40 Works

Contrasted histories of organelle and nuclear genomes underlying physiological diversification in a grass species

Matheus Bianconi, Luke Dunning, Emma Curran, Oriane Hidalgo, Robyn Powell, Sahr Mian, Ilia Leitch, Marjorie Lundgren, Sophie Manzi, Maria Vorontsova, Guillaume Besnard, Colin Osborne, Jill Olofsson & Pascal-Antoine Christin
C4 photosynthesis evolved multiple times independently in angiosperms, but most origins are relatively old so that the early events linked to photosynthetic diversification are blurred. The grass Alloteropsis semialata is an exception, as this species encompasses C4 and non-C4 populations. Using phylogenomics and population genomics, we infer the history of dispersal and secondary gene flow before, during, and after photosynthetic divergence in A. semialata. We further analyse the genome composition of individuals with varied ploidy...

Historical isolation facilitates species radiation by sexual selection: insights from Chorthippus grasshoppers

Zachary Nolen, Burcin Yildirim, Iker Irisarri, Shanlin Liu, Clara Groot Crego, Daniel Amby, Frieder Mayer, M. Gilbert & Ricardo Pereira
Theoretical and empirical studies have shown that species radiations are facilitated when a trait under divergent natural selection is also involved in sexual selection. It is yet unclear how quick and effective radiations are where assortative mating is unrelated to the ecological environment and primarily results from sexual selection. We address this question using sympatric grasshopper species of the genus Chorthippus, which have evolved strong behavioral isolation while lacking noticeable eco-morphological divergence. Mitochondrial genomes suggest...

Evolution of putative barrier loci at an intermediate stage of speciation with gene flow in campions (Silene)

Xiaodong Liu, Xiaodong Liu, Sylvain Glemin & Sophie Karrenberg
Understanding the origin of new species is a central goal in evolutionary biology. Diverging lineages often evolve highly heterogeneous patterns of genetic differentiation; however, the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. We investigated evolutionary processes governing genetic differentiation between the hybridizing campions Silene dioica (L.) Clairv. and S. latifolia Poiret. Demographic modeling indicated that the two species diverged with gene flow. The best-supported scenario with heterogeneity in both migration rate and effective population size suggested...

The evolution of virulence in Pseudomonas aeruginosa during chronic wound infection

Jelly Vanderwoude, Derek Fleming, Sheyda Azimi, Urvish Trivedi, Kendra Rumbaugh & Stephen Diggle
Opportunistic pathogens are associated with a number of chronic human infections, yet the evolution of virulence in these organisms during chronic infection remains poorly understood. Here, we tested the evolution of virulence in the human opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a murine chronic wound model using a two-part serial passage and sepsis experiment, and found that virulence evolved in different directions in each line of evolution. We also assessed P. aeruginosa adaptation to a chronic...

HLA Class II specificity assessed by high-density peptide microarray interactions

Thomas Osterbye, Morten Nielsen, Nadine L. Dudek, Sri H. Ramarathinam, Anthony W. Purcell, Claus Schafer-Nielsen & Soren Buus
The ability to predict and/or identify MHC binding peptides is an essential component of T cell epitope discovery; something that ultimately should benefit the development of vaccines and immunotherapies. In particular, MHC class I (MHC-I) prediction tools have matured to a point where accurate selection of optimal peptide epitopes is possible for virtually all MHC-I allotypes; in comparison, current MHC class II (MHC-II) predictors are less mature. Since MHC-II restricted CD4+ T cells control and...

Screening and microsatellite data for Varroa infesting resistant honey bee pupae

Benjamin Conlon, Chedly Kastally, Marina Kardell, John Kefuss, Robin Moritz & Jarkko Routtu
We investigated how the evolution of host resistance could affect the infesting population of Varroa mites. We screened a Varroa-resistant honey bee population near Toulouse, France, for a Varroa resistance trait: the inhibition of Varroa's reproduction in drone pupae. We then genotyped Varroa which had co-infested a cell using microsatellites. Across all resistant honey bee colonies, Varroa's reproductive success was significantly higher in co-infested cells but the distribution of Varroa between singly and multiply infested...

Floral scent dynamics of Schiedea kaalae and Schiedea hookeri

John Powers, Roger Seco, Celia Faiola, Ann Sakai, Stephen Weller, Diane Campbell & Alex Guenther
Floral scent often intensifies during periods of pollinator activity, but the degree of this synchrony may vary among scent compounds depending on their function. Related plant species with the same pollinator may exhibit similar timing and composition of floral scent. We compared timing and composition of floral volatiles for two endemic Hawaiian plant species, Schiedea kaalae and S. hookeri (Caryophyllaceae). For S. kaalae, we also compared the daily timing of emission of floral volatiles to...

Variation of chemical compounds in wild Heliconiini reveals ecological and historical contributions to the evolution of chemical defences in mimetic butterflies

Ombeline Sculfort, Érika Pinheiro De Castro, Krzysztof Kozak, Søren Bak, Marianne Elias, Bastien Nay & Violaine Llaurens
Evolutionary convergence of colour pattern in mimetic species is tightly linked with the evolution of chemical defences. Yet, the evolutionary forces involved in natural variations of chemical defences in aposematic species are still understudied. Herein, we focus on the evolution chemical defences in the butterfly tribe Heliconiini. These neo-tropical butterflies contain large concentrations of cyanogenic glucosides, cyanide-releasing compounds acting as predator deterrent. These compounds are either de novo synthesized or sequestered from their Passiflora host-plant,...

DLSI - laser speckle intensity autocorrelation data

Dmitry Postnov
Intensity autocorrelation data collected with Dynamic Light Scattering Imaging system. Matlab file contains: One set of "whole cortex" imaging data, including intensity autocorrelation, spatial and temporal contrasts and best fit data (used to generate Figure 1,2 and S1-S4, S6-S8) A representitative set of stroke imaging: with baseline and after-stroke intensity autocorrelation, contrasts and best fits data (used to generate Figure 3 and S10) Recording parameters (sampling and exposure times).

Ant cuticular hydrocarbons are heritable and associated with variation in colony productivity

Justin Walsh, Luigi Pontieri, Patrizia D'Ettorre & Tim Linksvayer
In social insects, cuticular hydrocarbons function in nestmate recognition and also provide a waxy barrier against desiccation, but basic evolutionary features, including the heritability of hydrocarbon profiles and how they are shaped by natural selection are largely unknown. We used a new pharaoh ant (Monomorium pharaonis) laboratory mapping population to estimate the heritability of individual cuticular hydrocarbons, genetic correlations between hydrocarbons, and fitness consequences of phenotypic variation in the hydrocarbons. Individual hydrocarbons had low to...

Perturbation drives changing metapopulation dynamics in a top marine predator

Emma L Carroll, Ailsa Hall, Morten Tange Olsen, Aubrie Booth, Aubrie B. Onoufriou, Oscar E. Gaggiotti & Debbie JF Russell
Metapopulation theory assumes a balance between local decays/extinctions and local growth/new colonisations. Here we investigate whether recent population declines across part of the UK harbour seal range represent normal metapopulation dynamics or are indicative of perturbations potentially threatening the metapopulation viability, using 20 years of population trends, location tracking data ( n = 380), and UK-wide, multi-generational population genetic data ( n = 269). First, we use microsatellite data to show that two genetic groups...

The role of evolutionary time, diversification rates and dispersal in determining the global diversity of a large radiation of passerine birds

Tianlong Cai, Shimiao Shao, Jonathan Kennedy, Per Alström, Robert Moyle, Yanhua Qu, Fumin Lei & Jon Fjeldså
Aim: Variation in species diversity among different geographic areas may result from differences in speciation and extinction rates, immigration and time for diversification. An area with high species diversity may be the result of a high net diversification rate, multiple immigration events from adjacent regions,anda long time available for the accumulation of species (know as the “time-for-speciation effect”). Here, we examine the relative importance of the three aforementionedprocesses in shaping the geographic diversity patterns of...

Data from: The vertical distribution and control of microbial necromass carbon in forest soils

Xiangyin Ni, Shu Liao, Siyi Tan, Yan Peng, Dingyi Wang, Kai Yue, Fuzhong Wu & Yusheng Yang
Aim: Forest soils contain large amounts of terrestrial organic carbon (C), but the formation pathway of soil organic C (SOC) remains unclear. Recent evidence suggests that microbial necromass is a significant source of SOC, yet a global quantitative assessment across the whole-soil profile is lacking. We aimed to assess the vertical distribution and control of microbial-derived SOC in forest soils. Location: Global forests. Time period: 1996-2019. Major taxa studied: Soil microbial necromass carbon. Methods: We...

Comparative phylogenetics of Papilio butterfly wing shape and size demonstrates independent hindwing and forewing evolution

Hannah Owens, Delano Lewis, Fabien Condamine, Akito Kawahara & Robert Guralnick
The complex forces that shape butterfly wings have long been a subject of experimental and comparative research. Butterflies use their wings for flight, camouflage, mate recognition, warning and mimicry. However, general patterns and correlations among wing shape and size evolution are still poorly understood. We collected geometric morphometric measurements from over 1400 digitized museum specimens of Papilio swallowtails and combined them with phylogenetic data to test two hypotheses: 1) forewing shape and size evolve independently...

Rates of rehospitalisation in the first two years among preterm infants discharged from the NICU of a tertiary children hospital in Vietnam – A follow-up study

Huu Thieu Chuong Do, Malene Landbo Børresen, Freddy Karup Pedersen, Ronald Bertus Geskus & Alexandra Yasmin Kruse
Objectives To describe the characteristics of rehospitalisation in Vietnamese preterm infants, and to examine the time-to-first-readmission between two gestational age (GA) groups (extremely/very preterm, EVP, versus moderate/late preterm, MLP). Further, to compare rehospitalisation rates according to GA and corrected age (CA), and to examine the association between potential risk factors and rehospitalisation rates. Design and Setting Cohort study to follow up preterm infants discharged from a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) of a tertiary children’s...

Phenotypic divergence in two sibling species of shorebird: Common Snipe and Wilson's Snipe (Charadriiformes: Scolopacidae)

Tiago M Rodrigues, Edward Miller, Sergei V Drovetski, Robert M Zink, Jon Fjeldså & David Gonçalves
Natural selection and social selection are among the main shapers of biological diversity, but their relative importance in divergence remains understudied. Additionally, although neutral evolutionary processes may promote phenotypic divergence, their potential contribution in speciation is often overlooked in studies of comparative morphology. In this study, we investigated phenotypic differentiation in two allopatric shorebirds: the Palearctic Common Snipe Gallinago gallinago and the Nearctic Wilson’s Snipe G. delicata. Specimens of Common Snipe (n = 355 skins,...

Acute and chronic effects of motorised dental burr assisted thoracic spinal laminectomy on the functionality and welfare of the contusion spinal cord injury rat model

Harikrishnan Vijayakumar Sreelatha, Klas Abelson, Lissy K Krishnan, Hamza Palekkodan & Ansar Fasaludeen
This study focused on acute and chronic effects of the recently established Dental Burr Assisted (DBA) technique to perform laminectomy at T10-T11 vertebral level in a rat model of spinal cord injury (SCI)on animal welfare as well as functionality, and compared it to the conventional technique. The utility as a model of chronic pain, and the effects of SCI on memory was also assessed, using DBA technique and was compared to conventional technique of laminectomy....

Data from: Declining human pressure and opportunities for rewilding in the steppes of Eurasia

Matthias Baumann, Johannes Kamp, Florian Pötzschner, Benjamin Bleyhl, Andrey Dara, Brett Hankerson, Alexander Prishchepov, Florian Schierhorn, Daniel Müller, Norbert Hölzel, Roland Krämer, Ruslan Urazaliyev & Tobias Kuemmerle
Aim Large and ecologically functioning steppe complexes have been lost historically across the globe, but recent land-use changes may allow the reversal of this trend in some regions. We aimed to develop and map indicators of changing human influence using satellite imagery and historical maps, and to use these indicators to identify areas for broad-scale steppe rewilding. Location Eurasian Steppes of Kazakhstan. Methods We mapped decreasing human influence indicated by cropland abandonment, declining grazing pressure,...

Data from: Multi-taxon inventory reveals highly consistent biodiversity responses to ecospace variation

Tobias Guldberg Frøslev, Ane Kirstine Brunbjerg, Hans Henrik Kehlet Bruun, Lars Dalby, Aimée Classen, Camilla Fløjgaard, Oskar Hansen, Toke Hoye, Jesper Moeslund, Jens-Christian Svenning & Rasmus Ejrnæs
Amidst the global biodiversity crisis, identifying general principles for variation in biodiversity remains a key challenge. Scientific consensus is limited to a few macroecological rules, such as species richness increasing with area, which provide limited guidance for conservation. In fact, few agreed ecological principles apply at the scale of sites or reserve management, partly because most community-level studies are restricted to single habitat types and species groups. We used the recently proposed ecospace framework and...

European soil seed bank communities across a climate and land-cover gradient

Jan Plue, Hans Van Calster, Inger Auestad, Sofia Basto, Reneé M. Bekker, Hans Henrik Bruun, Richard Chevalier, Guillaume Decocq, Ulf Grandin, Martin Hermy, Hans Jacquemyn, Anna Jakobsson, Rein Kalamees, Rob H. Marrs, Bryndis Marteinsdóttir, Per Milberg, Robin J. Pakeman, Gareth Phoenix, Ken Thompson, Vigdis Vandvik, Markus Wagner, Sara A.O. Cousins, Ove Eriksson, Jamshid Ghorbani, Małgorzata Jankowska-Błaszczuk … & Alistair G. Auffret
This is the data set used for the publication Buffering effects of soil seed banks on plant community composition in response to land use and climate, published in the journal Global Ecology and Biogeography. Aim. Climate and land use are key determinants of biodiversity, with past and ongoing changes posing serious threats to global ecosystems. Unlike most other organism groups, plant species can possess dormant life-history stages such as soil seed banks, which may help...

Life history predicts flight muscle phenotype and function in birds

Shane DuBay, Yongjie Wu, Graham Scott, Yanhua Qu, Qiao Liu, Joel Smith, Chao Xin, Andrew Hart Reeve, Chen Juncheng, Dylan Meyer, Jing Wang, Jacob Johnson, Zachary Cheviron, Fumin Lei & John Bates
1. Functional traits are the essential phenotypes that underlie an organism’s life history and ecology. Although biologists have long recognized that intraspecific variation is consequential to an animals’ ecology, studies of functional variation are often restricted to species-level comparisons, ignoring critical variation within species. In birds, interspecific comparisons have been foundational in connecting flight muscle phenotypes to species-level ecology, but intraspecific variation has remained largely unexplored. 2. We asked how age- and sex-dependent demands on...

Targeted conservation genetics of the endangered chimpanzee

Peter Frandsen, Claudia Fontsere, Sven Nielsen, Kristian Hanghøj, Natalia Castejon-Fernandez, Esther Lizano, David Hughes, Jessica Hernandez-Rodriquez, Thorfinn Korneliussen, Frands Carlsen, Hans Siegismund, Thomas Mailund, Tomas Marques Bonet & Christina Hvilsom
Populations of the common chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) are in an impending risk of going extinct in the wild as a consequence of damaging anthropogenic impact on their natural habitat and illegal pet and bushmeat trade. Conservation management programmes for the chimpanzee have been established outside their natural range (ex situ), and chimpanzees from these programmes could potentially be used to supplement future conservation initiatives in the wild (in situ). However, these programmes have often suffered...

Data from: Biocultural approaches to sustainability: a systematic review of the scientific literature

Jan Hanspach, L. Jamila Haider, Elisa Oteris-Rozas, Anton Stahl Olafsson, Natalie Gulsrud, Chris Raymond, Mario Torralba, Berta Martín-López, Claudia Bieling, María García Martín, Christian Albert, Thomas Beery, Nora Fagerholm, Isabel Díaz-Reviriego, Annika Drews-Shambroom & Tobias Plieninger
Current sustainability challenges demand approaches that acknowledge a plurality of human-nature interactions and worldviews, for which biocultural approaches are considered appropriate and timely. This systematic review analyses the application of biocultural approaches to sustainability in scientific journal articles published between 1990 and 2018 through a mixed methods approach combining qualitative content analysis and quantitative multivariate methods. The study identifies seven distinct biocultural lenses, i.e. different ways of understanding and applying biocultural approaches, which to different...

Amoebocytes facilitate efficient carbon and nitrogen assimilation in the Cassiopea Symbiodiniaceae symbiosis

Niclas Heidelberg Lyndby, Nils Rädecker, Sandrine Bessette, Louise Jensen, Stéphane Escrig, Erik Trampe, Michael Kühl & Anders Meibom
The upside-down jellyfish Cassiopea engages in symbiosis with photosynthetic microalgae that facilitate uptake and recycling of inorganic nutrients. In contrast to most other symbiotic cnidarians, algal endosymbionts in Cassiopea are not restricted to the gastroderm but are found in amoebocyte cells within the mesoglea. While symbiont-bearing amoebocytes are highly abundant, their role in nutrient uptake and cycling in Cassiopea remains unknown. By combining isotopic labelling experiments with correlated SEM and NanoSIMS imaging, we quantified the...

Global patterns of the leaf economics spectrum in wetlands

Yingji Pan, Ellen Cieraad, Jean Armstrong, William Armstrong, Beverley Clarkson, Timothy Colmer, Ole Pedersen, Eric Visser, Laurentius Voesenek & Peter Van Bodegom
The leaf economics spectrum (LES) describes consistent correlations among a variety of leaf traits that reflect a gradient from conservative to acquisitive plant strategies. So far, whether the LES holds in wetland plants at a global scale has been unclear. Using data on 365 wetland species from 151 studies, we find that wetland plants in general show a shift within trait space along the same common slope as observed in non-wetland plants, with lower leaf...

Registration Year

  • 2020
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Affiliations

  • University of Copenhagen
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  • University of Oxford
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  • Uppsala University
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  • University of Kansas
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  • Copenhagen Zoo
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  • University of Göttingen
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  • University of Chicago
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  • Leiden University
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  • Utrecht University
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