it appears to be widespread at relatively constant frequencies. This suggests it is maintained by balancing selection on the trait or on a genetically linked trait. Using long time-series of empirical data, we compared...

Using machine learning models to predict the distribution of a cryptic marine species: the sperm whale

Philippine Chambault, Sabrina Fossette, Mads Peter Heide-Jørgensen & Daniel Jouannet
Implementation of effective conservation planning relies on a robust understanding of the spatio-temporal distribution of the target species. In the marine realm, this is even more challenging for cryptic species with extreme diving behaviour like the sperm whales. Our study aims at investigating the movements and predicting suitable habitat maps for this species in the Mascarene Archipelago in the South-West Indian Ocean. Using 21 satellite tracks of sperm whale and 8 environmental predictors, 14 supervised...

Influence of past climate change on phylogeography and demographic history of narwhals, Monodon monoceros

Marie Louis, Mikkel Skovrind, Jose Alfredo Samaniego Castruita, Cristina Garilao, Kristin Kaschner, Shyam Gopalakrishnan, James Haile, Christian Lydersen, Kit Kovacs, Eva Garde, Mads Peter Heide-Jørgensen, Lianne Postma, Steve Ferguson, Eske Willerslev & Eline Lorenzen
The Arctic is warming at an unprecedented rate, with unknown consequences for endemic fauna. However, Earth has experienced severe climatic oscillations in the past, and understanding how species responded to them might provide insight into their resilience to near-future climatic predictions. Little is known about the responses of Arctic marine mammals to past climatic shifts, but narwhals (Monodon monoceros) are considered one of the endemic Arctic species most vulnerable to environmental change. Here, we analyze...

Data from: Genomic parallelism and lack thereof in contrasting systems of three‐spined sticklebacks

Shenglin Liu, Anne-Laure Ferchaud, Peter Grønkjær, Rasmus Nygaard & Michael M. Hansen
Parallel evolution and the extent to which it involves gene reuse has attracted much interest. Whereas it has theoretically been predicted under which circumstances gene reuse is expected, empirical studies that directly compare systems showing high and low parallelism are rare. Three-spine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus), where freshwater populations have been independently founded by ancestral marine populations, represent prime examples of phenotypic and genomic parallelism, but cases exist where parallelism is low. Based on RAD (Restriction...

Data from: Historical DNA documents long distance natal homing in marine fish

Sara Bonanomi, Nina Overgaard Therkildsen, Anja Retzel, Rasmus Berg Hedeholm, Martin Wæver Wæver Pedersen, Dorte Meldrup, Christophe Pampoulie, Jakob Hemmer-Hansen, Peter Grønkjær & Einar Nielsen
The occurrence of natal homing in marine fish remains a fundamental question in fish ecology as its unequivocal demonstration requires tracking of individuals from fertilization to reproduction. Here, we provide evidence of long distance natal homing (> 1000 km) over more than sixty years in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua), through genetic analysis of archived samples from marked and recaptured individuals. Using a high differentiation Single Nucleotide Polymorphism assay we demonstrate that the vast majority of...

Narwhals react to ship noise and airgun pulses embedded in background noise

Outi Tervo, Susanna Blackwell, Susanne Ditlevsen, Alexander Conrad, Adeline Samson, Eva Garde, Rikke Hansen & Mads Peter Heide-Jørgensen
Anthropogenic activities are increasing in the Arctic posing a threat to species with high seasonal site-fidelity, such as the narwhal Monodon monoceros. In this controlled sound exposure study, six narwhals were live-captured and instrumented with animal-borne tags providing movement and behavioural data, and exposed to concurrent ship noise and airgun pulses. All narwhals reacted to sound exposure by reduced buzzing rates, where the response was dependent on the magnitude of exposure defined as 1/distance to...

Data from: Paradoxical escape responses by narwhals (Monodon monoceros)

Terrie M. Williams, Susanna B. Blackwell, Beau Richter, Mikkel-Holger S. Sinding & Mads Peter Heide-Jørgensen
Until recent declines in Arctic sea ice levels, narwhals (Monodon monoceros) have lived in relative isolation from human perturbation and sustained predation pressures. The resulting naïvety has made this cryptic, deep-diving cetacean highly susceptible to disturbance, although quantifiable effects have been lacking. We deployed a submersible, animal-borne electrocardiograph-accelerometer-depth recorder to monitor physiological and behavioral responses of East Greenland narwhals after release from net entanglement and stranding. Escaping narwhals displayed a paradoxical cardiovascular down-regulation (extreme bradycardia...

Interrelated ecological impacts of climate change on an apex predator

Kristin L. Laidre, Stephen Atkinson, Eric V. Regehr, Harry L. Stern, Erik W. Born, Øystein Wiig, Nicholas J. Lunn & Markus Dyck
Climate change has broad ecological implications for species that rely on sensitive habitats. For some top predators, loss of habitat is expected to lead to cascading behavioral, nutritional, and reproductive changes that ultimately accelerate population declines. In the case of the polar bear (Ursus maritimus), declining Arctic sea ice reduces access to prey and lengthens seasonal fasting periods. We used a novel combination of physical-capture, biopsy darting, and visual aerial observation data to project reproductive...

Hunters versus Hunted: New perspectives on the physiological costs of survival at the top of the food chain

Terrie Williams, Mads Peter Heide-Jørgensen, Anthony Pagano & Caleb Bryce
Global biotic and abiotic threats,particularly from pervasive human activities, are progressively pushing large, apex carnivorous mammals into the functional role of mesopredator. Hunters are now becoming the hunted. Despite marked impacts on these animals and the ecosystems in which they live, little is known about the physiological repercussions of this role downgrading from ultimate to penultimate predator. Here we examine how such ecological role reversals alter the physiological processes associated with energy expenditure, and ultimately...

Data from: Range contraction and increasing isolation of a polar bear subpopulation in an era of sea-ice loss

Kristin L. Laidre, Erik W. Born, Stephen N. Atkinson, Øystein Wiig, Liselotte W. Andersen, Nicholas J. Lunn, Markus Dyck, Eric V. Regehr, Richard McGovern & Patrick Heagerty
Climate change is expected to result in range shifts and habitat fragmentation for many species. In the Arctic, loss of sea ice will reduce barriers to dispersal or eliminate movement corridors, resulting in increased connectivity or geographic isolation with sweeping implications for conservation. We used satellite telemetry, data from individually marked animals (research and harvest), and microsatellite genetic data to examine changes in geographic range, emigration, and interpopulation connectivity of the Baffin Bay (BB) polar...

Data from: Environmental DNA from seawater samples correlate with trawl catches of subarctic, deepwater fishes

Philip Francis Thomsen, Peter Rask Møller, Eva Egelyng Sigsgaard, Steen Wilhelm Knudsen, Ole Ankjær Jørgensen & Eske Willerslev
Remote polar and deepwater fish faunas are under pressure from ongoing climate change and increasing fishing effort. However, these fish communities are difficult to monitor for logistic and financial reasons. Currently, monitoring of marine fishes largely relies on invasive techniques such as bottom trawling, and on official reporting of global catches, which can be unreliable. Thus, there is need for alternative and non-invasive techniques for qualitative and quantitative oceanic fish surveys. Here we report environmental...

Data from: Ocean warming expands habitat of a rich natural resource and benefits a national economy

Teunis Jansen, Søren Post, Trond Kristiansen, Guðmundur J. Óskarsson, Jesper Boje, Brian R. MacKenzie, Mala Broberg & Helle Siegstad
Geographic redistribution of living natural resources changes access and thereby harvesting opportunities between countries. Internationally shared fish resources can be sensitive to shifts in the marine environment and this may have great impact on the economies of countries and regions that rely most heavily on fisheries to provide employment and food supply. Here we present a climate change-related biotic expansion of a rich natural resource with substantial economic consequences, namely the appearance of northeast Atlantic...

Registration Year

  • 2021
    4
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Resource Types

  • Dataset
    22

Affiliations

  • Grønlands Naturinstitut
    22
  • Aarhus University
    6
  • Technical University of Denmark
    6
  • University of Washington
    4
  • University of Alberta
    3
  • University of Oslo
    3
  • Marine Research Institute
    3
  • University of Copenhagen
    3
  • Stanford University
    2
  • Norwegian Polar Institute
    2