298 Works

Vegetation changes from private forestland management can increase species richness and abundance

Beth Ross
Conservation efforts on private lands are important for biodiversity conservation. On private lands in South Carolina, forestry management practices (prescribed burning, thinning, herbicide application) are used to improve upland pine habitat for wildlife and timber harvest and are incentivized through United States Department of Agriculture Farm Bill cost-share programs. Because many forest-dependent bird species have habitat requirements created primarily through forest management, data are needed on the effectiveness of these management activities. We studied privately-owned...

Data from: Hybridization alters growth and migratory life history expression of native trout

Jeffrey T. Strait, Lisa A. Eby, Ryan P. Kovach, Clint C. Muhlfeld, Matthew C. Boyer, Stephen J. Amish, Seth Smith, Winsor H. Lowe & Gordon Luikart
Human-mediated hybridization threatens many native species, but the effects of introgressive hybridization on life history expression are rarely quantified, especially in vertebrates. We quantified the effects of non-native rainbow trout admixture on important life history traits including growth and partial migration behavior in three populations of westslope cutthroat trout over five years. Rainbow trout admixture was associated with increased summer growth rates in all populations, and decreased spring growth rates in two populations with cooler...

Data from: Latitudinal patterns of alien plant invasions

Qinfeng Guo, Brian Cade, Wayne Dawson, Franz Essl, Holger Kreft, Jan Jan Pergl, Mark Van Kleunen, Patrick Weigelt, Marten Winter & Petr Pysek
Latitudinal patterns of biodiversity have long been a central topic in ecology and evolutionary biology. However, while most previous studies have focused on native species, little effort has been devoted to latitudinal patterns of plant invasions (with a few exceptions based on data from sparse locations). Using the most up-to-date worldwide native and alien plant distribution data from 801 regions (including islands), we compared invasion levels (i.e. alien richness/total richness) in the Northern and Southern...

Shrub influence on soil carbon and nitrogen in a semi-arid grassland is mediated by precipitation and largely insensitive to livestock grazing

Heather Throop, Seth Munson, Nicole Hornslein & Mitchel McClaran
Dryland (arid and semi-arid) ecosystems globally provide more than half of livestock production and store roughly one-third of soil organic carbon (SOC). Biogeochemical pools are changing due toshrub encroachment, livestock grazing, and climate change. We assessed how vegetation microsite, grazing, and precipitation interacted to affect SOC and total nitrogen (TN) at a site with long-term grazing manipulations and well-described patterns of shrub encroachment across elevation and mean annual precipitation (MAP) gradients. We analyzed SOC and...

Consequences of migratory coupling of predators and prey when mediated by human actions

Navinder Singh, Frauke Ecke, Todd Katzner, Sumanta Bagchi, Per Sandstöm & Birger Hörnfeldt
Aim: Animal migrations influence ecosystem structure, dynamics, and persistence of predator and prey populations. The theory of migratory coupling postulates that aggregations of migrant prey can induce large-scale synchronized movements in predators, and this coupling is consequential for the dynamics of ecological communities. The degree to which humans influence these interactions remains largely unknown. We tested whether the creation of large resource pulses by humans such as seasonal herding of reindeer Rangifer tarandus and hunting...

Integrating ecosystem metabolism and consumer allochthony reveals nonlinear drivers in lake organic matter processing

Meredith Holgerson, Rachel Hovel, Patrick Kelly, Lauren Bortolotti, Jennifer Brentrup, Amber Bellamy, Samantha Oliver & Alexander Reisinger
Lakes process both terrestrial and aquatic organic matter, and the relative contribution from each source is often measured via ecosystem metabolism and terrestrial resource use in the food web (i.e., consumer allochthony). Yet, ecosystem metabolism and consumer allochthony are rarely considered together, despite possible interactions and potential for them to respond to the same lake characteristics. In this study, we compiled global datasets of lake gross primary production (GPP), ecosystem respiration (ER), and zooplankton allochthony...

Data from: Ringed seal (Pusa hispida) seasonal movements, diving, and haul-out behavior in the Beaufort, Chukchi, and Bering seas (2011–2017)

Andrew Von Duyke, David Douglas, Jason Herreman & Justin Crawford
Continued Arctic warming and sea-ice loss will have important implications for the conservation of ringed seals, a highly ice-dependent species. A better understanding of their spatial ecology will help characterize emerging ecological trends and inform management decisions. We deployed satellite transmitters on ringed seals in the summers of 2011, 2014, and 2016 near Utqiaġvik (formerly Barrow), Alaska to monitor their movements, diving, and haul-out behavior. We present analyses of tracking and dive data provided by...

Data from: Genetic reconstruction of a bullfrog invasion to elucidate vectors of introduction and secondary spread

Pauline L. Kamath, Adam J. Sepulveda & Megan Layhee
Reconstructing historical colonization pathways of an invasive species is critical for uncovering factors that determine invasion success and for designing management strategies. The American bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus) is endemic to eastern North America, but now has a global distribution and is considered to be one of the worst invaders in the world. In Montana, several introduced populations have been reported, but little is known of their sources and vectors of introduction and secondary spread. We...

Mixed-stock analysis using Rapture genotyping to evaluate stock-specific exploitation of a walleye population despite weak genetic structure

Peter Euclide, Matthew Faust, Tom MacDougall, Jason Robinson, Chris Wilson, Kuan-Yu Chen, Elizabeth Marschall, Wesley Larson & Stuart Ludsin
Mixed-stock analyses using genetic markers have informed fisheries management in cases where strong genetic differentiation occurs among local spawning populations, yet many fisheries are supported by multiple spawning stocks that are weakly differentiated. Freshwater fisheries exemplify this problem, with many harvested populations supported by multiple stocks of young evolutionary age and that are isolated across small spatial scales. As a result, attempts to conduct genetic mixed-stock analyses of inland fisheries have often been unsuccessful. Advances...

Data from: Demographic superiority with increased logging in tropical understorey insectivorous birds

Umesh Srinivasan, James E. Hines & Suhel Quader
1. Selective logging is pervasive in the tropics and is among the most urgent threats to tropical biodiversity. The vast areas of logged tropical forest are often vulnerable to relogging, clear-felling, burning or conversion to plantations, despite evidence that logged forests retain a large proportion of tropical forest species at high abundances compared with alternate land uses. However, the demographic processes (e.g. survival, fecundity) that drive community or species properties (e.g. occurrence, density) in response...

Data from: Suburban watershed nitrogen retention: estimating the effectiveness of stormwater management structures

Benjamin J. Koch, Catherine M. Febria, Roger M. Cooke, Jacob D. Hosen, Matthew E. Baker, Abigail R. Colson, Solange Filoso, Katharine Hayhoe, J. V. Loperfido, Anne M. K. Stoner & Margaret A. Palmer
Excess nitrogen (N) is a primary driver of freshwater and coastal eutrophication globally, and urban stormwater is a rapidly growing source of N pollution. Stormwater best management practices (BMPs) are used widely to remove excess N from runoff in urban and suburban areas, and are expected to perform under a wide variety of environmental conditions. Yet the capacity of BMPs to retain excess N varies; and both the variation and the drivers thereof are largely...

Data from: Regional variation in drivers of connectivity for two frog species (Rana pretiosa and R. luteiventris) from the U.S. Pacific Northwest

Jeane M. Robertson, Melanie A. Murphy, Christopher A. Pearl, Michael J. Adams, Monica I. Páez-Vacas, Susan M. Haig, David S. Pilliod, Andrew Storfer & W. Chris Funk
Comparative landscape genetics has uncovered high levels of variation in which landscape factors affect connectivity among species and regions. However, the relative importance of species traits vs. environmental variation for predicting landscape patterns of connectivity is unresolved. We provide evidence from a landscape genetics study of two sister taxa of frogs, the Oregon spotted frog (Rana pretiosa) and the Columbia spotted frog (R. luteiventris) in Oregon and Idaho, USA. Rana pretiosa is relatively more dependent...

Data from: Eco-evolutionary rescue promotes host-pathogen coexistence

Graziella V. DiRenzo, Elise F. Zipkin, Evan H. Campbell Grant, J. Andrew Royle, Ana V. Longo, Kelly R. Zamudio & Karen R. Lips
Emerging infectious pathogens are responsible for some of the most severe host mass-mortality events in wild populations. Yet, effective pathogen control strategies are notoriously difficult to identify, in part because quantifying and forecasting pathogen spread and disease dynamics is challenging. Following an outbreak, hosts must cope with the presence of the pathogen, leading to host-pathogen coexistence or extirpation. Despite decades of research, little is known about host-pathogen coexistence post-outbreak when low host abundances and cryptic...

Data from: Evaluating consumptive and nonconsumptive predator effects on prey density using field times series data

, Scott D. Peacor, David B. Bunnell, Henry A. Vanderploeg, Steve A. Pothoven, Ashley K. Elgin, James R. Bence, Jing Jiao, Edward L. Ionides, D.B. Bunnell, J.A. Marino, E.L. Ionides, S.A. Pothoven, A.K. Elgin, H.A. Vanderploeg, S.D. Peacor & J.R. Bence
Determining the degree to which predation affects prey abundance in natural communities constitutes a key goal of ecological research. Predators can affect prey through both consumptive effects (CEs) and nonconsumptive effects (NCEs), although the contributions of each mechanism to the density of prey populations remain largely hypothetical in most systems. Common statistical methods applied to time series data cannot elucidate the mechanisms responsible for hypothesized predator effects on prey density (e.g., differentiate CEs from NCEs),...

Data from: State-and-transition simulation models: a framework for forecasting landscape change

Colin Daniel, Leonardo Frid, Benjamin Sleeter, Marie-Josée Fortin & Colin J. Daniel
A wide range of spatially explicit simulation models have been developed to forecast landscape dynamics, including models for projecting changes in both vegetation and land use. While these models have generally been developed as separate applications, each with a separate purpose and audience, they share many common features. We present a general framework, called a state-and-transition simulation model (STSM), which captures a number of these common features, accompanied by a software product, called ST-Sim, to...

Data from: Pairing field methods to improve inference in wildlife surveys while accommodating detection covariance

John Clare, Shawn T. McKinney, John E. DePue & Cynthia S. Loftin
It is common to use multiple field sampling methods when implementing wildlife surveys to compare method efficacy or cost-efficiency, integrate distinct pieces of information provided by separate methods, or evaluate method-specific biases and misclassification error. Existing models that combine information from multiple field methods or sampling devices permit rigorous comparison of method-specific detection parameters, enable estimation of additional parameters such as false-positive detection probability, and improve occurrence or abundance estimates, but with the assumption that...

Data from: Genetic analyses reveal cryptic introgression in secretive marsh bird populations

Stephanie S. Coster, Amy B. Welsh, Gary Costanzo, Sergio R. Harding, James T. Anderson, Susan B. McRae & Todd E. Katzner
Hybridization is common in bird populations but can be challenging for management, especially if one of the two parent species is of greater conservation concern than the other. King rails (Rallus elegans) and clapper rails (R. crepitans) are two marsh bird species with similar morphologies, behaviors, and overlapping distributions. The two species are found along a salinity gradient with the king rail in freshwater marshes and the clapper in estuarine marshes. However, this separation is...

Data from: Evolutionary dynamics of a rapidly receding southern range boundary in the threatened California Red-Legged Frog (Rana draytonii)

Jonathan Q. Richmond, Kelly R. Barr, Adam R. Backlin, Amy G. Vandergast & Robert N. Fisher
Populations forming the edge of a species range are often imperiled by isolation and low genetic diversity, with proximity to human population centers being a major determinant of edge stability in modern landscapes. Since the 1960s, the California red-legged frog (Rana draytonii) has undergone extensive declines in heavily urbanized southern California, where the range edge has rapidly contracted northward while shifting its cardinal orientation to an east-west trending axis. We studied the genetic structure and...

Data from: Migration strategy affects avian influenza dynamics in mallards (Anas platyrhynchos)

Nichola J. Hill, John Y. Takekawa, Joshua T. Ackerman, Keith A. Hobson, Garth Herring, Carol J. Cardona, Jonathan A. Runstadler & Walter M. Boyce
Studies of pathogen transmission typically overlook that wildlife hosts can include both migrant and resident populations when attempting to model circulation. Through the application of stable isotopes in flight feathers, we estimated the migration strategy of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) - resident, intermediate-distance migrant or long-distance migrant, occurring on California wintering grounds. Our study demonstrates that mallards, a principal host of avian influenza virus (AIV) in nature, contribute differently to virus gene flow depending on migration...

Data from: Fine-scale population structure and riverscape genetics of brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) distributed continuously along headwater channel networks

Yoichiro Kanno, Jason C. Vokoun & Benjamin H. Letcher
Linear and heterogeneous habitat makes headwater stream networks an ideal ecosystem in which to test the influence of environmental factors on spatial genetic patterns of obligatory aquatic species. We investigated fine-scale population structure and influence of stream habitat on individual-level genetic differentiation in brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) by genotyping eight microsatellite loci in 740 individuals in two headwater channel networks (7.7 km and 4.4 km) in Connecticut, USA. A weak but statistically significant isolation-by-distance pattern...

Data from: High hunting pressure selects for earlier birth date: wild boar as a case study

Marlène Gamelon, Aurélien Besnard, Jean-Michel Gaillard, Sabrina Servanty, Eric Baubet, Serge Brandt & Olivier Gimenez
Exploitation by humans affects the size and structure of populations. This has evolutionary and demographic consequences that have typically being studied independent of one another. We here applied a framework recently developed applying quantitative tools from population ecology and selection gradient analysis to quantify the selection on a quantitative trait - birth date - through its association with multiple fitness components. From the long-term monitoring (22 years) of a wild boar (Sus scrofa scrofa) population...

Data from: A generalizable energetics-based model of avian migration to facilitate continental-scale waterbird conservation

Eric V. Lonsdorf, Wayne E. Thogmartin, Sarah Jacobi, Kevin Aagaard, Jorge Coppen, Amélie Davis, Timothy Fox, Patricia Heglund, Rex Johnson, Malcolm T. Jones, Kevin Kenow, James E. Lyons, Kirsten Luke, Shannon Still & Brian Tavernia
Conserving migratory birds is made especially difficult because of movement among spatially disparate locations across the annual cycle. In light of challenges presented by the scale and ecology of migratory birds, successful conservation requires integrating objectives, management, and monitoring across scales, from local management units to ecoregional and flyway administrative boundaries. We present an integrated approach using a spatially explicit energetic-based mechanistic bird migration model useful to conservation decision-making across disparate scales and locations. This...

Data from: Spatiotemporal analysis of gene flow in Chesapeake Bay Diamondback Terrapins (Malaclemys terrapin)

Paul E. Converse, Shawn R. Kuchta, Willem M. Roosenburg, Paula F.P. Henry, Tim L. King, G. Michael Haramis & Paula F. P. Henry
There is widespread concern regarding the impacts of anthropogenic activities on connectivity among populations of plants and animals, and understanding how contemporary and historical processes shape metapopulation dynamics is crucial for setting appropriate conservation targets. We used genetic data to identify population clusters and quantify gene flow over historical and contemporary time frames in the Diamondback Terrapin (Malaclemys terrapin). This species has a long and complicated history with humans, including commercial over-harvesting and subsequent translocation...

Data from: Estimating population density and connectivity of American mink using spatial capture-recapture

Angela K. Fuller, Chris S. Sutherland, J. Andrew Royle & Matthew P. Hare
Estimating the abundance or density of populations is fundamental to the conservation and management of species, and as landscapes become more fragmented, maintaining landscape connectivity has become one of the most important challenges for biodiversity conservation. Yet these two issues have never been formally integrated together in a model that simultaneously models abundance while accounting for connectivity of a landscape. We demonstrate an application of using capture-recapture to develop a model of animal density using...

Data from: Species interactions and the effects of climate variability on a wetland amphibian metacommunity

Courtney L. Davis, David A.W. Miller, Susan C. Walls, William J. Barichivich, Jeffrey W. Riley, Mary E. Brown & David A. W. Miller
Disentangling the role that multiple interacting factors have on species responses to shifting climate poses a significant challenge. However, our ability to do so is of utmost importance to predict the effects of climate change on species distributions. We examined how populations of three species of wetland breeding amphibians, which varied in life history requirements, responded to a six-year period of extremely variable in precipitation. This interval was punctuated by both extensive drought and heavy...

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