364 Works

Data from: Evolutionary hotspots in the Mojave Desert

Amy G. Vandergast, Richard D. Inman, Kelly R. Barr, Kenneth E. Nussear, Todd C. Esque, Stacie A. Hathaway, Dustin A. Wood, Philip A. Medica, Jesse W. Breinholt, Catherine L. Stephen, Andrew D. Gottscho, Sharyn B. Marks, W. Bryan Jennings, Robert N. Fisher, Jesse Breinholt, Andrew Gottscho, Sharyn Marks, W. Jennings, Amy Vandergast, Richard Inman, Kelly Barr, Kenneth Nussear, Todd Esque, Stacie Hathaway, Dustin Wood … & Catherine Stephen
Genetic diversity within species provides the raw material for adaptation and evolution. Just as regions of high species diversity are conservation targets, identifying regions containing high genetic diversity and divergence within and among populations may be important to protect future evolutionary potential. When multiple co-distributed species show spatial overlap in high genetic diversity and divergence, these regions can be considered evolutionary hotspots. We mapped spatial population genetic structure for 17 animal species across the Mojave...

Data from: RAD sequencing yields a high success rate for westslope cutthroat and rainbow trout species-diagnostic SNP assays

Stephen J. Amish, Paul A. Hohenlohe, Sally Painter, Robb F. Leary, Clint Muhlfeld, Fred W. Allendorf & Gordon Luikart
Hybridization with introduced rainbow trout threatens most native westslope cutthroat trout populations. Understanding the genetic effects of hybridization and introgression requires a large set of high-throughput, diagnostic genetic markers to inform conservation and management. Recently, we identified several thousand candidate single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers based on RAD sequencing of 11 westslope cutthroat trout and 13 rainbow trout individuals. Here we used flanking sequence for 56 of these candidate SNP markers to design high-throughput genotyping...

Data from: The population history of endogenous retroviruses in mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus)

Pauline L. Kamath, Daniel Elleder, Le Bao, Paul C. Cross, John H. Powell & Mary Poss
Mobile elements are powerful agents of genomic evolution and can be exceptionally informative markers for investigating species and population-level evolutionary history. While several studies have utilized retrotransposon-based insertional polymorphisms to resolve phylogenies, few population studies exist outside of humans. Endogenous retroviruses are LTR-retrotransposons derived from retroviruses that have become stably integrated in the host genome during past infections and transmitted vertically to subsequent generations. They offer valuable insight into host-virus co-evolution and a unique perspective...

Data from: Food web heterogeneity and succession in created saltmarshes

Marie C. Nordström, Amanda W. J. Demopoulos, Christine R. Whitcraft, Andrea Rismondo, Patricia McMillan, Jennifer P. Gonzalez & Lisa A. Levin
Ecological restoration must achieve functional as well as structural recovery. Functional metrics for re-establishment of trophic interactions can be used to complement traditional monitoring of structural attributes. In addition, topographic effects on food web structure provide added information within a restoration context; often, created sites may require spatial heterogeneity to effectively match structure and function of natural habitats. We addressed both of these issues in our study of successional development of benthic food web structure,...

Data from: Testing the depth-differentiation hypothesis in a deepwater octocoral

Andrea M. Quattrini, Iliana B. Baums, Timothy M. Shank, Cheryl L. Morrison & Erik E. Cordes
The depth-differentiation hypothesis proposes that the bathyal region is a source of genetic diversity and an area where there is a high rate of species formation. Genetic differentiation should thus occur over relatively small vertical distances, particularly along the upper continental slope (200–1000 m) where oceanography varies greatly over small differences in depth. To test whether genetic differentiation within deepwater octocorals is greater over vertical rather than geographical distances, Callogorgia delta was targeted. This species...

Data from: Implications of the circumpolar genetic structure of polar bears for their conservation in a rapidly warming Arctic

Elizabeth Peacock, Sarah A. Sonsthagen, Martyn E. Obbard, Andrei Boltunov, Eric V. Regehr, Nikita Ovsyanikov, Jon Aars, Stephen N. Atkinson, George K. Sage, Andrew G. Hope, Eve Zeyl, Lutz Bachmann, Dorothee Ehrich, Kim T. Scribner, Steven C. Amstrup, Stanislav Belikov, Erik W. Born, Andrew E. Derocher, Ian Stirling, Mitchell K. Taylor, Øystein Wiig, David Paetkau & Sandra L. Talbot
We provide an expansive analysis of polar bear (Ursus maritimus) circumpolar genetic variation during the last two decades of decline in their sea-ice habitat. We sought to evaluate whether their genetic diversity and structure have changed over this period of habitat decline, how their current genetic patterns compare with past patterns, and how genetic demography changed with ancient fluctuations in climate. Characterizing their circumpolar genetic structure using microsatellite data, we defined four clusters that largely...

Data from: Changes in data sharing and data reuse practices and perceptions among scientists worldwide

Carol Tenopir, Elizabeth D. Dalton, Suzie Allard, Mike Frame, Ivanka Pjesivac, Ben Birch, Danielle Pollock & Kristina Dorsett
The incorporation of data sharing into the research lifecycle is an important part of modern scholarly debate. In this study, the DataONE Usability and Assessment working group addresses two primary goals: To examine the current state of data sharing and reuse perceptions and practices among research scientists as they compare to the 2009/2010 baseline study, and to examine differences in practices and perceptions across age groups, geographic regions, and subject disciplines. We distributed surveys to...

Data from: Conservation planning for offsetting the impacts of development: a case study of biodiversity and renewable energy in the Mojave Desert

Jason Kreitler, Carrie A. Schloss, Oliver Soong, Lee Hannah & Frank W. Davis
Balancing society's competing needs of development and conservation requires careful consideration of tradeoffs. Renewable energy development and biodiversity conservation are often considered beneficial environmental goals. However, the direct footprint and disturbance of renewable energy can displace species' habitat and negatively impact populations and communities if sited without ecological consideration. To mitigate residual impacts, offsets have emerged as a potentially useful tool after trying to avoid, minimize, or restore affected sites. Yet where many species or...

Data from: Population divergence and gene flow in an endangered and highly mobile seabird

Andreanna J. Welch, Robert C. Fleischer, Helen F. James, Anne E. Wiley, Peggy H. Ostrom, Josh Adams, Fern Duvall, Nick Holmes, Jay Penniman, Keith A. Swindle & Darcy Hu
Seabirds are highly vagile and can disperse up to thousands of kilometers, therefore it can be difficult to identify the factors that promote isolation between populations. The endemic Hawaiian petrel (Pterodroma sandwichensis) is one such species. Today it is endangered, and known to breed only on the islands of Hawaii, Maui, Lanai, and Kauai. Historical records indicate that a large population formerly bred on Molokai as well, but this population has recently been extirpated. Given...

Data from: Climate variables explain neutral and adaptive variation within salmonid metapopulations: the importance of replication in landscape genetics

Brian Hand, Ryan Kovach, Clint C. Muhlfeld, Alisa A. Wade, Diane Whited, Shawn Narum, Andrew Matala, Mike Ackerman, Brittany Garner, John Kimball, Jack Stanford, Gordon Luikart, Brian K. Hand, Diane C. Whited, Brittany A. Garner, Jack A. Stanford, John S. Kimball, Shawn R. Narum & Andrew P. Matala
Understanding how environmental variation influences population genetic structure is important for conservation management because it can reveal how human stressors influence population connectivity, genetic diversity, and persistence. We used riverscape genetics modeling to assess whether climatic and habitat variables were related to neutral and adaptive patterns of genetic differentiation (population specific and pairwise FST) within five metapopulations (79 populations, 4,583 individuals) of steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in the Columbia River Basin, USA. Using 151 putatively...

Data from: Variable effects of climate on forest growth in relation to climate extremes, disturbance, and forest dynamics

Malcolm S. Itter, Andrew O. Finley, Anthony W. D'Amato, Jane R. Foster & John B. Bradford
Changes in the frequency, duration, and severity of climate extremes are forecast to occur under global climate change. The impacts of climate extremes on forest productivity and health remain difficult to predict due to potential interactions with disturbance events and forest dynamics—changes in forest stand composition, density, size and age structure over time. Such interactions may lead to non-linear forest growth responses to climate involving thresholds and lag effects. Understanding how forest dynamics influence growth...

Data from: Carrying capacity in a heterogeneous environment with habitat connectivity

Bo Zhang, Alex Kula, Keenan M.L. Mack, Lu Zhai, Arrix L. Ryce, Wei-Ming Ni, Donald L. DeAngelis & J. David Van Dyken
A large body of theory predicts that populations diffusing in heterogeneous environments reach higher total size than if non-diffusing, and, paradoxically, higher size than in a corresponding homogeneous environment. However, this theory and its assumptions have not been rigorously tested. Here, we extended previous theory to include exploitable resources, proving qualitatively novel results, which we tested experimentally using spatially diffusing laboratory populations of yeast. Consistent with previous theory, we predicted and experimentally observed that spatial...

Data from: Monarch butterfly population decline in North America: identifying the threatening processes

Wayne E. Thogmartin, Ruscena Wiederholt, Karen Oberhauser, Ryan G. Drum, Jay E. Diffendorfer, Sonia Altizer, Orley R. Taylor, John Pleasants, Darius Semmens, Brice Semmens, Richard Erickson, Kaitlin Libby & Laura Lopez-Hoffman
The monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) population in North America has sharply declined over the last two decades. Despite rising concern over the monarch butterfly's status, no comprehensive study of the factors driving this decline has been conducted. Using partial least-squares regressions and time-series analysis, we investigated climatic and habitat-related factors influencing monarch population size from 1993 to 2014. Potential threats included climatic factors, habitat loss (milkweed and overwinter forest), disease and agricultural insecticide use (neonicotinoids)....

Data from: Phylogenetic distribution of a male pheromone that may exploit a nonsexual preference in lampreys

Tyler J. Buchinger, Ugo Bussy, Ke Li, Huiyong Wang, Mar Huertas, Cindy F. Baker, Liang Jia, Michael C. Hayes, Weiming Li & Nicholas S. Johnson
Pheromones are among the most important sexual signals used by organisms throughout the animal kingdom. However, few are identified in vertebrates, leaving the evolutionary mechanisms underlying vertebrate pheromones poorly understood. Pre-existing biases in receivers’ perceptual systems shape visual and auditory signaling systems, but studies on how receiver biases influence the evolution of pheromone communication remain sparse. The lamprey Petromyzon marinus uses a relatively well-understood suite of pheromones and offers a unique opportunity to study the...

Data from: Artificial light at night confounds broad-scale habitat use by migrating birds

James D. McLaren, Jeffrey J. Buler, Tim Schreckengost, Jaclyn A. Smolinsky, Matthew Boone, E. Emiel Van Loon, Deanna K. Dawson & Eric L. Walters
With many of the world's migratory bird populations in alarming decline, broad-scale assessments of responses to migratory hazards may prove crucial to successful conservation efforts. Most birds migrate at night through increasingly light-polluted skies. Bright light sources can attract airborne migrants and lead to collisions with structures, but might also influence selection of migratory stopover habitat and thereby acquisition of food resources. We demonstrate, using multi-year weather radar measurements of nocturnal migrants across the northeastern...

Data from: A red knot as a black swan: how a single bird shows navigational abilities during repeat crossings of the Greenland Icecap

Eva M. A. Kok, T. Lee Tibbitts, David C. Douglas, Paul W. Howey, Anne Dekinga, Benjamin Gnep & Theunis Piersma
Despite the wealth of studies on seasonal movements of birds between southern nonbreeding locations and High Arctic breeding locations, the key mechanisms of navigation during these migrations remain elusive. A flight along the shortest possible route between pairs of points on a sphere (‘orthodrome’) requires a bird to be able to assess its current location in relation to its migration goal and to make continuous adjustment of heading to reach that goal. Alternatively, birds may...

Frequent burning causes large losses of carbon from deep soil layers in a temperate savanna

Adam Francis Pellegrini, Kendra K. McLauchlan, Sarah E. Hobbie, Michelle C. Mack, Abbey L. Marcotte, David M. Nelson, Steven Perakis, Peter B. Reich & Kyle Whittinghill
1. Fire activity is changing dramatically across the globe, with uncertain effects on ecosystem processes, especially belowground. Fire‐driven losses of soil carbon (C) are often assumed to occur primarily in the upper soil layers because the repeated combustion of aboveground biomass limits organic matter inputs into surface soil. However, C losses from deeper soil may occur if frequent burning reduces root biomass inputs of C into deep soil layers or stimulates losses of C via...

Urbanization reduces genetic connectivity in bobcats (Lynx rufus) at both intra- and inter-population spatial scales

Christopher P Kozakiewicz, Christopher Burridge, W. Chris Funk, Patricia E Salerno, Daryl R Trumbo, Roderick B Gagne, Erin E Boydston, Robert N Fisher, Lisa M Lyren, Megan K Jennings, Seth P D Riley, Laurel E K Serieys, Sue VandeWoude, Kevin R Crooks & Scott Carver
Urbanization is a major factor driving habitat fragmentation and connectivity loss in wildlife. However, the impacts of urbanization on connectivity can vary among species and even populations due to differences in local landscape characteristics, and our ability to detect these relationships may depend on the spatial scale at which they are measured. Bobcats (Lynx rufus) are relatively sensitive to urbanization and the status of bobcat populations is an important indicator of connectivity in urban coastal...

Supporting data for increasing fire activity reinforces shrub conversion in Southwestern US forests

Matthew Hurteau, Alisa Keyser, Dan Krofcheck, Cecile Remy & Craig Allen
Fire-exclusion in historically frequent-fire forests of the southwestern United States has altered forest structure and increased the probability of high-severity fire. Warmer and drier conditions, coupled with dispersal distance limitations are limiting tree seedling establishment and survival following high-severity fire. Post-fire conversion to non-forest vegetation can be reinforced by subsequent fire events. We sought to determine the influence of fire probability on post-fire vegetation development in a severely burned landscape in New Mexico, USA. We...

Data from: Magnitude and direction of stream-forest community interactions change with time scale

Amy Marcarelli, Colden Baxter, Joseph Benjamin, Yo Miyake, Masashi Murakami, Kurt Fausch & Shigeru Nakano
Networks of direct and indirect biotic interactions underpin the complex dynamics and stability of ecological systems, yet experimental and theoretical studies often yield conflicting evidence regarding the direction (positive or negative) or magnitude of these interactions. We revisited pioneering datasets collected at the deciduous forested Horonai Stream and conducted ecosystem-level syntheses to demonstrate that the direction of direct and indirect interactions can change depending on the timescale of observation. Prior experimental studies showed that terrestrial...

Social status, forest disturbance, and Barred Owls shape long-term trends in breeding dispersal distance of Northern Spotted Owls

Julianna Jenkins, Damon Lesmeister, Eric Forsman, Katie Dugger, Steven Ackers, L. Steven Andrews, Chris McCafferty, M. Shane Pruett, Janice Reid, Stan Sovern, Rob Horn, Scott Gremel, J. David Wiens & Zhiqiang Yang
Dispersal among breeding sites in territorial animals (i.e. breeding dispersal) is driven by numerous selection pressures, including competition and spatiotemporal variation in habitat quality. The scale and trend of dispersal movements over time may signal changing conditions within the population or on the landscape. We examined 2,158 breeding dispersal events from 694 male and 608 female individually-marked Northern Spotted Owls (Strix occidentalis caurina) monitored over 28 years on seven study areas to assess the relative...

Data from: Wildfire reveals transient changes to individual traits and population responses of a native bumble bee (Bombus vosnesenskii)

John Mola, Michael Miller, Sean O'Rourke & Neal Williams
1. Fire-induced changes in the abundance and distribution of organisms, especially plants, can alter resource landscapes for mobile consumers driving bottom-up effects on their population sizes, morphologies, and reproductive potential. We expect these impacts to be most striking for obligate visitors of plants, like bees and other pollinators, but these impacts can be difficult to interpret due to the limited information provided by forager counts in the absence of survival or fitness proxies. 2. Increased...

Data from: Decision making for mitigating wildlife diseases: from theory to practice for an emerging fungal pathogen of amphibians

Stefano Canessa, Claudio Bozzuto, Evan H. Campbell Grant, Sam S. Cruickshank, Matthew C. Fisher, Jacob C. Koella, Stefan Lötters, An Martel, Frank Pasmans, Benjamin C. Scheele, Annemarieke Spitzen-Van Der Sluijs, Sebastian Steinfartz, Benedikt R. Schmidt & Ben C. Scheele
1.Conservation science can be most effective in its decision-support role when seeking answers to clearly formulated questions of direct management relevance. Emerging wildlife diseases, a driver of global biodiversity loss, illustrate the challenges of performing this role: in spite of considerable research, successful disease mitigation is uncommon. Decision analysis is increasingly advocated to guide mitigation planning, but its application remains rare. 2.Using an integral projection model, we explored potential mitigation actions for avoiding population declines...

Data from: Sora (Porzana carolina) autumn migration habitat use

Auriel M.V. Fournier, Doreen C. Mengel, David G. Krementz & Auriel M. V. Fournier
Palustrine wetland management across the United States is often conducted under a moist soil management framework aimed at providing energetic resources for non-breeding waterfowl. Moist soil management techniques typically include seasonal water-level manipulations and mechanical soil disturbance to create conditions conducive to germination and growth of early successional, seed-producing wetland plants. The assumption is that providing stopover and wintering habitat for non-breeding waterfowl will also accommodate life history needs of a broader suite of migratory...

Data from: Large birds travel farther in homogeneous environments

Marlee A. Tucker, Olga Alexandrou, , Keith L. Bildstein, Katrin Böhning-Gaese, Chloe Bracis, John N. Brzorad, Evan R. Buechley, David Cabot, Justin M. Calabrese, Carlos Carrapato, André Chiaradia, Lisa C. Davenport, Sarah C. Davidson, Mark Desholm, Christopher R. DeSorbo, Robert Domenech, Peter Enggist, William F. Fagan, Nina Farwig, Wolfgang Fiedler, Christen H. Fleming, Alastair Franke, John M. Fryxell, Clara García-Ripollés … & João Paulo Silva
Aim: Animal movement is an important determinant of individual survival, population dynamics, and ecosystem structure and function. Yet it is still unclear how local movements are related to resource availability and the spatial arrangement of resources. Using resident bird species and migratory bird species outside of the migratory period, we examined how the distribution of resources affect the movement patterns of both large terrestrial birds (e.g., raptors, bustards, hornbills) and waterbirds (e.g., cranes, storks, ducks,...

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