298 Works

Data from: Novel, continuous monitoring of fine-scale movement using fixed-position radiotelemetry arrays and random forest location fingerprinting

Andrew B. Harbicht, Theodore Castro-Santos, William R. Ardren, Dimitry Gorsky & Dylan J. Fraser
1. Radio-tag signals from fixed-position antennas are most often used to indicate presence/absence of individuals, or to estimate individual activity levels from signal strength variation within an antenna’s detection zone. The potential of such systems to provide more precise information on tag location and movement has not been explored in great detail in an ecological setting. 2. By reversing the roles that transmitters and receivers play in localization methods common to the telecommunications industry, we...

Data from: Restricted gene flow between resident Oncorhynchus mykiss and an admixed population of anadromous steelhead

Andrew P. Matala, Brady Allen, Shawn R. Narum & Elaine Harvey
The species Oncorhynchus mykiss is characterized by a complex life history that presents a significant challenge for population monitoring and conservation management. Many factors contribute to genetic variation in O. mykiss populations, including sympatry among migratory phenotypes, habitat heterogeneity, hatchery introgression, and immigration (stray) rates. The relative influences of these and other factors are contingent on characteristics of the local environment. The Rock Creek subbasin in the middle Columbia River has no history of hatchery...

Data from: Life histories and conservation of long-lived reptiles, an illustration with the American Crocodile (Crocodylus acutus)

Venetia Briggs-Gonzalez, Christophe Bonenfant, Mathieu Basille, Michael Cherkiss, Jeff Beauchamp & Frank Mazzotti
1. Successful species conservation is dependent on adequate estimates of population dynamics, but age-specific demographics are generally lacking for long-lived iteroparous species. Accurate demographic information allows estimation of population growth rate, as well as projection of future population sizes and quantitative analyses of fitness trade-offs involved in evolution of life-history strategies. 2. Here, a long-term capture-recapture study was conducted from 1978-2014 on the American crocodile (Crocodylus acutus) in southern Florida. Over the study period, 7,427...

Data from: Stress hormones predict a host superspreader phenotype in the West Nile virus system

Stephanie S. Gervasi, Sarah C. Burgan, Erik Hofmeister, Thomas R. Unnasch & Lynn B. Martin
Glucocorticoid stress hormones, such as corticosterone (CORT), have profound effects on the behaviour and physiology of organisms, and thus have the potential to alter host competence and the contributions of individuals to population- and community-level pathogen dynamics. For example, CORT could alter the rate of contacts among hosts, pathogens and vectors through its widespread effects on host metabolism and activity levels. CORT could also affect the intensity and duration of pathogen shedding and risk of...

Data from: Novel application of explicit dynamics occupancy models to ongoing aquatic invasions

Adam J. Sepulveda
1. Identification of suitable habitat where invasive species can establish is an important step towards controlling their spread. Accurate identification is difficult for new or slow invaders because unoccupied habitats may be suitable given enough time for dispersal and occupied habitats may prove to be unsuitable for establishment. 2. To identify suitable habitat of a recent invader, I used an explicit dynamics occupancy modeling framework to evaluate habitat covariates related to successful and failed establishments...

Data from: Altitudinal migration and the future of an iconic Hawaiian honeycreeper in response to climate change and management

Alban Guillaumet, Wendy A. Kuntz, Michael D. Samuel & Eben H. Paxton
Altitudinal movement by tropical birds to track seasonally variable resources can move them from protected areas to areas of increased vulnerability. In Hawaiʻi, historical reports suggest that many Hawaiian honeycreepers such as the ‘I'iwi (Drepanis coccinea) once undertook seasonal migrations, but the existence of such movements today is unclear. Because Hawaiian honeycreepers are highly susceptible to avian malaria, currently minimal in high-elevation forests, understanding the degree to which honeycreepers visit lower elevation forests may be...

Data from: New insights into the phylogenetics and population structure of the prairie falcon (Falco mexicanus)

Jacqueline M. Doyle, Douglas A. Bell, Peter H. Bloom, Gavin Emmons, Amy Fesnock, Todd E. Katzner, Larry LaPré, Kolbe Leonard, Phillip SanMiguel, Rick Westerman & J. Andrew DeWoody
Background: Management requires a robust understanding of between- and within-species genetic variability, however such data are still lacking in many species. For example, although multiple population genetics studies of the peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus) have been conducted, no similar studies have been done of the closely-related prairie falcon (F. mexicanus) and it is unclear how much genetic variation and population structure exists across the species’ range. Furthermore, the phylogenetic relationship of F. mexicanus relative to...

Data from: State-space modelling of the flight behaviour of a soaring bird provides new insights to migratory strategies

Enrico Pirotta, Todd Katzner, Tricia A. Miller, Adam E. Duerr, Melissa A. Braham & Leslie New
1. Characterizing the spatiotemporal variation of animal behaviour can elucidate the way individuals interact with their environment and allocate energy. Increasing sophistication of tracking technologies paired with novel analytical approaches allows the characterisation of movement dynamics even when an individual is not directly observable. 2. In this study, high-resolution movement data collected via global positioning system (GPS) tracking in three dimensions were paired with topographical information and used in a Bayesian state-space model to describe...

Data from: Vive la résistance: genome-wide selection against introduced alleles in invasive hybrid zones

Ryan P. Kovach, Brian K. Hand, Paul A. Hohenlohe, Ted F. Cosart, Matthew C. Boyer, Helen H. Neville, Clint C. Muhlfeld, Stephen J. Amish, Kellie Carim, Shawn R. Narum, Winsor H. Lowe, Fred W. Allendorf & Gordon Luikart
Evolutionary and ecological consequences of hybridization between native and invasive species are notoriously complicated because patterns of selection acting on non-native alleles can vary throughout the genome and across environments. Rapid advances in genomics now make it feasible to assess locus-specific and genome-wide patterns of natural selection acting on invasive introgression within and among natural populations occupying diverse environments. We quantified genome-wide patterns of admixture across multiple independent hybrid zones of native westslope cutthroat trout...

Data from: Carotenoid-based skin ornaments reflect foraging propensity in a seabird, Sula leucogaster

Nathan P. Michael, Roxana Torres, Andreanna J. Welch, Josh Adams, Mario Erandi Bonillas-Monge, Jonathan Felis, Laura Lopez-Marquez, Alejandro Martínez-Flores & Anne E. Wiley
Carotenoid-based ornaments are common signaling features in animals. It has long been proposed that such ornaments communicate information about foraging abilities to potential mates. However, evidence linking foraging with ornamentation is largely missing from unmanipulated, free-ranging populations. To investigate this relationship, we studied the brown booby (Sula leucogaster brewsteri), a seabird with a carotenoid-based gular skin ornament. 13C values from both feathers and blood plasma were negatively correlated with male gular color, indicating birds that...

Data from: The strength of migratory connectivity for birds en route to breeding through the Gulf of Mexico

Emily B. Cohen, Clark R. Rushing, Frank R. Moore, Michael T. Hallworth, Jeffrey A. Hostetler, Mariamar Gutierrez Ramirez & Peter P. Marra
The strength of migratory connectivity is a measure of the cohesion of populations among phases of the annual cycle, including breeding, migration, and wintering. Many Nearctic-Neotropical species have strong migratory connectivity between breeding and wintering phases of the annual cycle. It is less clear if this strength persists during migration when multiple endogenous and exogenous factors may decrease the cohesion of populations among routes or through time along the same routes. We sampled three bird...

Data from: Marine foraging ecology influences mercury bioaccumulation in deep-diving northern elephant seals

Sarah H. Peterson, Joshua T. Ackerman & Daniel P. Costa
Mercury contamination of oceans is prevalent worldwide and methylmercury concentrations in the mesopelagic zone (200–1000 m) are increasing more rapidly than in surface waters. Yet mercury bioaccumulation in mesopelagic predators has been understudied. Northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) biannually travel thousands of kilometres to forage within coastal and open-ocean regions of the northeast Pacific Ocean. We coupled satellite telemetry, diving behaviour and stable isotopes (carbon and nitrogen) from 77 adult females, and showed that variability...

Data from: Estimating the phenology of elk brucellosis transmission with hierarchical models of cause-specific and baseline hazards

Paul C. Cross, Eric J. Maichak, Jared D. Rogerson, Kathryn M. Irvine, Jennifer D. Jones, Dennis M. Heisey, William H. Edwards & Brandon M. Scurlock
Understanding the seasonal timing of disease transmission can lead to more effective control strategies, but the seasonality of transmission is often unknown for pathogens transmitted directly. We inserted vaginal implant transmitters (VITs) in 575 elk (Cervus elaphus canadensis) from 2006 to 2014 to assess when reproductive failures (i.e., abortions or still births) occur, which is the primary transmission route of Brucella abortus, the causative agent of brucellosis in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. Using a survival...

Data from: Z chromosome divergence, polymorphism, and relative effective population size in a genus of lekking birds

Sara J. Oyler-McCance, Robert S. Cornman, Kenneth L. Jones & Jennifer A. Fike
Sex chromosomes contribute disproportionately to species boundaries as they diverge faster than autosomes and often have reduced diversity. Their hemizygous nature contributes to faster divergence and reduced diversity, as do some types of selection. In birds, other factors (mating system and bottlenecks) can further decrease the effective population size of Z-linked loci and accelerate divergence (Fast-Z). We assessed Z-linked divergence and effective population sizes for two polygynous sage-grouse species and compared them to estimates from...

Data from: Intercontinental genetic structure and gene flow in Dunlin (Calidris alpina), a potential vector of avian influenza

Mark P. Miller, Susan M. Haig, Thomas D. Mullins, Luzhang Ruan, Bruce Casler, Alexei Dondua, H. River Gates, J. Matthew Johnson, Steve Kendall, Pavel S. Tomkovich, Diane Tracy, Olga P. Valchuk & Richard B. Lanctot
Waterfowl (Anseriformes) and shorebirds (Charadriiformes) are the most common wild vectors of influenza A viruses. Due to their migratory behavior, some may transmit disease over long distances. Migratory connectivity studies can link breeding and nonbreeding grounds while illustrating potential interactions among populations that may spread diseases. We investigated Dunlin (Calidris alpina), a shorebird with a subspecies (C. a. arcticola) that migrates from nonbreeding areas endemic to avian influenza in eastern Asia to breeding grounds in...

Data from: Live, dead, and fossil mollusks in Florida freshwater springs and spring-fed rivers: taphonomic pathways and the formation of multi-sourced, time-averaged death assemblages

Kristopher Kusnerik, Roger Portell, Mark Brenner, Quan Hua, Alshina Kannai, Mariah Monroe, Michał Kowalewski, Guy Means & Ryan Means
Taphonomic processes are informative about the magnitude and timing of paleoecological changes but remain poorly understood with respect to freshwater invertebrates in spring-fed rivers and streams. We compared taphonomic alteration among freshwater gastropods in live, dead (surficial shell accumulations), and fossil (late Pleistocene-early Holocene in situ sediments) assemblages from two Florida spring-fed systems, the Wakulla and Silver/Ocklawaha Rivers. We assessed taphonomy of two gastropod species: the native Elimia floridensis (n=2504) and introduced Melanoides tuberculata (n=168)....

Spatial sampling bias and model complexity in stream-based species distribution models: a case study of Paddlefish (Polyodon spathula) in the Arkansas River basin, U.S.A.

Andrew Taylor, Thomas Hafen, Colt Holley, Alin González & James Long
Leveraging existing presence records and geospatial datasets, species distribution modeling has been widely applied to informing species conservation and restoration efforts. Maxent is one of the most popular modeling algorithms, yet recent research has demonstrated Maxent models are vulnerable to prediction errors related to spatial sampling bias and model complexity. Despite elevated rates of biodiversity imperilment in stream systems, the application of Maxent models to stream networks has lagged, as has the availability of tools...

Data from: Experimental amelioration of harsh weather speeds growth and development in a tropical montane songbird

Adam Mitchell, Jordan Boersma, Anthonio Anthony, Kanehiro Kitayama & Thomas Martin
Organisms living at high elevations generally grow and develop slower than those at lower elevations. Slow montane ontogeny is thought to be an evolved adaptation to harsh environments that improve juvenile quality via physiological tradeoffs. However, slower montane ontogeny may also reflect proximate influences of harsh weather on parental care and offspring development. We experimentally heated and protected nests from rain to ameliorate harsh montane weather conditions for Mountain Blackeyes (Chlorocharis emiliae), a montane songbird...

Data from: Modelling misclassification in multi-species acoustic data when estimating occupancy and relative activity

Wilson J Wright, Kathryn M Irvine, Emily S Almberg & Andrea R Litt
1. Surveying wildlife communities provides data for informing conservation and management decisions that affect multiple species. Autonomous recording units (ARUs) can efficiently gather community data for a variety of taxa, but generally require software algorithms to classify each recorded call to a species. Species classification errors are possible during this process and result in both false negative and false positive detections. Available approaches for analysing ARU data do not model the species classification probabilities, meaning...

Assessing the Ecological Impacts of Biomass Harvesting along a Disturbance Severity Gradient

Valerie Kurth, Anthony D'Amato, John Bradford, Brian Palik & Christopher Looney
Disturbance is a central driver of forest development and ecosystem processes with variable effects within and across ecosystems. Despite the high levels of variation in disturbance severity often observed in forests following natural and anthropogenic disturbance, studies quantifying disturbance impacts often rely on categorical classifications, thus limiting opportunities to examine potential gradients in ecosystem response to a given disturbance or management regime. Given the potential increases in disturbance severity associated with global change, as well...

Panmixia in a sea ice-associated marine mammal: evaluating genetic structure of the Pacific walrus (Odobenus rosmarus divergens) at multiple spatial scales

William Beatty, Patrick Lemons, Suresh Sethi, Jason Everett, Cara Lewis, Robert Lynn, Geoffrey Cook, Joel Garlich-Miller & John Wenburg
The dataset includes 5303 Pacific walrus genotypes for 114 single nucleotide polymorphisms used in the manuscript "Panmixia in a sea ice-associated marine mammal: evaluating genetic structure of the Pacific walrus (Odobenus rosmarus divergens) at multiple spatial scales". Biopsy samples were collected from Pacific walruses hauled-out on sea ice in the Bering and Chukchi seas from 2013-2017 in June of each year. Genotypes are presented in two columns per locus and missing data is coded as...

Intraspecific variation in surface water uptake in a perennial desert shrub

Andrii Zaiats, Brynne E. Lazarus, Matthew J. Germino, Marcelo D. Serpe, Bryce A. Richardson, Sven Buerki & T. Trevor Caughlin
Despite broad recognition that water is a major limiting factor in arid ecosystems, we lack an empirical understanding of how this resource is shared and distributed among neighboring plants. Intraspecific variability can further contribute to this variation via divergent life-history traits, including root architecture. We investigated these questions in the shrub Artemisia tridentata and hypothesized that the ability to access and utilize surface water varies among subspecies and cytotypes. We used an isotope tracer to...

Data from: Changes in behavior are unable to disrupt a trophic cascade involving a specialist herbivore and its food plant

Madeleine G. Lohman, Thomas V. Riecke, Cheyenne R. Acevedo, Brian T. Person, Joel A. Schmutz, Brian D. Uher-Koch & James S. Sedinger
Changes in ecological conditions can induce changes in behavior and demography of wild organisms, which in turn may influence population dynamics. Black brant (Branta bernicla nigricans) nesting in colonies on the Yukon–Kuskokwim Delta (YKD) in western Alaska have declined substantially (~50%) since the turn of the century. Black brant are herbivores that rely heavily on Carex subspathacea (Hoppner's sedge) during growth and development. The availability of C. subspathacea affects gosling growth rates, which subsequently affect...

Data from: Quantitative acoustic differentiation of cryptic species illustrated with King and Clapper rails

Lydia L. Stiffler, Katie M. Schroeder, James T. Anderson, Susan B. McRae & Todd E. Katzner
Reliable species identification is vital for survey and monitoring programs. Recently, the development of digital technology for recording and analyzing vocalizations has assisted in acoustic surveying for cryptic, rare, or elusive species. However, the quantitative tools that exist for species differentiation are still being refined. Using vocalizations recorded in the course of ecological studies of a King Rail (Rallus elegans) and a Clapper Rail (R. crepitans) population, we assessed the accuracy and effectiveness of three...

Data from: The contribution of road-based citizen science efforts to the conservation of pond-breeding amphibians

Sean C. Sterrett, Rachel A. Katz, William R. Fields, Evan H.C. Grant & Evan H. Campbell Grant
1. Road-side amphibian citizen science programs bring together volunteers focused on collecting scientific data while working to mitigate population declines by directly reducing road mortality of pond-breeding amphibians. Despite the international popularity of these movement-based road-side conservation efforts (i.e., ‘big nights’, ‘bucket brigades’ and ‘toad patrols’), direct benefits to conservation have rarely been quantified or evaluated. 2. As a case study, we used a population simulation approach to evaluate how volunteer intensity, frequency and distribution...

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