66 Works

Data from: New Crystal Forms and Amorphous Phase of Sophoricoside: X-Ray Structures and Characterization

Cheng Xing, Guo Shun Zhang, Ning Bo Gong, Guan Hua Du & Yang Lu
Sophoricoside, which is an isoflavone glycoside found in many plant species, has recently attracted attention because of its anti-fertility activity. One solvent-free form, two solvatomorphs and an amorphous phase of sophoricoside are reported for the first time. X-ray diffractometry, differential scanning calorimetry, thermal gravimetric analysis and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy were used to characterize the different forms. The results show that factors such as crystal symmetry, intermolecular arrangement, conformational flexibility, hydrogen-bonding interactions and solvent incorporation lead...

Data from: A new tetraradial olivooid (Medusozoa) from the Lower Cambrian (Stage 2) Yanjiahe Formation, South China

Junfeng Guo, Jian Han, Heyo Van Iten, Zuchen Song, Yaqin Qiang, Wenzhe Wang, Zhifei Zhang, Guoxiang Li, Yifei Sun & Jie Sun
Octapyrgites elongatus n. gen. n. sp., a relatively rare, tetraradial olivooid (Cnidaria, Medusozoa), is described from Bed 5 of the Yanjiahe Formation (Cambrian Stage 2) near Yichang, China. Though similar to Olivooides and Quadrapyrgites from the Fortunian Stage in consisting of a partially corrugated (long.) periderm with a quadrate (transv.) apical portion and V-shaped apertural lobes, O. elongatus is substantially larger than other olivooids. The elongate apical region of O. elongatus is similar to four-sided...

Data from: Natural selection and repeated patterns of molecular evolution following allopatric divergence

Yibo Dong, Shichao Chen, Shifeng Cheng, Wenbin Zhou, Qing Ma, Zhiduan Chen, Cheng-Xin Fu, Xin Liu, Yun-Peng Zhao, Pamela S. Soltis, Gane Ka-Shu Wong, Douglas E. Soltis & Jenny Xiang
Background: Geographic speciation is a major force in generating biodiversity. However, how genomes diverge over time after geographic isolation has halted gene flow has remained unclear. We examine genome-wide divergence of putatively single-copy orthologous genes (POGs) from transcriptomes in 20 allopatric species/variety pairs from diverse angiosperm clades. Sixteen of these pairs reflect the well-known eastern Asia – eastern North America floristic disjunction; these species have been isolated for different lengths of time, from the Miocene...

Data from: Species asynchrony and response diversity determine multifunctional stability of natural grasslands

Takehiro Sasaki, Xiaoming Lu, Mitsuru Hirota & Yongfei Bai
1. A growing body of empirical evidence has suggested that biodiversity affects the simultaneous performance of multiple ecosystem functions (that is, ecosystem multifunctionality). Given increasing environmental variability and uncertainty under global change, an emerging question is how biodiversity influences the stability of multiple functions (that is, multifunctional stability). We currently know little, however, about the determinants and mechanisms of multifunctional stability, which is of practical importance for ensuring the sustainable provision of multiple functions. 2....

Data from: Richness of plant communities plays a larger role than climate in determining responses of species richness to climate change

Qi Wang, Zhenhua Zhang, Rui Du, Shiping Wang, Jichuang Duan, Amy Iler, Shilong Piao, Luo Caiyun, Jiang Lili, Lv Wangwang, Zhang Lirong, Meng Fandong, Suonan Ji, Li Yaoming, Li Bowen, Liu Peipei, Tsechoe Dorji, Wang Zhezhen, Li Yinnnian, Du Mingyuan, Zhou Huakun, Zhao Xinquan & Wang Yanfen
1. Experimental warming in situ suggests that warming could lead to a loss of biodiversity. However, species that remain in situ and experience climate change will interact with species tracking climate change, which could also affect patterns of biodiversity. The relative contribution of species gains and losses to net changes in species richness is still unclear. 2. We use transplanted plant communities to test the hypothesis that both the change in climate and ecological communities...

Data from: Parallel Miocene dispersal events explain the cosmopolitan distribution of the Hypogymnioid lichens

Pradeep K. Divakar, Xin-Li Wei, Bruce McCune, Paloma Cubas, Carlos D. Boluda, Steven G. Leavitt, H. Ana Crespo, Svetlana Tchabanenko & H. Thorsten Lumbsch
Aim: Contemporary species’ distributions are shaped by both geography and historical events, such as extinction, diversification in specific areas and long-distance dispersals. In the most diverse family of lichen-forming fungi, Parmeliaceae, the Hypogymnioid clade, is an example of an evolutionary lineage comprised of species occurring in temperate to subpolar regions in both hemispheres. Here, we elucidate the timing of diversification events and the impact of historical events on the species distribution in this lineage. Location:...

Data from: The distribution of plants and seed dispersers in response to habitat fragmentation in an artificial island archipelago

Jiajia Liu, Ferry Slik, David Coomes, Richard T. Corlett, Yanping Wang, Maxwell Wilson, Guang Hu, Ping Ding & Mingjian Yu
Aim: Small, old-growth forest fragments generally have more small-seeded plants than large patches, due to the disappearance of large seed dispersing vertebrates. This pattern may differ for secondary forest fragments where differential migration ability rather than persistence of seed dispersers may be driving plant community assembly. In this paper, we investigated the effect of habitat fragmentation on seed dispersers and plant community structure in regenerating forests. Location: The Thousand Island Lake, China. Taxon: Plants, birds...

Data from: A simulation-based evaluation of tip-dating under the fossilized birth-death process

Arong Luo, David A. Duchêne, Chi Zhang, Chao-Dong ZHU & Simon Ho
Bayesian molecular dating is widely used to study evolutionary timescales. This procedure usually involves phylogenetic analysis of nucleotide sequence data, with fossil-based calibrations applied as age constraints on internal nodes of the tree. An alternative approach is tip-dating, which explicitly includes fossil data in the analysis. This can be done, for example, through the joint analysis of molecular data from present-day taxa and morphological data from both extant and fossil taxa. In the context of...

Data from: Patterns of nitrogen-fixing tree abundance in forests across Asia and America

Duncan N. L. Menge, Ryan A. Chisholm, Stuart J. Davies, Kamariah Abu Salim, David Allen, Mauricio Alvarez, Norm Bourg, Warren Y. Brockelman, Sarayudh Bunyavejchewin, Nathalie Butt, Min Cao, Wirong Chanthorn, Wei-Chun Chao, Keith Clay, Richard Condit, Susan Cordell, João Batista Da Silva, H. S. Dattaraja, Ana Cristina Segalin De Andrade, Alexandre A. Oliveira, Jan Den Ouden, Michael Drescher, Christine Fletcher, Christian P. Giardina, C. V. Savitri Gunatilleke … & Tak Fung
Symbiotic nitrogen (N)‐fixing trees can provide large quantities of new N to ecosystems, but only if they are sufficiently abundant. The overall abundance and latitudinal abundance distributions of N‐fixing trees are well characterised in the Americas, but less well outside the Americas. Here, we characterised the abundance of N‐fixing trees in a network of forest plots spanning five continents, ~5,000 tree species and ~4 million trees. The majority of the plots (86%) were in America...

Data from: An alternative approach to reduce algorithm-derived biases in monitoring soil organic carbon changes

Weixin Zhang, Yuanqi Chen, Leilei Shi, Xiaoli Wang, Yongwen Liu, Rong Mao, Xingquan Rao, Yongbiao Lin, Yuanhu Shao, Xiaobo Li, Cancan Zhao, Shengjie Liu, Shilong Piao, Weixing Zhu, Xiaoming Zou & Shenglei Fu
Quantifying soil organic carbon (SOC) changes is a fundamental issue in ecology and sustainable agriculture. However, the algorithm-derived biases in comparing SOC status have not been fully addressed. Although the methods based on equivalent soil mass (ESM) and mineral-matter mass (EMMM) reduced biases of the conventional methods based on equivalent soil volume (ESV), they face challenges in ensuring both data comparability and accuracy of SOC estimation due to unequal basis for comparison and using un-conserved...

Data from: Community carbon and water exchange responses to warming and precipitation enhancement in sandy grassland along a restoration gradient

Yayong Luo, Xiaoan Zuo, Yulin Li, Tonghui Zhang, Rui Zhang, Juanli Chen, Peng Lv & Xueyong Zhao
Temperature increasing and precipitation alteration are predicted to occur in arid and semi-arid lands, however, the response mechanism of carbon and water exchange at community level is still unclear in semi-arid sandy land. We investigated the responses of carbon and water exchanges to warming and precipitation enhancement along a sand-dune restoration gradient: mobile sand dunes (MD), semi-fixed sand dunes (SFD) and fixed sand dunes (FD). The average net ecosystem productivity (NEP) and evapotranspiration (ET) between...

Data from: Active information maintenance in working memory by a sensory cortex

Xiaoxing Zhang, Wenjun Yan, Wenliang Wang, Hongmei Fan, Ruiqing Hou, Yulei Chen, Zhaoqin Chen, Chaofan Ge, Shumin Duan, Albert Compte & Chengyucheng T. Li
Working memory is a critical brain function for maintaining and manipulating information over delay periods of seconds. It is debated whether delay-period neural activity in sensory regions is important for the active maintenance of information during the delay period. Here, we tackle this question by examining the anterior piriform cortex (APC), an olfactory sensory cortex, in head-fixed mice performing several olfactory working memory tasks. Active information maintenance is necessary in these tasks, especially in a...

Data from: The evolution of the modern avian digestive system – insights from paravian fossils from the Yanliao and Jehol biotas

Jingmai K. O'Connor & Zhonghe Zhou
The avian digestive system, like other aspects of avian biology, is highly modified relative to other reptiles. Together these modifications have imparted the great success of Neornithes, the most diverse clade of amniotes alive today. It is important to understand when and how aspects of the modern avian digestive system evolved among neornithine ancestors in order to elucidate the evolutionary success of this important clade and to understand the biology of stem birds and their...

Data from: The species richness pattern of vascular plants along a tropical elevational gradient and the test of elevational Rapoport's rule depend on different life‐forms and phytogeographic affinities

Yadong Zhou, Anne C. Ochola, Antony W. Njogu, Biyansa H. Boru, Geoffrey Mwachala, Guangwan Hu, Haiping Xin & Qing-Feng Wang
The research about species richness pattern and elevational Rapoport's rule (ERR) have been carried out mostly in the temperate regions in the recent years and scarcely in the tropical mountains; meanwhile, it is unclear whether the ERR is consistent among different life‐forms and phytogeographic affinities. Here, we compiled a database of plant species of Mount Kenya, a tropical mountain of East Africa, and divided these species into twelve groups depending on the life‐form and phytogeographic...

Data from: A Changhsingian (late Permian) nautiloid assemblage from Gujiao, South China

Luyi Miao, Xu Dai, Korn Dieter, Arnaud Brayard, Jing Chen, Xiaokang Liu & Haijun Song
A c. 0.30 m thick cherty limestone bed in the Dalong Formation at Gujiao (Guizhou) yielded a highly diverse Changhsingian nautiloid assemblage. Its age is late Changhsingian, indicated by the co-occurring ammonoid Pseudotirolites sp. This assemblage is composed of nine species and five taxa in open nomenclature in nine genera, including one new genus and three new species: Neotainoceras zhaoi sp. nov., Nodopleuroceras gujiaoense sp. nov. and Gujiaonautilus longliensis gen. nov., sp. nov. Sholakoceras is...

Data from: Proximity to roads disrupts rodents’ contributions to seed dispersal services and subsequent recruitment dynamics

Wenwen Chen, Jie Zhong, Walter Carson, Zhanhui Tang, Zongqiang Xie, Shucun Sun & Youbing Zhou
1. Seed dispersal and subsequent recruitment dynamics play a crucially important role in regulating species coexistence and structuring tree diversity in diverse forests. Wildlife, which can dually shape the tree recruitment process by simultaneously functioning as natural enemies and seed dispersers, are undergoing widespread changes in population and behaviour due to the detrimental effects of expanding global road networks. However, the impact of these changes on recruitment dynamics through the alteration of seed dispersal processes...

Data from: Plant-bacteria-soil response to frequency of simulated nitrogen deposition has implications for global ecosystem change

Jirong Cao, Shuang Pang, Qibing Wang, Mark Williams, Xiu Jia, Shasha Dun, Junjie Yang, Yunhai Zhang, Jing Wang, Xiaotao Lü, Yecui Hu, Linghao Li, Yuncong Li & Xingguo Han
Atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition, generally, has been simulated through a single or relatively few N applications per year for its ecological effect study. Despite the importance of timing in ecosystem processes, ecological experiments with more realistic N addition frequencies are rare. We employed a novel design with typical twice (2X) vs. atypical monthly (12X) N applications per year to explore effects of N addition frequency on above- and below-ground biodiversity and function. Each year, several...

Data from: Warming alters surface soil organic matter composition despite unchanged carbon stock in a Tibetan permafrost ecosystem

Fei Li, Yunfeng Peng, Leiyi Chen, Guibiao Yang, Benjamin W Abbott, Dianye Zhang, Kai Fang, Guanqin Wang, Jun Wang, Jianchun Yu, Li Liu, Qiwen Zhang, Kelong Chen, Anwar Mohammat & Yuanhe Yang
1. Climate warming can alter ecosystem carbon (C) balance and also the composition of soil organic matter (SOM), with important local and global implications. However, the extent to which rising temperature affects SOM composition in permafrost ecosystems remains poorly understood. 2. Here, we experimentally warmed a permafrost ecosystem by open-top chambers (OTCs) on the Tibetan Plateau for four years to quantify the responses of C inputs via vegetation production, C losses via soil respiration, and...

Data from: Multiple parapatric pollinators have radiated across a continental fig tree displaying clinal genetic variation

Hui Yu, Enwei Tian, Linna Zheng, Xiaoxia Deng, Yufen Cheng, Lianfu Chen, Wei Wu, Wattana Tanming, Dayong Zhang, Stephen G. Compton & Finn Kjellberg
The ways that plant-feeding insects have diversified is central to our understanding of terrestrial ecosystems. Obligate nursery pollination mutualisms provide highly relevant model systems of how plants and their insect associates have diversified and the over 800 species of fig trees (Ficus) allow comparative studies. Fig trees can have one or more pollinating fig wasp species (Agaonidae) that breed within their figs, but factors influencing their number remain to be established. In some widely distributed...

Data from: An allometry between seed kernel and seed coat shows greater investment in physical defense in small seeds

La-Mei Wu, Si-Chong Chen & Bo Wang
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Numerous studies have treated the mass of a whole seed as an integrated unit, although the two components, seed kernel and seed coat, play different roles and suffer from different evolutionary selection pressures. In this study, we provided the first global-scale quantification of the relative biomass investments in seed coats and seed kernels. We tested the following hypotheses: there is a negative allometry between seed kernel mass and seed coat mass,...

Cryo-EM Structure of Actin Filaments from Zea mays Pollen

Zhanhong Ren, Yan Zhang, Yi Zhang, Yunqiu He, Pingzhou Du, Zhanxin Wang, Fei Sun & Haiyun Ren
Actins are among the most abundant and conserved proteins in eukaryotic cells, where they form filamentous structures that perform vital roles in key cellular processes. Although large amounts of data on the biochemical activities, dynamic behaviors, and important cellular functions of plant actin filaments have accumulated, their structural basis is elusive. Here, we report a 3.9 Å structure of the plant actin filament (ZMPA) from Zea mays pollen using cryo-electron microscopy. The structure shows a...

Data from: Substrate and spatial variables are major determinants of fungal community in karst caves in Southwest China

Zhi-Feng Zhang & Lei Cai
Aim: Previous studies primarily based on the culture method have revealed that caves host a high fungal diversity and that exogenous carbon sources influence fungal communities. Here, we assess the fungal diversity and distribution patterns in karst caves in Southwest China and reveal the major factors that shape the fungal communities. Location: Southwest China. Methods: Samples of air, rock, sediment, and water were collected from eight caves in Southwest China. Using high-throughput sequencing of the...

Data from: Trait identity and functional diversity co-drive response of ecosystem productivity to nitrogen enrichment

Dianye Zhang, Yunfeng Peng, Fei Li, Guibiao Yang, Jun Wang, Jianchun Yu, Guoying Zhou & Yuanhe Yang
1. Exploring the mechanisms underlying the change in ecosystem productivity under anthropogenic nitrogen (N) inputs is of fundamental ecological interest. It has been proposed that functional traits, environmental factors, and species richness are central drivers linking ecosystem productivity with environmental change. However, few studies have considered the joint effects of functional traits, environmental factors, and species richness on ecosystem productivity under increasing N inputs. 2. We established a N-manipulation experiment in a Tibetan alpine steppe...

Data from: Root feeding larvae increase their performance by inducing leaf volatiles that attract aboveground conspecific adults

Xiao Sun, Evan Siemann, Zhen Liu, Qiyun Wang, Dingli Wang, Wei Huang, Chujun Zhang & Jianqing Ding
1.Herbivore‐induced changes in plant volatile emissions mediate above‐belowground interactions by determining host plant colonization of different herbivores. By changing shoot‐emitted volatiles, belowground herbivores may use the plant to extend their capacity to interact with aboveground con‐ and heterospecifics. 2.We investigated the attractiveness of Triadica sebifera plants infested by larvae of a specialist beetle or root‐knot nematodes to aboveground herbivores. We then determined the contribution of leaf volatiles to the observed recruitment patterns using olfactometer experiments....

Data from: A global dataset for economic losses of extreme hydrological events during 1960-2014

Bo Tao, Liping Gao, Yunxuan Miao, Lihua Zhang, Xia Song, Wei Ren, Liyuan He & Xiaofeng Xu
A comprehensive dataset of extreme hydrological events (EHEs) – floods and droughts, consisting of 2,171 occurrences worldwide, during 1960‐2014 was compiled, and then their economic losses were normalized using a price index in U.S. dollar. The dataset showed a significant increasing trend of EHEs before 2000, while a slight post‐2000 decline. Correspondingly, the EHEs‐caused economic losses increased obviously before 2000 followed by a slight decrease; the post‐2000 decline could be partially attributed to the decreases...

Registration Year

  • 2019

Resource Types

  • Dataset


  • Chinese Academy of Sciences
  • Beijing Normal University
  • University of Florida
  • Henan University
  • Zhejiang University
  • Chinese Academy of Forestry
  • Rice University
  • Royal Botanic Gardens
  • Oregon State University
  • University of Cambridge