340 Works

Experimental evidence for the recovery of mercury-contaminated fish populations

Lee Hrenchuk, Paul Blanchfield, John Rudd, Marc Amyot, Christopher Babiarz, Ken Beaty, Drew Bodaly, Brian Branfireun, Cynthia Gilmour, Jennifer Graydon, Britt Hall, Reed Harris, Andrew Heyes, Holger Hintelmann, James Hurley, Carol Kelly, David Krabbenhoft, Steve Lindberg, Robert Mason, Michael Paterson, Cheryl Podemski, Ken Sandilands, George Southworth, Vincent St. Louis, Lori Tate … & Michael Tate
Anthropogenic releases of mercury (Hg) are a human health issue because the potent toxicant methylmercury (MeHg), formed primarily by microbial methylation of inorganic Hg in aquatic ecosystems, bioaccumulates to high concentrations in fish consumed by humans. Predicting the efficacy of Hg pollution controls on fish MeHg concentrations is complex because many factors influence the production and bioaccumulation of MeHg. Here we conducted a 15-year whole-ecosystem, single-factor experiment to determine the magnitude and timing of reductions...

Supplementary information for Paleoceanographic changes in the late Pliocene promoted rapid diversification in pelagic seabirds

Joan Ferrer Obiol, Helen F. James, R. Terry Chesser, Vincent Bretagnolle, Jacob González-Solís, Julio Rozas, Andreanna J. Welch & Marta Riutort
Aim: Paleoceanographic changes can act as drivers of diversification and speciation, even in highly mobile marine organisms. Shearwaters are a group of globally distributed and highly mobile pelagic seabirds. Despite a recent well resolved phylogeny, shearwaters have controversial species limits, and show periods of both slow and rapid diversification. Here, we explore the role of paleoceanographic changes on the diversification and speciation in these highly mobile pelagic seabirds. We investigate shearwater biogeography and the evolution...

Data from: Evolutionary dynamics of a rapidly receding southern range boundary in the threatened California Red-Legged Frog (Rana draytonii)

Jonathan Q. Richmond, Kelly R. Barr, Adam R. Backlin, Amy G. Vandergast & Robert N. Fisher
Populations forming the edge of a species range are often imperiled by isolation and low genetic diversity, with proximity to human population centers being a major determinant of edge stability in modern landscapes. Since the 1960s, the California red-legged frog (Rana draytonii) has undergone extensive declines in heavily urbanized southern California, where the range edge has rapidly contracted northward while shifting its cardinal orientation to an east-west trending axis. We studied the genetic structure and...

Data from: Species interactions and the effects of climate variability on a wetland amphibian metacommunity

Courtney L. Davis, David A.W. Miller, Susan C. Walls, William J. Barichivich, Jeffrey W. Riley, Mary E. Brown & David A. W. Miller
Disentangling the role that multiple interacting factors have on species responses to shifting climate poses a significant challenge. However, our ability to do so is of utmost importance to predict the effects of climate change on species distributions. We examined how populations of three species of wetland breeding amphibians, which varied in life history requirements, responded to a six-year period of extremely variable in precipitation. This interval was punctuated by both extensive drought and heavy...

Data from: Imperfect pathogen detection from non-invasive skin swabs biases disease inference

Graziella V. DiRenzo, Evan H. Campbell Grant, Ana V. Longo, Christian Che-Castaldo, Kelly R. Zamudio & Karen R. Lips
1. Conservation managers rely on accurate estimates of disease parameters, such as pathogen prevalence and infection intensity, to assess disease status of a host population. However, these disease metrics may be biased if low-level infection intensities are missed by sampling methods or laboratory diagnostic tests. These false negatives underestimate pathogen prevalence and overestimate mean infection intensity of infected individuals. 2. Our objectives were two-fold. First, we quantified false negative error rates of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis on...

Data from: Do seaducks minimise the flightless period?: inter- and intra-specific comparisons of remigial moult

Anouck Viain, Jean-Pierre L. Savard, Scott Gilliland, Matthew C. Perry & Magella Guillemette
Remigial moult is one of the crucial events in the annual life cycle of waterfowl as it is energetically costly, lasts several weeks, and is a period of high vulnerability due to flightlessness. In waterfowl, remigial moult can be considered as an energy-predation trade-off, meaning that heavier individuals would minimise the flightless period by increasing feather growth rate and energy expenditure. Alternatively, they could reduce body mass at the end of this period, thereby reducing...

Data from: Ephemeral stream reaches preserve the evolutionary and distributional history of threespine stickleback in the Santa Clara and Ventura River Watersheds of southern California

Jonathan Q. Richmond, David K. Jacobs, Adam R. Backlin, Camm C. Swift, Chris Dellith & Robert N. Fisher
Much remains to be understood about the evolutionary history and contemporary landscape genetics of unarmored threespine stickleback in southern California, where populations collectively referred to as Gasterosteus aculeatus williamsoni have severely declined over the past 70+ years and are now endangered. We used mitochondrial sequence and microsatellite data to assess the population genetics and phylogeography of unarmored populations sampled immediately downstream from the type locality of G. a. williamsoni in the upper Santa Clara River,...

Data from: Genetic reconstruction of a bullfrog invasion to elucidate vectors of introduction and secondary spread

Pauline L. Kamath, Adam J. Sepulveda & Megan Layhee
Reconstructing historical colonization pathways of an invasive species is critical for uncovering factors that determine invasion success and for designing management strategies. The American bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus) is endemic to eastern North America, but now has a global distribution and is considered to be one of the worst invaders in the world. In Montana, several introduced populations have been reported, but little is known of their sources and vectors of introduction and secondary spread. We...

Data from: Genetic analyses reveal cryptic introgression in secretive marsh bird populations

Stephanie S. Coster, Amy B. Welsh, Gary Costanzo, Sergio R. Harding, James T. Anderson, Susan B. McRae & Todd E. Katzner
Hybridization is common in bird populations but can be challenging for management, especially if one of the two parent species is of greater conservation concern than the other. King rails (Rallus elegans) and clapper rails (R. crepitans) are two marsh bird species with similar morphologies, behaviors, and overlapping distributions. The two species are found along a salinity gradient with the king rail in freshwater marshes and the clapper in estuarine marshes. However, this separation is...

Data from: Regional variation in drivers of connectivity for two frog species (Rana pretiosa and R. luteiventris) from the U.S. Pacific Northwest

Jeane M. Robertson, Melanie A. Murphy, Christopher A. Pearl, Michael J. Adams, Monica I. Páez-Vacas, Susan M. Haig, David S. Pilliod, Andrew Storfer & W. Chris Funk
Comparative landscape genetics has uncovered high levels of variation in which landscape factors affect connectivity among species and regions. However, the relative importance of species traits vs. environmental variation for predicting landscape patterns of connectivity is unresolved. We provide evidence from a landscape genetics study of two sister taxa of frogs, the Oregon spotted frog (Rana pretiosa) and the Columbia spotted frog (R. luteiventris) in Oregon and Idaho, USA. Rana pretiosa is relatively more dependent...

Data from: Lactation and resource limitation affect stress responses, thyroid hormones, immune function and antioxidant capacity of sea otters (Enhydra lutris)

Sarah M. Chinn, Daniel H. Monson, M. Tim Tinker, Michelle M. Staedler & Daniel E. Crocker
1. Lactation is the most energetically demanding stage of reproduction in female mammals. Increased energetic allocation toward current reproduction may result in fitness costs, though the mechanisms underlying these trade-offs are not well understood. Trade-offs during lactation may include reduced energetic allocation to cellular maintenance, immune response and survival, and may be influenced by resource limitation. 2. As the smallest marine mammal, sea otters (Enhydra lutris) have the highest mass-specific metabolic rate necessitating substantial energetic...

Data from: A likelihood-based approach for assessment of extra-pair paternity and conspecific brood parasitism in natural populations

Patrick R. Lemons, Tristan C. Marshall, Sarah E. McCloskey, Suresh A. Sethi, Joel A. Schmutz & Jim S. Sedinger
Genotypes are frequently used to assess alternative reproductive strategies such as extra-pair paternity and conspecific brood parasitism in wild populations. However, such analyses are vulnerable to genotyping error or molecular artefacts that can bias results. For example, when using multilocus microsatellite data, a mismatch at a single locus, suggesting the offspring was not directly related to its putative parents, can occur quite commonly even when the offspring is truly related. Some recent studies have advocated...

Data from: Functional group, biomass, and climate change effects on ecological drought in semiarid grasslands

Scott D. Wilson, Daniel R. Schlaepfer, John B. Bradford, William K. Lauenroth, Michael C. Duniway, Sonia A. Hall, Khishigbayar Jamiyansharav, G. Jia, Ariuntsetseg Lkhagva, Seth M. Munson, David A. Pyke & Britta Tietjen
Water relations in plant communities are influenced both by contrasting functional groups (grasses, shrubs) and by climate change via complex effects on interception, uptake and transpiration. We modelled the effects of functional group replacement and biomass increase, both of which can be outcomes of invasion and vegetation management, and climate change on ecological drought (soil water potential below which photosynthesis stops) in 340 semiarid grassland sites over 30-year periods. Relative to control vegetation (climate and...

Data from: Demographic superiority with increased logging in tropical understorey insectivorous birds

Umesh Srinivasan, James E. Hines & Suhel Quader
1. Selective logging is pervasive in the tropics and is among the most urgent threats to tropical biodiversity. The vast areas of logged tropical forest are often vulnerable to relogging, clear-felling, burning or conversion to plantations, despite evidence that logged forests retain a large proportion of tropical forest species at high abundances compared with alternate land uses. However, the demographic processes (e.g. survival, fecundity) that drive community or species properties (e.g. occurrence, density) in response...

Data from: Variation in selective regimes drives intraspecific variation in life-history traits and migratory behaviour along an elevational gradient

Carl Lundblad & Courtney Conway
Comparative studies, across and within taxa, have made important contributions to our understanding of the evolutionary processes that promote phenotypic diversity. Trait variation along geographic gradients provides a convenient heuristic for understanding what drives and maintains diversity. Intraspecific trait variation along latitudinal gradients is well-known, but elevational variation in the same traits is rarely documented. Trait variation along continuous elevational gradients, however, provides compelling evidence that individuals within a breeding population may experience different selective...

Predictive multi-scale occupancy models at range-wide extents: effects of habitat and human disturbance on distributions of wetland birds

Bryan Stevens & Courtney Conway
Aim: Predicting distributions is fundamental to ecology, yet hindered by spatially-restricted sampling, scale-dependent relationships, and detection error associated with field surveys. Predictive species distribution models (SDMs) are nonetheless vital for conservation of many species. We developed a framework for building predictive SDMs with multi-scale data, and used it to develop range-wide breeding-season SDMs for 14 marsh bird species of concern. Location: USA. Methods: We built SDMs using data from range-wide surveys conducted over 14 years,...

Herbicide, fertilization, and planting density effects on intensively managed loblolly pine early stand development

Gabriel Ferreira, Benjamin Rau & Doug Aubrey
Production forestry in the southeast US has been partially transitioned to intensively managed short rotations (~10 years), in which multiple silvicultural interventions are performed during forest development. Understanding the responses to silvicultural practices and continued refinement of site-specific recommendations is critical to sustainably maximize forest production. We evaluated the effects of silvicultural practices (herbicide, fertilization, and planting density) on growth, stand homogeneity, and above- and belowground biomass accumulation and partitioning of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda)...

Mixed-stock analysis using Rapture genotyping to evaluate stock-specific exploitation of a walleye population despite weak genetic structure

Peter Euclide, Matthew Faust, Tom MacDougall, Jason Robinson, Chris Wilson, Kuan-Yu Chen, Elizabeth Marschall, Wesley Larson & Stuart Ludsin
Mixed-stock analyses using genetic markers have informed fisheries management in cases where strong genetic differentiation occurs among local spawning populations, yet many fisheries are supported by multiple spawning stocks that are weakly differentiated. Freshwater fisheries exemplify this problem, with many harvested populations supported by multiple stocks of young evolutionary age and that are isolated across small spatial scales. As a result, attempts to conduct genetic mixed-stock analyses of inland fisheries have often been unsuccessful. Advances...

Data from: Allometric scaling of eDNA production in stream-dwelling brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) inferred from population size structure

Matthew Yates, Taylor Wilcox, Kevin McKelvey, Michael Young, Michael Schwartz & Alison Derry
Environmental DNA (eDNA) concentration exhibits a positive correlation with organism abundance in nature, but modelling this relationship could be substantially improved by incorporating the biology of eDNA production. A recent model (Yates et al. 2020) extended models of physiological allometric scaling to eDNA production, hypothesizing that brook trout eDNA production scales non-linearly with mass as a power-function with scaling coefficients < 1 in lakes. To validate this hypothesis, we re-analysed data from Wilcox et al....

Artificial nightlight alters the predator-prey dynamics of an apex carnivore

Mark Ditmer, David Stoner, Clinton D. Francis, Jesse Barber, James Forester, David Choate, Kirsten Ironside, Kathleen Longshore, Kent Hersey, Randy Larsen, Brock McMillan, Daniel Olson, Alyson Andreasen, Jon Beckmann, Brandon Holton, Terry Messmer & Neil Carter
Artificial nightlight is increasingly recognized as an important environmental disturbance that influences the habitats and fitness of numerous species. However, its effects on wide-ranging vertebrates and their interactions remain unclear. Light pollution has the potential to amplify land-use change, and as such, answering the question of how this sensory stimulant affects behavior and habitat use of species valued for their ecological roles and economic impacts is critical for conservation and land-use planning. Here, we combined...

Data from: Diet of a rare herbivore based on DNA metabarcoding of feces: selection, seasonality, and survival

Amanda Goldberg, Courtney Conway, David Tank, Kimberly Andrews, Digpal Gour & Lisette Waits
In herbivores, survival and reproduction are influenced by quality and quantity of forage and, hence, diet and foraging behavior are the foundation of an herbivore’s life history strategy. Given the importance of diet to most herbivores, it is imperative that we know the species of plants they prefer, especially for herbivorous species that are at risk for extinction. However, it is often difficult to identify the diet of small herbivores because: 1) they are difficult...

Data from: Lousy grouse: comparing evolutionary patterns in Alaska galliform lice to understand host evolution and host-parasite interactions

Andrew Sweet, Robert Wilson, Sarah Sonsthagen & Kevin Johnson
Understanding both sides of host-parasite relationships can provide more complete insights into host and parasite biology in natural systems. For example, phylogenetic and population genetic comparisons between a group of hosts and their closely associated parasites can reveal patterns of host dispersal, interspecies interactions, and population structure that might not be evident from host data alone. These comparisons are also useful for understanding factors that drive host-parasite coevolutionary patterns (e.g., codivergence or host switching) over...

Data from: Ringed seal (Pusa hispida) seasonal movements, diving, and haul-out behavior in the Beaufort, Chukchi, and Bering seas (2011–2017)

Andrew Von Duyke, David Douglas, Jason Herreman & Justin Crawford
Continued Arctic warming and sea-ice loss will have important implications for the conservation of ringed seals, a highly ice-dependent species. A better understanding of their spatial ecology will help characterize emerging ecological trends and inform management decisions. We deployed satellite transmitters on ringed seals in the summers of 2011, 2014, and 2016 near Utqiaġvik (formerly Barrow), Alaska to monitor their movements, diving, and haul-out behavior. We present analyses of tracking and dive data provided by...

Data from: Latitudinal patterns of alien plant invasions

Qinfeng Guo, Brian Cade, Wayne Dawson, Franz Essl, Holger Kreft, Jan Jan Pergl, Mark Van Kleunen, Patrick Weigelt, Marten Winter & Petr Pysek
Latitudinal patterns of biodiversity have long been a central topic in ecology and evolutionary biology. However, while most previous studies have focused on native species, little effort has been devoted to latitudinal patterns of plant invasions (with a few exceptions based on data from sparse locations). Using the most up-to-date worldwide native and alien plant distribution data from 801 regions (including islands), we compared invasion levels (i.e. alien richness/total richness) in the Northern and Southern...

Spatial proximity moderates genotype uncertainty in genetic tagging studies

Ben Augustine, J. Andrew Royle, Daniel W. Linden & Angela K. Fuller
Accelerating declines of an increasing number of animal populations worldwide necessitate methods to reliably and efficiently estimate demographic parameters such as population density and trajectory. Standard methods for estimating demographic parameters from noninvasive genetic samples are inefficient because lower quality samples cannot be used, and they do not allow for errors in individual identification. We introduce the Genotype Spatial Partial Identity Model (SPIM), which integrates a genetic classification model with a spatial population model to...

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