582 Works

Data from: Herbivory may mediate the effects of nutrients on the dominance of alien plants

Yanjun Li, Yingzhi Gao, Mark Van Kleunen & Yanjie Liu
1. Numerous studies have highlighted the role of nutrient availability and fluctuations therein for invasion success of alien plants. Others also highlighted the role of herbivores in invasion success. However, how herbivory and the level and fluctuations in nutrient availability interact in driving alien plant invasion into native communities remains largely unexplored. 2. We grew eight invasive alien species as target species in pot-mesocosms with five different synthetic native communities in a three-factorial design with...

Feasible carbon-trade model for low-carbon density ecosystem

Xueyan Zhang & Xin Ma
China has set a carbon-neutrality target for 2060; carbon sinks are vital tools to meet this target. China is leading the effort in greening the world through the restoration of low-carbon density ecosystems (LCDEs). The potential carbon sinks of LCDEs provide opportunities for carbon trading projects that make cash benefits accessible to the owners, thereby incentivizing ecosystem restoration. Unfortunately, carbon trading in LCDEs has, to date, been unsuccessful in China. Therefore, it is important to...

Codes for simulation and data for: The relationship between local and regional extinction rates depends on species distribution patterns

Chuan Yan, Fangliang He, Jinxing He & Zhibin Zhang
The rapid loss of biodiversity poses a great threat to ecosystem functions and services. Credible estimation of species extinction rates is essential for understanding the magnitude of biodiversity loss and for informing conservation, but this has been a challenge because estimated extinctions are unverifiable due to the lack of data. In this study, we investigated the relationship between local and regional extinctions and assessed the effects of range size, spatial segregation, and patchiness of species...

Brain size variation along altitudinal gradients in the Asiatic Toad (Bufo gargarizans)

Zhongyi Yao
Size changes of brain and brain regions along altitudinal gradients provide insight into the trade-off between energetic expenditure and cognitive capacity. We investigated the brain size variations of the Asiatic Toad (Bufo gargarizans) across altitudes from 700m to 3200m. A total of 325 individuals from 11 sites and two transects were sampled. To reduce confounding factors, all sampling sites within each transect were within a maximum distance of 85km and minimum altitudinal difference close to...

Retention fraction of 15N-labelled deposited ammonium and nitrate in forests

Geshere Abdisa Gurmesa, Ang Wang, Shanlong Li, Shushi Peng, Wim De Vries, Per Gundersen, Philippe Ciais, Oliver L Phillips, Erik Hobbie, Weixing Zhu, Knute Nadelhoffer, Yi Xi, Edith Bai, Tao Sun, Dexiang Chen, Wenjun Zhou, Yiping Zhang, Yingrong Guo, Jiaojun Zhu, Lei Duan, Dejun Li, Keisuke Koba, Enzai Du, Guoyi Zhou, Xingguo Han … & Yunting Fang
The impacts of enhanced nitrogen (N) deposition on global forest carbon (C) sink and other ecosystem services may depend on whether N is deposited in reduced (mainly as ammonium) or oxidized forms (mainly as nitrate) and the subsequent fate of each. However, the fates of the two key reactive N forms and its contribution to forest C sink is unclear. We conducted ecosystem-scale paired 15N-labelling experiments in nine forests across China to quantify N retention...

A rodent herbivore reduces its predation risk through ecosystem engineering

Zhiwei Zhong, Guoliang Li, Dirk Sanders, Deli Wang, Robert Holt & Zhibin Zhang
Predator-prey interactions are ubiquitous and powerful forces structuring ecological communities [1, 2, 3]. Habitat complexity has been shown to be particularly important in regulating the strength of predator-prey interactions [4, 5]. It is now relatively well known that changes in habitat structure can alter the patterns and efficacy of predatory and anti-predatory behaviors of interacting predators and prey [3, 4, 6]. Nevertheless, little is known about the consequences of engineering activity by species on their...

Morphological canalization, integration, and plasticity in response to population density in Abutilon theophrasti : Influences of soil conditions and growth stages

Shu Wang & Dao-Wei Zhou
Phenotypic integration and developmental canalization have been hypothesized to constrain the degree of phenotypic plasticity, but little evidence exists, probably due to the lack in studies on the relationships among the three processes, especially for plants under different environments. We conducted a field experiment by subjecting plants of Abutilon theophrasti to three densities, under infertile and fertile soil conditions, and analyzing correlations among canalization, integration, and plasticity in a variety of measured morphological traits after...

Expanding the agricultural - sanitation circular economy: opportunities and benefits

Steven Banwart, Laura Carter, Tim Daniell, Yong-Guan Zhu, Hongyan Guo, Jeremy Guest, Stuart Kirk, Barbara Evans, Patrick McKenna & Sarah Dennis
An expanded circular economy between agriculture and sanitation waste (sewage) can recycle essential resources for agriculture through the recovery of water, biomass, and nutrients from sewage at scale. Doing so can help to increase or maintain soil productivity and support agricultural outputs; produce heat and power; reduce Green House Gas (GHG) emissions; and minimise stresses on water reserves.

Data from: Wolbachia infection and dramatic intraspecific mitochondrial DNA divergence in a fig wasp

Jin-Hua Xiao, Ning-Xin Wang, Robert W. Murphy, James M. Cook, Ling-Yi Jia & Da-Wei Huang
Mitochondria and Wolbachia are maternally inherited genomes that exhibit strong linkage disequilibrium in many organisms. We surveyed Wolbachia infections in 187 specimens of the fig wasp species, Ceratosolen solmsi, and found an infection prevalence of 89.3%. DNA Sequencing of 20 individuals each from Wolbachia-infected and uninfected sub-populations revealed extreme mtDNA divergence (up to 9.2% and 15.3% in CO1 and cytochrome b, respectively) between infected and uninfected wasps. Further, mtDNA diversity was significantly reduced within the...

Data from: Association of in utero persistent organic pollutant exposure with placental thyroid hormones

Zhong-Min Li, David Hernandez-Moreno, Katharina Maria Main, Niels Erik Skakkebæk, Hannu Kiviranta, Jorma Toppari, Ulla Feldt-Rasmussen, Heqing Shen, Karl-Werner Schramm & Meri De Angelis
In utero exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) can result in thyroid function disorder, leading to concerns about their impact on fetal and neonatal development. The present study was performed to investigate the associations between placental levels of various POPs and thyroid hormones (THs). In a prospective Danish study initially established for assessing congenital cryptorchidism, 58 placenta samples were collected from mothers of boys born with (28) and without (30) cryptorchidism. The concentrations of polybrominated...

Data from: Abundance of small mammals correlates with their elevational range sizes and elevational distributions in the subtropics

Zhixin Wen, Yongjie Wu, Jilong Cheng, Tianlong Cai, Yuanbao Du, Deyan Ge, Lin Xia & Qisen Yang
The idea that a positive abundance-range size relationship (ARR) is pervasive in nature has been challenged by recent studies focused on montane and island vertebrate assemblages. However, because some of these studies used species’ local abundance and regional or global range size in examining the ARRs, the negative and neutral trends reported are questionable. Here, by relating species’ mean abundance along elevational gradients to elevational range size, we examined the ARRs of non-flying small mammals...

Data from: Global signal of top-down control of terrestrial plant communities by herbivores

Shihong Jia, Xugao Wang, Zuoqiang Yuan, Fei Lin, Ji Ye, Zhanqing Hao & Matthew Scott Luskin
The theory of “top-down” ecological regulation predicts that herbivory suppresses plant abundance, biomass, and survival but increases diversity through the disproportionate consumption of dominant species, which inhibits competitive exclusion. To date, these outcomes have been clear in aquatic ecosystems but not on land. We explicate this discrepancy using a meta-analysis of experimental results from 123 native animal exclusions in natural terrestrial ecosystems (623 pairwise comparisons). Consistent with top-down predictions, we found that herbivores significantly reduced...

Data from: Chronic nitrogen addition induces a cascade of plant community responses with both seasonal and progressive dynamics

Xiaobing Zhou, Matthew Bowker, Ye Tao, Lin Wu, Yuanming Zhang & Matthew A. Bowker
Short-lived herbaceous plants provide a useful model to rapidly reveal how multiple generations of plants in natural plant communities of sensitive desert ecosystems will be affected by N deposition. We monitored dynamic responses of community structure, richness, evenness, density and biomass of herbaceous plants to experimental N addition (2:1 NH4+:NO3− added at 0, 0.5, 1, 3, 6 and 24 g N m− 2 a− 1) in three seasons in each of three years in the...

Data from: Dryland soils in northern China sequester carbon during the early-2000s warming hiatus period

Dan Kou, Wenhong Ma, Jinzhi Ding, Beibei Zhang, Kai Fang, Huifeng Hu, Jianchun Yu, Tian Wang, Shuqi Qin, Xia Zhao, Jingyun Fang & Yuanhe Yang
1. Drylands, covering ~45% of the Earth’s terrestrial surface and supporting ~38% of the global population, play a dominant role in the trend and inter-annual variability of global land carbon (C) sink. Given that a large proportion of organic C is stored in soils, our knowledge on soil C dynamics in drylands is crucial to evaluate terrestrial C-climate feedback. However, credible understanding on this issue is still greatly limited by the lack of direct observations....

Data from: Indications for three independent domestication events for the tea plant (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze) and new insights into the origin of tea germplasm in China and India revealed by nuclear microsatellites

M. K. Meegahakumbura, M. Wambulwa, K. K. Thapa, M. M. Li, M. Möller, J.C. Xu, J.B. Yang, B.Y. Liu, S. Ranjitkar, J. Liu, D.Z. Li, L.M. Gao, M. C. Wambulwa, D. Z. Li, L. M. Gao, J. B. Yang & J. C. Xu
Background: Tea is the world’s most popular non-alcoholic beverage. China and India are known to be the largest tea producing countries and recognized as the centers for the domestication of the tea plant (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze). However, molecular studies on the origin, domestication and relationships of the main teas, China type, Assam type and Cambod type are lacking. Methodology/Principal Findings: Twenty-three nuclear microsatellite markers were used to investigate the genetic diversity, relatedness, and...

Data from: Effects of plant functional group loss on soil biota and net ecosystem exchange: a plant removal experiment in the Mongolian grassland

Dima Chen, Qingmin Pan, Yongfei Bai, Shuijin Hu, Jianhui Huang, Qibing Wang, Shahid Naeem, James J. Elser, Jianguo Wu & Xingguo Han
1. The rapid loss of global biodiversity can greatly affect the functioning of above-ground components of ecosystems. However, how such biodiversity losses affect below-ground communities and linkages to soil carbon (C) sequestration is unclear. Here we describe how losses in plant functional groups (PFGs) affect soil microbial and nematode communities and net ecosystem exchange (NEE) in a 4-year removal experiment conducted on the Mongolian plateau, the world's largest remaining natural grassland. 2. Our results demonstrated...

Data from: Nonlinear response of ecosystem respiration to multiple levels of temperature increases

Ning Chen, Juntao Zhu, Yangjian Zhang, Yaojie Liu, Junxiang Li, Jiaxing Zu & Ke Huang
Global warming exerts profound impacts on terrestrial carbon cycles and feedback to climates. Ecosystem respiration (ER) is one of the main components of biosphere CO2 fluxes. However, knowledge regarding how ER responds to warming is still lacking. In this study, a manipulative experiment with five simulated temperature increases (Control, Warming 1, Warming 2, Warming 3, Warming 4) was conducted to investigate ER responses to warming in an alpine meadow on the Tibetan Plateau. The results...

Data from: Species richness and phylogenetic diversity of seed plants across vegetation zones of Mount Kenya, East Africa

Yadong Zhou, Sichong Chen, Guangwan Hu, Geoffrey Mwachala, Xue Yan, Qing-Feng Wang & Qingfeng Wang
Mount Kenya is of ecological importance in tropical east Africa due to the dramatic gradient in vegetation types that can be observed from low to high elevation zones. However, species richness and phylogenetic diversity of this mountain have not been well studied. Here, we surveyed distribution patterns for a total of 1,335 seed plants of this mountain and calculated species richness and phylogenetic diversity across seven vegetation zones. We also measured phylogenetic structure using the...

Data from: New Crystal Forms and Amorphous Phase of Sophoricoside: X-Ray Structures and Characterization

Cheng Xing, Guo Shun Zhang, Ning Bo Gong, Guan Hua Du & Yang Lu
Sophoricoside, which is an isoflavone glycoside found in many plant species, has recently attracted attention because of its anti-fertility activity. One solvent-free form, two solvatomorphs and an amorphous phase of sophoricoside are reported for the first time. X-ray diffractometry, differential scanning calorimetry, thermal gravimetric analysis and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy were used to characterize the different forms. The results show that factors such as crystal symmetry, intermolecular arrangement, conformational flexibility, hydrogen-bonding interactions and solvent incorporation lead...

Data from: Maternal density stress and coccidian parasitism: synergistic effects on overwinter survival in root voles

Yan-Bin Yang, Guo-Zhen Shang, Shou-Yang Du, Xin Zhang, Yan Wu & Jiang-Hui Bian
1. Individuals in poor physiological condition are known to be more susceptible to infection that, once it occurs, further deteriorates the individuals’ conditions, making them even more susceptible to infection and leading to death. This vicious synergy between the host condition and infection has recently been proposed to be among the key factors determining the oscillation characteristics in natural populations. Field studies that directly test such a hypothesis, however, are currently scarce, and the physiological...

Data from: Tradeoff between physical and chemical defense in plant seeds is mediated by seed mass

Bo Wang, Joseph S. Phillips & Kyle W. Tomlinson
Plants have evolved both physical and chemical defenses to make the nutrients of attacked organs difficult to access or more toxic to resist animal consumption or/and pathogen attack. Although it is intuitive that a tradeoff could exist between physical and chemical defenses because of finite defense resources, many studies have failed to detect this tradeoff. We hypothesized that tradeoff between physical and chemical defenses in individual organs was mediated by the total resource allocation to...

Data from: Atmospheric deposition exposes Qinling pandas to toxic pollutants

Yi-Ping Chen, Ying-Juan Zheng, Qiang Liu, Yi Song, Zhi-Sheng An, Qing-Yi Ma & Aaron M. Ellison
The giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) is one of the most endangered animals in the world, and it is recognized worldwide as a symbol for conservation. A previous study showed that wild and captive pandas, especially those of the Qinling subspecies, were exposed to toxicants in their diet of bamboo; the ultimate origin of these toxicants is unknown. Here we show that atmospheric deposition is the most likely origin of heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants...

Data from: The early record of halysitid tabulate corals, and morphometrics of Catenipora from the Ordovician of north-central China

Kun Liang, Robert J. Elias & Dong-Jin Lee
Catenipora is one of the most common tabulate coral genera in the Upper Ordovician Jinghe and Beiguoshan formations on the southern margin of the Ordos Basin, north-central China. We distinguish and identify the species of Catenipora using multivariate morphometric procedures. Cluster analysis based on morphological characters of coralla yields a dendrogram showing five morphospecies. The validity and distinctiveness of the morphospecies are evaluated by discriminant analysis and non-metric multidimensional scaling. To identify the species represented...

Data from: Chromosome-level reference genome assembly and gene editing of the dead-leaf butterfly Kallima inachus

Jie Yang, Wenting Wan, Meng Xie, Junlai Mao, Zhiwei Dong, Sihan Lu, Jinwu He, Feiang Xie, Guihun Liu, Xuelei Dai, Zhou Chang, Ruoping Zhao, Ru Zhang, Shuting Wang, Yiming Zhang, Wei Zhang, Wen Wang & Xueyan Li
The leaf resemblance of Kallima (Nymphalidae) butterflies is an important ecological adaptive mechanism that increases survival. However, the genetic mechanism underlying ecological adaptation remains unclear owing to a dearth of genomic information. Herein, we revealed the karyotype (n = 31) of the dead-leaf butterfly Kallima inachus, assembled its high-quality chromosome-level reference genome (568.92 Mb; contig N50: 19.20 Mb), and identified its Z and candidate W chromosomes. To our knowledge, this is the first study to...

Xylomelum occidentale (Proteaceae) accesses relatively mobile soil organic phosphorus without releasing carboxylates

Hongtao Zhong, Jun Zhou, Azrul Azmi, André Arruda, Ashlea Doolette, Ronald Smernik & Hans Lambers
1. Hundreds of Proteaceae species in Australia and South Africa typically grow on phosphorus (P)-impoverished soils, exhibiting a carboxylate-releasing P-mobilising strategy. In the Southwest Australian Biodiversity Hotspot, two Xylomelum (Proteaceae) species are widely distributed, but restricted within that distribution. 2. We grew X. occidentale in hydroponics at 1 μM P. Leaves, seeds, rhizosheath and bulk soil were collected in natural habitats. 3. Xylomelum occidentale did not produce functional cluster roots and occupied soils that are...

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