49 Works

Data from: No evidence of quantitative signal honesty across species of aposematic burnet moths (Lepidoptera: Zygaenidae)

Emmanuelle S. Briolat, Mika Zagrobelny, Carl E. Olsen, Jonathan D. Blount & Martin Stevens
Many defended species use conspicuous visual warning signals to deter potential predators from attacking. Traditional theory holds that these signals should converge on similar forms, yet variation in visual traits and the levels of defensive chemicals is common, both within and between species. It is currently unclear how the strength of signals and potency of defences might be related: conflicting theories suggest that aposematic signals should be quantitatively honest, or, in contrast, that investment in...

Data from: Shortwave sand transport in the shallow surf zone

J. A. Brinkemper, T. Aagaard, A. T. M. De Bakker, B. G. Ruessink & J. A. Brinkkemper
Empirical parameterizations of the shortwave sand transport that are used in practical engineering models lack the representation of certain processes to accurately predict morphodynamics in shallow water. Therefore, measurements of near‐bed velocity and suspended sand concentration, collected during two field campaigns (at the Sand Engine and Ameland, the Netherlands) and one field‐scale laboratory experiment (BARDEXII), were here analyzed to study the magnitude and direction of the shortwave sand flux in the shallow surf zone. Shortwave...

Data from: Vascular plant species richness and bioindication predict multi‐taxon species richness

Ane Kirstine Brunbjerg, Hans Henrik Bruun, Lars Dalby, Camilla Fløjgaard, Tobias Guldbjerg Frøslev, Toke Thomas Høye, Irina Goldberg, Thomas Læssøe, Morten D. D. Hansen, Lars Brøndum, Lars Skipper, Kåre Fog & Rasmus Ejrnæs
Plants regulate soils and microclimate, provide substrate for heterotrophic taxa, are easy to observe and identify and have a stable taxonomy, which strongly justifies their use as indicators in monitoring and conservation. However, there is no consensus as to whether plants are strong predictors of total multi‐taxon species richness. In this study, we investigate if general terrestrial species richness can be predicted by vascular plant richness and bioindication. To answer this question, we collected an...

Data from: Territorial defence in a network: audiences only matter to male crabs primed for confrontation

Safi K. Darden, Maggie K. May, Natasha K. Boyland & Torben Dabelsteen
Territorial contests often occur in the presence of conspecifics not directly involved in the interaction. Actors may alter their behaviour in the presence of this audience, an ‘audience effect’, and audiences themselves may alter their behaviour as a result of observing an interaction, a ‘bystander effect’. Previous work has documented these effects by looking at each in isolation, but to our knowledge, none has investigated their interaction; something that is more likely to represent a...

Data from: Latitudinal pattern of flowering synchrony in an invasive wind-pollinated plant

Shiyun Qiu, Xiao Xu, Shuangshuang Liu, Wenwen Liu, Jing Liu, Ming Nie, Fuchen Shi, Yihui Zhang, Jacob Weiner & Bo Li
Flowering synchrony can play an important role in plants’ reproductive success, which is essential for the successful establishment and spread of invasive plants. Although flowering synchrony has been found to be closely related to climatic factors, the effects of variation in such factors along latitudinal gradients on flowering synchrony, and the role of flowering synchrony in the reproductive success of invading populations remain largely unexplored. In a two-year field study, we examined the latitudinal variation...

Data from: Recurrent hybridisation events between Primula vulgaris, P. veris and P. elatior (Primulaceae, Ericales) challenge the species boundaries: Using molecular markers to re‐evaluate morphological identifications

Kira Tendal, Marian Ørgaard, Bjarne Larsen & Carsten Pedersen
Three Primula species, Primula vulgaris, P. veris and P. elatior, have been objects of fascination for gardeners and botanists over several centuries. The species are able to hybridise, and where they co-occur, hybrids are commonly found. In Denmark, Møns Klint on the island of Møn and Købelev Skov on Lolland are examples of localities where all three species occur and where the hybrids P. ×digenea, the hybrid between P. vulgaris and P. elatior, and P....

Data from: Environment and host as large-scale controls of ectomycorrhizal fungi

Sietse Van Der Linde, Laura M. Suz, C. David L. Orme, Filipa Cox, Henning Andreae, Endla Asi, Bonnie Atkinson, Sue Benham, Christopher Carroll, Nathalie Cools, Bruno De Vos, Hans-Peter Dietrich, Johannes Eichhorn, Joachim Germann, Tine Grebenc, Hyun S. Gweon, Karin Hansen, Frank Jacob, Ferdinand Kristöfel, Pawel Lech, Miklos Manninger, Jan Martin, Henning Meesenburg, Päivi Merilä, Manuel Nicolas … & Martin I. Bidartondo
Explaining the large-scale diversity of soil organisms that drive biogeochemical processes—and their responses to environmental change—is critical. However, identifying consistent drivers of belowground diversity and abundance for some soil organisms at large spatial scales remains problematic. Here we investigate a major guild, the ectomycorrhizal fungi, across European forests at a spatial scale and resolution that is—to our knowledge—unprecedented, to explore key biotic and abiotic predictors of ectomycorrhizal diversity and to identify dominant responses and thresholds...

Data from: Global drivers of tree seedling establishment at alpine treelines in a changing climate

Signe Lett & Ellen Dorrepaal
Alpine and Arctic treeline expansion depends on establishment of tree seedlings beyond the current treeline, which is expected to occur with climate warming. However, treelines often fail to respond to higher temperatures, and it is therefore likely that other environmental factors are important for seedling establishment. We aimed to analyse our current understanding of how temperature and a range of other environmental drivers affect tree seedling establishment at the alpine and Arctic treelines worldwide, and...

Data from: Mass-independent maximal metabolic rate predicts geographic range size of placental mammals

Jack P. Hayes, Chris R. Feldman & Miguel B. Araújo
1.Understanding the mechanisms driving geographic range sizes of species is a central issue in ecology, but remarkably few rules link physiology with the distributions of species. Maximal metabolic rate (MMR) during exercise is an important measure of physiological performance. It sets an upper limit to sustained activity and locomotor capacity, so MMR may influence ability to migrate, disperse, and maintain population connectivity. Using both conventional ordinary least squares (OLS) analyses and phylogenetically generalized least squares...

Data from: Electromagnetic source imaging in presurgical workup of patients with epilepsy: a prospective study

Lene Duez, Hatice Tankisi, Peter O. Hansen, Per Sidenius, Anne Sabers, Lars H. Pinborg, Martin Fabricius, György Rásonyi, Guido Rubboli, Birthe Pedersen, Anne-Mette Leffers, Peter Uldall, Bo Jespersen, Jannick Brennum, Otto M. Henriksen, Anders Fuglsang-Frederiksen & Sándor Beniczky
Objective: To determine the diagnostic accuracy and clinical utility of electromagnetic source imaging (EMSI) in presurgical evaluation of patients with epilepsy. Methods: We prospectively recorded magnetoencephalography (MEG) simultaneously with electroencephalography (EEG) and performed EMSI, comprising electric (ESI), magnetic source imaging (MSI) and analysis of combined MEG-EEG datasets (cEMSI), using two different software packages. As reference standard for irritative zone (IZ) and seizure onset zone (SOZ) we used intracranial recordings and for localization accuracy, outcome one...

Data from: Locality or habitat? Exploring predictors of biodiversity in Amazonia

Camila D. Ritter, Alexander Zizka, Christopher Barnes, R. Henrik Nilsson, Fabian Roger & Alexandre Antonelli
Amazonia is an environmentally heterogeneous and biologically megadiverse region, and its biodiversity varies considerably over space. However, existing knowledge on Amazonian biodiversity and its environmental determinants stems almost exclusively from studies of macroscopic above‐ground organisms, notably vertebrates and trees. In contrast, diversity patterns of most other organisms remain elusive, although some of them, for instance microorganisms, constitute the overwhelming majority of taxa in any given location, both in terms of diversity and abundance. Here, we...

Data from: Polyphasic data support the splitting of Aspergillus candidus into two species; proposal of Aspergillus dobrogensis sp. nov.

Vit Hubka, Alena Nováková, Željko Jurjević, František Sklenář, Jens C. Frisvad, Jos Houbraken, Maiken C. Arendrup, João P. Z. Siqueira, Josepa Gené & Miroslav Kolařík
Aspergillus candidus is a species frequently isolated from stored grain, food, indoor environments, soil and occasionally also from clinical material. Recent bioprospecting studies highlighted the potential of using A. candidus and its relatives in various industrial sectors as a result of their significant production of enzymes and bioactive compounds. A high genetic variability was observed among A. candidus isolates originating from various European countries and the USA, that were mostly isolated from indoor environments, caves...

Data from: Evolution of non-kin cooperation: social assortment by cooperative phenotype in guppies

Josefine Brask, Darren Croft, Matthew Edenbrow, Richard James, Heather Bleakley, Indar Ramnarine, Robert Heathcote, Charles Tyler, Patrick Hamilton, Torben Dabelsteen & Safi Darden
Cooperation among non-kin constitutes a conundrum for evolutionary biology. Theory suggests that non-kin cooperation can evolve if individuals differ consistently in their cooperative phenotypes and assort socially by these, such that cooperative individuals interact predominantly with one another. However, our knowledge of the role of cooperative phenotypes in the social structuring of real-world animal populations is minimal. In this study, we investigated cooperative phenotypes and their link to social structure in wild Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia...

Data from: Testosterone in ancient hair from an extinct species

Lee Koren, Devorah Matas, Patrícia Pečnerová, Love Dalén, Alexei Tikhonov, M. Thomas P. Gilbert, Katherine E. Wynne-Edwards & Eli Geffen
Testosterone is a key regulator in vertebrate development, physiology, and behaviour. Whereas technology allows extraction of a wealth of genetic information from extant as well as extinct species, complimentary information on steroid hormone levels may add a social, sexual, and environmental context. Hair shafts have been previously used to sequence DNA from >50,000 14C years old Siberian woolly mammoths (Mammuthus primigenius). Hair-testing has also been used to measure endogenous steroids in multiple extant species. Here...

Data from: Field observations of turbulence, sand suspension and cross-shore transport under spilling and plunging breakers

Troels Aagaard, Michael G. Hughes & Gerben Ruessink
Measurements of wave orbital velocity, near-bed turbulence levels and sediment suspension were obtained under plunging and spilling breakers in the outer surf zone on the beach at Vejers, Denmark. For the same range of relative wave heights and indicators of wave nonlinearity, we observed significantly larger suspended sediment concentrations and onshore-directed rates of suspended sediment transport under (long-period) plunging breakers, compared to (short-period) spilling breakers. This is consistent with the long-held understanding that, for a...

Data from: Prey‐specific impact of cold pre‐exposure on kill rate and reproduction

Kim Jensen, Søren Toft, Lene Sigsgard, Jesper G. Sørensen, Martin Holmstrup & Lene Sigsgaard
1.Temperature influences biological processes of ectotherms including ecological interactions, but interaction strengths may depend on species‐specific traits. Furthermore, ectotherms acclimate to prevailing thermal conditions by adjusting physiological parameters, which often implies costs to other fitness‐related parameters. Both predators and prey may therefore pay thermal acclimation costs following exposure to suboptimal temperatures. However, these costs may be asymmetrical between predator and prey, and between the predator and different species of concurrent prey. 2.We investigated whether thermal...

Data from: Effect of ecological momentary assessment, goal-setting and personalized phone-calls on adherence to interval walking training using the InterWalk application among patients with type 2 diabetes – a pilot randomized controlled trial

Laura Staun Valentiner, Ida Kær Thorsen, Malte Bue Kongstad, Cecilie Fau Brinkløv, Rasmus Tolstrup Larsen, Kristian Karstoft, Jens Steen Nielsen, Bente Klarlund Pedersen, Henning Langberg & Mathias Ried-Larsen
Objectives: The objective was to investigate the feasibility and usability of structured text-messages, goal-setting and phone-calls on adherence to a 12-week self-conducted interval walking training (IWT) program, delivered by the InterWalk smartphone among patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Methods: In a two-arm pilot randomized controlled trial (Denmark, March 2014 to February 2015), patients with T2D (18-80 years with a Body Mass Index of 18 and 40 kg/m2) were randomly allocated to 12 weeks of...

Data from: Experimental warming in the field delays phenology and reduces body mass and survival: implications for the persistence of a pollinator under climate change

Paul J. CaraDonna, James L. Cunningham & Amy M. Iler
1. Climate change is rapidly altering thermal environments across the globe. The effects of increased temperatures in already warm environments may be particularly strong because organisms are likely to be near their thermal safety margins, with limited tolerance to additional heat stress. 2. We conduct an in situ field experiment over two years to investigate the direct effects of temperature on an early-season solitary bee in a warm, arid region of the Southwestern USA. Our...

Data from: Combined morphological and phylogenomic re-examination of malawimonads, a critical taxon for inferring the evolutionary history of eukaryotes.

Aaron A. Heiss, Martin Kolisko, Fleming Ekelund, Matthew W. Brown, Andrew J. Roger, Alastair G.B. Simpson & Alastair G. B. Simpson
Modern syntheses of eukaryote diversity assign almost all taxa to one of three groups: Amorphea, Diaphoretickes, and Excavata (comprising Discoba and Metamonada). The most glaring exception is Malawimonadidae, small heterotrophic flagellates that resemble Excavata by morphology, but group with Amorphea in most phylogenomic analyses. However, just one malawimonad, Malawimonas jakobiformis, has been studied with both morphological and molecular-phylogenetic approaches, raising the spectre of interpretation errors and phylogenetic artefacts from low taxon sampling. We report a...

Data from: Gender equity at scientific events

Florence Debarre, Nicolas Rode & Line V. Ugelvig
Although the proportion of women in science, and in evolutionary biology in particular, has substantially increased over the last century, women remain underrepresented in academia, especially at senior levels. Moreover, their scientific achievements do not always receive the same level of recognition as do men’s, which can be reflected in a lower relative representation of women among invited speakers at conferences or specialized courses. Using announcements sent to the EvolDir mailing list between April 2016...

Data from: Untargeted metabolic profiling reveals geography as the strongest predictor of metabolic phenotypes of a cosmopolitan weed

Natalie Iwanycki Ahlstrand, Nicoline Havskov Reghev, Bo Markussen, Hans Christian Bruun Hansen, Finur F. Eiriksson, Margret Thorsteinsdóttir, Nina Rønsted & Christopher J. Barnes
Plants produce a multitude of metabolites that contribute to their fitness and survival, and play a role in local adaptation to environmental conditions. The effects of environmental variation is particularly well studied within the genus Plantago, however, previous studies have largely focused on targeting specific metabolites. Studies exploring metabolome wide changes are lacking, and the effects of natural environmental variation and herbivory on the metabolomes of plants growing in situ remain unknown. An untargeted metabolomic...

Data from: Using DNA metabarcoding for simultaneous inference of common vampire bat diet and population structure

Kristine Bohmann, Shyam Gopalakrishnan, Martin Nielsen, Luisa Dos Santos Bay Nielsen, Gareth Jones, Daniel G. Streicker & M. Thomas P. Gilbert
Metabarcoding diet analysis has become a valuable tool in animal ecology; however, co-amplified predator sequences are not generally used for anything other than to validate predator identity. Exemplified by the common vampire bat we demonstrate the use of metabarcoding to infer predator population structure alongside diet assessments. Growing populations of common vampire bats impact human, livestock and wildlife health in Latin America through transmission of pathogens, such as lethal rabies infections. Techniques to determine large...

Data from: Privatisation rescues essential function following loss of cooperation

Sandra Breum Andersen, Melanie Ghoul, Rasmus Lykke Marvig, Zhuo-Bin Lee, Søren Molin, Helle Krogh Johansen & Ashleigh S. Griffin
A single cheating mutant can lead to the invasion and eventual eradication of cooperation from a population. Consequently, cheat invasion is often considered equal to extinction in empirical and theoretical studies of cooperator-cheat dynamics. But does cheat invasion necessarily equate extinction in nature? By following the social dynamics of iron metabolism in Pseudomonas aeruginosa during cystic fibrosis lung infection, we observed that individuals evolved to replace cooperation with a ‘private’ behaviour. Phenotypic assays showed that...

Data from: Host‐derived population genomics data provides insights into bacterial and diatom composition of the killer whale skin

Rebecca Hooper, Jaelle C. Brealey, Tom Van Der Valk, Antton Alberdi, John W. Durban, Holly Fearnbach, Kelly M. Robertson, Robin W. Baird, M. Bradley Hanson, Paul Wade, M. Thomas P. Gilbert, Philip A. Morin, Jochen B. W. Wolf, Andrew D. Foote, Katerina Guschanski & Phillip A. Morin
Recent exploration into the interactions and relationship between hosts and their microbiota has revealed a connection between many aspects of the host's biology, health and associated micro‐organisms. Whereas amplicon sequencing has traditionally been used to characterize the microbiome, the increasing number of published population genomics data sets offers an underexploited opportunity to study microbial profiles from the host shotgun sequencing data. Here, we use sequence data originally generated from killer whale Orcinus orca skin biopsies...

Data from: Subsistence practices, past biodiversity, and anthropogenic impacts revealed by New Zealand-wide ancient DNA survey

Frederik V. Seersholm, Theresa L. Cole, Alicia Grealy, Nicolas J. Rawlence, Karen Greig, Michael Knapp, Michael Stat, Anders J. Hansen, Luke J. Easton, Lara Shepherd, Alan J. D. Tennyson, R. Paul Scofield, Richard Walter & Michael Bunce
New Zealand’s geographic isolation, lack of native terrestrial mammals, and Gondwanan origins make it an ideal location to study evolutionary processes. However, since the archipelago was first settled by humans (c. 1280 AD), its unique biodiversity has been under pressure, and today an estimated 49% of the terrestrial avifauna is extinct. Current efforts to conserve the remaining fauna rely on a better understanding of the composition of past ecosystems, as well as the causes and...

Registration Year

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  • University of Copenhagen
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  • University of East Anglia
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