298 Works

Data from: Top-down effects of repatriating bald eagles hinder jointly recovering competitors

Jennyffer Cruz, Steven K. Windels, Wayne E. Thogmartin, Shawn M. Crimmins, Leland H. Grim, James H. Larson & Benjamin Zuckerberg
1. The recovery of piscivorous birds around the world is touted as one of the great conservation successes of the 21st century, but for some species, this success was short-lived. Bald eagles, ospreys, and great blue herons began repatriating Voyageurs National Park, USA, in the mid-20th century. However, after 1990, only eagles continued their recovery, while osprey and heron recovery failed for unknown reasons. 2. We aimed to evaluate whether top-down effects of bald eagles,...

Data from: Daily nest predation rates decrease with body size in passerine birds

Mar Unzeta, Thomas E. Martin & Daniel Sol
Body size evolution is generally framed by the benefits of being large, while costs are largely overlooked. An important putative cost of being large is the need to extend development periods, which should increase exposure to predation and potentially select against larger size. In birds, this selection pressure can be important because predation is the main source of offspring mortality and predators should more readily detect the larger nests associated with larger body sizes. Here,...

Bull trout concealment experimental data

James Peterson & Russell Thurow
Bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) are challenging to detect as a result of the species cryptic behavior and coloration, relatively low densities in complex habitats, and affinity for cold, high clarity, low conductivity waters. Bull trout are also closely associated with the stream bed, frequently conceal in substrate, and this concealment behavior is poorly understood. Consequently, population assessments are problematic and biologists and managers often lack quantitative information to accurately describe bull trout distributions, estimate abundance,...

Diurnal timing of nonmigratory movement by birds: the importance of foraging spatial scales

Julie Mallon, Marlee Tucker, Annalea Beard, , Keith Bildstein, Katrin Böhning-Gaese, John Brzorad, Evan Buechley, Javier Bustamante, Carlos Carrapato, José Castillo-Guerrero, Elizabeth Clingham, Mark Desholm, Christopher DeSorbo, Robert Domenech, Hayley Douglas, Olivier Duriez, Peter Enggist, Nina Farwig, Wolfgang Fiedler, Anna Gagliardo, Clara García-Ripollés, Juan Antonio Gil, Morgan Gilmour, Roi Harel … & Bill Fagan
Timing of activity can reveal an organism’s efforts to optimize foraging either by minimizing energy loss through passive movement or by maximizing energetic gain through foraging. Here, we assess whether signals of either of these strategies are detectable in the timing of activity of daily, local movements by birds. We compare the similarities of timing of movement activity among species using six temporal variables: start of activity relative to sunrise, end of activity relative to...

Data from: Group density, disease, and season shape territory size and overlap of social carnivores

Ellen Brandell, Nicholas Fountain-Jones, Marie Gilbertson, Paul Cross, Peter Hudson, Douglas Smith, Daniel Stahler, Craig Packer & Meggan Craft
1. The spatial organization of a population can influence the spread of information, behaviour, and pathogens. Territory size and territory overlap, components of spatial organization, provide key information as these metrics may be indicators of habitat quality, resource dispersion, contact rates, and environmental risk (e.g., indirectly transmitted pathogens). Furthermore, sociality and behaviour can also shape space use, and subsequently, how space use and habitat quality together impact demography. 2. Our study aims to identify factors...

Least-cost habitat linkages for American black bear, Rafinesque's big-eared bat, and timber rattlesnake.

Jennifer Costanza, James Watling, Ron Sutherland, Curtis Belyea, Bistra Dilkina, Heather Cayton, David Bucklin, Stephanie Romañach & Nicholas Haddad
This data set contains 3 shapefiles and associated files that map linkages, which are least-cost paths between adjacent habitat cores for three wildlife species in the Southeastern U.S. The species are: the American black bear (Ursus americanus), Rafinesque's big-eared bat (Corynorhinus rafinesquii), and Timber rattlesnake (Crotalus horridus). We mapped habitat cores based on c. 2006 land cover, then used LinkageMapper software to identify least-cost paths between them, and buffered the least-cost paths by 2.5 km...

Data from: Elk migration influences the risk of disease spillover in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem

Nathaniel Rayl, Jerod Merkle, Kelly Proffitt, Emily Almberg, Jennifer Jones, Justin Gude & Paul Cross
Wildlife migrations provide important ecosystem services, but they are declining. Within the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) some elk (Cervus canadensis) herds are losing migratory tendencies, which may increase spatiotemporal overlap between elk and livestock (domestic bison [Bison bison] and cattle [Bos taurus]), potentially exacerbating pathogen transmission risk. We combined disease, movement, demographic, and environmental data from eight elk herds in the GYE to examine the differential risk of brucellosis transmission (through aborted fetuses) from migrant...

Testing which axes of species differentiation underlie covariance of phylogeographic similarity among montane sedge species

Richard Hodel, Rob Massatti, Sasha Bishop & L. Lacey Knowles
Co-distributed species may exhibit similar phylogeographic patterns due to shared environmental factors or discordant patterns attributed to the influence of species-specific traits. Although either concordant or discordant patterns could occur due to chance, stark differences in key traits (e.g., dispersal ability) may readily explain differences between species. Multiple species’ attributes may affect genetic patterns, and it is difficult to isolate the contribution of each. Here we compare the relative importance of two attributes, range size...

Finescale dace occurrence and abiotic and biotic covariates for the Belle Fourche River and Niobrara River basins

Evan Booher & Annika Walters
Aim The factors that set range limits for animal populations can inform management plans aimed at maintaining regional biodiversity. We examine abiotic and biotic drivers of the distribution of finescale dace (Chrosomus neogaeus) in two Great Plains basins to identify limiting factors for a threatened freshwater fish population at the edge of their range. Location Great Plains, Nebraska, South Dakota, and Wyoming, USA Methods We investigated abiotic and biotic factors influencing the contemporary distribution of...

Data from: Forests do not limit bumble bee foraging movements in a montane meadow complex

John Mola, Michael Miller, Sean O'Rourke & Neal Williams
Understanding the roles of habitat fragmentation and resource availability in shaping animal movement are integral for promoting species persistence and conservation. For insects like bumble bees, their movement patterns affect the survival and reproductive potential of their colonies as well as the pollen flow of plant species. However, our understanding of their mobility or the impact of putative barriers in natural environments is limited due to the technical difficulties of studying wild populations. We used...

Climate, snow, and soil moisture data set for the Tuolumne and Merced River watersheds, California, USA

James Roche, Robert Rice, Xiande Meng, Daniel Cayan, Mike Dettinger, Douglas Alden, Sarina Patel, Megan Mason, Martha Conklin & Roger Bales
UCM sites. Snow depth, soil moisture and soil temperature are measured near the Merced Grove, Gin Flat, Smoky Jack Creek, and Olmsted Quarry with a distributed array of 6-7 sensor nodes at each location. Snow depth is measured in the open, at the drip edge and under canopies, as well as 3-4 other sites representative of an area of 1-2 hectares. Soil moisture and temperature are measured at 10, 30, 60 and 90 cm depths...

Data from: Trait-based variation in host contribution to pathogen transmission across species and resource supplies

Miranda Welsh, James Cronin & Charles Mitchell
Two key knowledge gaps currently limit the development of more predictive and general models of pathogen transmission: (1) the physiological basis of heterogeneity in host contribution to pathogen transmission (reservoir potential) remains poorly understood, and (2) a general means of integrating the ecological dynamics of host communities has yet to emerge. If the traits responsible for differences in reservoir potential also modulate host community dynamics, these traits could be used to predict pathogen transmission as...

Substitution rate variation in a robust procellariiform seabird phylogeny is not solely explained by body mass, flight efficiency, population size or life history traits

Andrea Estandia, Terry Chesser, Helen James, Max Levy, Joan Ferrer-Obiol, Vincent Bretagnolle, Jacob González-Solís & Andreanna Welch
Molecular substitution rates vary among branches, which can lead to inaccurate reconstructions of evolutionary relationships and obscure the true phylogeny of affected clades. Body mass is often assumed to be a major driver of substitution rate, though other factors such as population size, life history traits, and flight demands are also thought to have an influence. Birds of the order Procellariiformes—which encompasses petrels, storm-petrels and albatrosses—show a striking 900-fold difference in body mass between the...

Risky movements? Natal dispersal does not decrease survival of a large herbivore

Eric Long, Duane Diefenbach, Clayton Lutz, Bret Wallingford & Christopher Rosenberry
Natal dispersal is assumed to be a particularly risky movement behavior as individuals transfer, often long distances, from birth site to site of potential first reproduction. Though, because this behavior persists in populations, it is assumed that dispersal increases the fitness of individuals despite the potential for increased risk of mortality. The extent of dispersal risk, however, has rarely been tested, especially for large mammals. Therefore, we aimed to test the relationship between dispersal and...

Data from: A geology and geodesy based model of dynamic earthquake rupture on the Rodgers Creek-Hayward-Calaveras fault system, California

Michael Barall, Ruth Harris, David Lockner, Diane Moore, Ponce David, Russell Graymer, Gareth Funning, Carolyn Morrow, Christodoulos Kyriakopoulos & Donna Eberhart-Phillips
The Hayward fault in California's San Francisco Bay area produces large earthquakes, with the last occurring in 1868. We examine how physics-based dynamic rupture modeling can be used to numerically simulate large earthquakes on not only the Hayward fault, but also its connected companions to the north and south, the Rodgers Creek and Calaveras faults. Equipped with a wealth of images of this fault system, including those of its 3D geology and 3D geometry, in...

Data from: The utility of environmental DNA from sediment and water samples for recovery of observed plant and animal species from four Mojave Desert springs

MAURA PALACIOS MEJIA, Emily Curd, Kiumars Edalati, Mark Renshaw, Roy Dunn, Daniel Potter, Naomi Fraga, Jenna Moore, Justin Saiz, Robert Wayne & Sophie Parker
Background: Mojave Desert springs are fragile ecosystems, hosting endemic plants and animals, which are threatened by the increasing human demand for water and climate change. To develop management practices that will protect the groundwater-dependent ecosystems at Mojave Desert springs, real-time, low cost biodiversity monitoring and assessments are required. Environmental DNA (eDNA) metabarcoding uses DNA shed from organisms (e.g. skin cells, feces, pollen, etc.) that is present in water, air, soil, or sediment samples to assess...

Structure from motion of the Ichilo riverbanks in Puerto Villarroel, Bolivia

Kattia Rubi Arnez Ferrel, Jonathan Mark Nelson & Yasuyuki Shimizu
Structure from motion photogrametry was used to survey the banks of the Ichilo river, in the city of Puerto Villarroel in Bolivia. The surveyed areas was of aproximately 300 hectares of terrain. A DJI Phantom 4 Pro and a DJI Mavic Pro was used for taking pictures. A total of 44 GCPs were marked along the riverbanks of the Ichilo and their coordinates were measured using a Real-time Kinematic (RTK) GPS unit. After the GCPs...

Data to replicate: Forecasting community reassembly using climate-linked spatio-temporal ecosystem models

James Thorson, Mayumi Arimitsu, Lewis Barnett, Wei Cheng, Lisa Eisner, Alan Haynie, Albert Hermann, Kirstin Holsman, David Kimmel, Mike Lomas, Jon Richar & Elizabeth Siddon
Ecosystems are increasingly impacted by human activities, altering linkages among physical and biological components. Spatial community reassembly occurs when these human impacts modify the spatial overlap between system components, and there is need for practical tools to forecast spatial community reassembly at landscape scales using monitoring data. To illustrate a new approach, we extend a generalization of empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis, which involves a spatio-temporal ecosystem model that approximates coupled physical, biological, and human...

Behavioral responses across a mosaic of ecosystem states restructure a sea otter-urchin trophic cascade

Joshua Smith, Joseph Tomoleoni, Michelle Staedler, Sophia Lyon, Jessica Fujii & Tim M. Tinker
Consumer and predator foraging behavior can impart profound trait-mediated constraints on community regulation that scale-up to influence the structure and stability of ecosystems. Here we demonstrate how the behavioral response of an apex predator to changes in prey behavior and condition can dramatically alter the role and relative contribution of top-down forcing, depending on the spatial organization of ecosystem states. In this study, a rapid and dramatic decline in the abundance of a meso-predator (Pycnopodia...

Changes in species composition mediate direct effects of climate change on future fire regimes of boreal forests in northeastern China

Chao Huang, Hong He, Yu Liang, Todd Hawbaker, Paul Henne, Wenru Xu, Peng Gong & Zhi Zhu
1. Direct effects of climate change (i.e., temperature rise, changes in seasonal precipitation, wind patterns, and atmospheric stability) affect fire regimes of boreal forests by altering fire behavior, fire seasons, and fuel moisture. Climate change also alters species composition and fuel characteristics, which subsequently alter fire regimes. However, indirect effects of climate change are often simplified or neglected in the direct climate-fire relationship models and dynamic global vegetation models. This may result in high uncertainties...

Biodiversity effects on grape quality depend on variety and management intensity

Magdalena Steiner, James Benjamin Grace & Sven Bacher
Interactions between plants can be beneficial, detrimental or neutral. In agricultural systems competition between crop and spontaneous vegetation is a major concern. We evaluated the relative support for three non-exclusive ecological hypotheses about interactions between crop and spontaneous plants based on competition, complementarity or facilitation. The study was conducted in Swiss vineyards with different vegetation management intensities. Thirty-three vineyards planted with two different grape varieties were studied over 3 years to determine whether low-intensity vegetation...

Effect of stressors on the carrying capacity of spatially distributed metapopulations

Bo Zhang, Donald DeAngelis, Wei-Ming Ni, Yuanshi Wang, Lu Zhai, Alex Kula, Shuang Xu & David Van Dyken
Stressors such as antibiotics, herbicides and pollutants are becoming increasingly common in the environment. The effects of stressors on populations are typically studied in homogeneous, non-spatial settings. However, most populations in nature are spatially distributed over environmentally heterogeneous landscapes with spatially-restricted dispersal. Little is known about the effects of stressors in these more realistic settings. Here, we combine laboratory experiments with novel mathematical theory to rigorously investigate how a stressor’s physiological effect and spatial distribution...

Predicted distribution of a rare and understudied forest carnivore: Humboldt martens (Martes caurina humboldtensis)

Katie Moriarty, Joel Thompson, Matthew Delheimer, Brent Barry, Mark Linnell, Taal Levi, Keith Hamm, Desiree Early, Holly Gamblin, Micaela Szykman-Gunther, Jordan Ellison, Janet Prevey, Jennifer Hartman & Raymond Davis
Many mammalian species have experienced range contractions. Following a reduction in distribution that has resulted in apparently small and disjunct populations, the Humboldt marten (Martes caurina humboldtensis) was recently designated as federally Threatened and state Endangered. This subspecies of Pacific marten occurring in coastal Oregon and northern California, also known as coastal martens, appear unlike martens that occur in snow-associated regions in that vegetation associations appear to differ widely between Humboldt marten populations. We expected...

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