270 Works

Species-level tree crown maps improve predictions of tree recruit abundance in a tropical landscape

Cristina Barber, Sarah Graves, Jefferson Hall, Pieter Zuidema, Jodi Brandt, Stephanie Bohlman, Gregory Asner, Mario Bailón & T. Trevor Caughlin
Predicting forest recovery at landscape scales will aid forest restoration efforts. The first step in successful forest recovery is tree recruitment. Forecasts of tree recruit abundance, derived from the landscape-scale distribution of seed sources (i.e. adult trees), could assist efforts to identify sites with high potential for natural regeneration. However, previous work has revealed wide variation in the effect of seed sources on seedling abundance, from positive to no effect. We quantified the relationship between...

Balanced polymorphisms and their divergence in a Heliconius butterfly

James Ogilvie, Steven Van Belleghem, Ryan Range, Riccardo Papa, Owen McMillan, Mathieu Chouteau & Brian Counterman
The evolution of mimicry in similarly defended prey is well described by Müllerian mimicry theory, which predicts the convergence of warning patterns in order to gain the most protection from predators. However, despite this prediction, we can find great diversity of color patterns amongst Müllerian mimics such as Heliconius butterflies in the neotropics. Furthermore, some species have evolved the ability to maintain multiple distinct warning patterns in single populations, a phenomenon known as polymorphic mimicry....

Data from: Chemical novelty facilitates herbivore resistance and biological invasions in some introduced plant species

Brian Sedio, John Devaney, Jamie Pullen, Geoffrey Parker, S. Joseph Wright & John Parker
Ecological release from herbivory due to chemical novelty is commonly predicted to facilitate biological invasions by plants, but has not been tested on a community scale. We used metabolomics based on mass spectrometry molecular networks to assess the novelty of foliar secondary chemistry of 15 invasive plant species compared to 46 native species at a site in eastern North America. Locally, invasive species were more chemically distinctive than natives. Among the 15 invasive species, the...

Data from: Variation in host plant usage and diet breadth predict sibling preference and performance in the neotropical tortoise beetle Chelymorpha alternans (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Cassidinae)

Colin R. Morrison, Clement Aubert & Donald M. Windsor
Specialized interactions between insects and the plants that they consume are one of the most ubiquitous and consequential ecological associations on the plant. Decades of investigation suggest that a narrow diet favors an individual phytophagous insect’s performance relative to a dietary generalist. However, this body of research has tended to approach questions of diet breadth and host usage from the perspective of temperate plant – insect associations. Relationships between diet breadth, host usage and variation...

Data from: Changes in Bivalve functional and assemblage ecology in response to environmental change in the Caribbean Neogene

Jill S. Leonard-Pingel, Jeremy B. C. Jackson & Aaron O'Dea
We documented changes in the relative abundance of bivalve genera and functional groups in the southwest Caribbean over the past 11 Myr to determine their response to oceanographic changes associated with the closure of the Central American Seaway ca. 3.5 Ma. Quantitative bulk samples from 29 localities yielded 106,000 specimens in 145 genera. All genera were assigned to functional groups based on diet, relationship to the substrate, and mobility. Ordinations of assemblages based on quantitative...

Data from: Inter-chromosomal coupling between vision and pigmentation genes during genomic divergence

Kosmas Hench, Marta Vargas, Marc P. Höppner, W. Owen McMillan & Oscar Puebla
Recombination between loci underlying mate choice and ecological traits is a major evolutionary force acting against speciation with gene flow. The evolution of linkage disequilibrium between such loci is therefore a fundamental step in the origin of species. Here, we show that this process can take place in the absence of physical linkage in hamlets—a group of closely related reef fishes from the wider Caribbean that differ essentially in colour pattern and are reproductively isolated...

Data from: A trait-based trade-off between growth and mortality: evidence from 15 tropical tree species using size-specific RGRs

Christopher D. Philipson, Daisy H. Dent, Michael J. O’Brien, Juliette Chamagne, Dzaeman Dzulkifli, Reuben Nilus, Sam Philips, Glen Reynolds, Philippe Saner, Andy Hector & Michael J. O'Brien
A life-history trade-off between low mortality in the dark and rapid growth in the light is one of the most widely accepted mechanisms underlying plant ecological strategies in tropical forests. Differences in plant functional traits are thought to underlie these distinct ecological strategies; however, very few studies have shown relationships between functional traits and demographic rates within a functional group. We present 8 years of growth and mortality data from saplings of 15 species of...

Data from: Cyclic bouts of extreme bradycardia counteract the highmetabolism of frugivorous bats

M. Teague O'Mara, Martin Wikelski, Christian C. Voigt, Andries Ter Maat, Henry S. Pollock, Gary Burness, Lanna M. Desantis, Dina K. N. Dechmann & Dina KN Dechmann
Active flight requires the ability to efficiently fuel bursts of costly locomotion while maximizing energy conservation during non-flying times. We took a multi-faceted approach to estimate how fruit-eating bats (Uroderma bilobatum) manage a high-energy lifestyle fueled primarily by fig juice. Miniaturized heart rate telemetry shows that they use a novel, cyclic, bradycardic state that reduces daily energetic expenditure by 10% and counteracts heart rates as high as 900 bpm during flight. Uroderma bilobatum support flight...

Data from: A phylogenomic resolution of the sea urchin tree of life

Nicolás Mongiardino Koch, Simon E. Coppard, Harilaos A. Lessios, Derek E.G. Briggs, Rich Mooi & Greg W. Rouse
Background: Echinoidea is a clade of marine animals including sea urchins, heart urchins, sand dollars and sea biscuits. Found in benthic habitats across all latitudes, echinoids are key components of marine communities such as coral reefs and kelp forests. A little over 1,000 species inhabit the oceans today, a diversity that traces its roots back at least to the Permian. Although much effort has been devoted to elucidating the echinoid tree of life using a...

Data from: DNA barcoding survey of anurans across the Eastern Cordillera of Colombia and the impact of the Andes on cryptic diversity

Carlos E. Guarnizo, Andrea Paz, Astrid Muñoz-Ortiz, Sandra V. Flechas, Javier Mendez-Narváez & Andrew J. Crawford
Colombia hosts the second highest amphibian species diversity on Earth, yet its fauna remains poorly studied, especially using molecular genetic techniques. We present the results of the first wide-scale DNA barcoding survey of anurans of Colombia, focusing on a transect across the Eastern Cordillera. We surveyed 10 sites between the Magdalena Valley to the west and the eastern foothills of the Eastern Cordillera, sequencing portions of the mitochondrial 16S ribosomal RNA and cytochrome oxidase subunit...

Data from: Low plant density enhances gene dispersal in the Amazonian understory herb Heliconia acuminata

Marina Corrêa Côrtes, María Uriarte, Maristerra R. Lemes, Rogério Gribel, W. John Kress, Peter E. Smouse & Emilio M. Bruna
In theory, conservation genetics predicts that forest fragmentation will reduce gene dispersal, but in practice, genetic and ecological processes are also dependent on other population characteristics. We used Bayesian genetic analyses to characterize parentage and propagule dispersal in Heliconia acuminata L. C. Richard (Heliconiaceae), a common Amazonian understory plant that is pollinated and dispersed by birds. We studied these processes in two continuous forest sites and three 1-ha fragments in Brazil's Biological Dynamics of Forest...

Data from: Long-term changes in liana loads and tree dynamics in a Malaysian forest

S. Joseph Wright, I-Fang Sun, Maria Pickering, Christine D. Fletcher & Yu-Yun Chen
The importance of lianas through time and their effect on tree reproduction are evaluated for the first time in a Southeast Asian Dipterocarp forest. We quantified flower and seed production by lianas and trees for 13 years, assessed liana loads in the crowns of all trees larger than 30 cm in diameter at breast height (1.3 m) in 2002 and 2014, and assessed levels of reproduction for the same trees during a strong general flowering...

Data from: Varyingly hungry caterpillars: predictive models and foliar chemistry suggest how to eat a rainforest

Simon T. Segar, Martin Volf, Brus Isua, Mentap Sisol, Conor M. Redmond, Margaret E. Rosati, Bradley Gewa, Kenneth Molem, Chris Dahl, Jeremy D. Holloway, Yves Basset, Scott E. Miller, George D. Weiblen, Juha-Pekka Salminen & Vojtech Novotny
A long-term goal in evolutionary ecology is to explain the incredible diversity of insect herbivores and patterns of plant host use in speciose groups like tropical Lepidoptera. Here we used standardised food-web data, multigene phylogenies of both trophic levels and plant chemistry data to model interactions between Lepidoptera larvae (caterpillars) from two lineages (Geometridae and Pyraloidea) and plants in species-rich lowland rainforest in New Guinea. Model parameters were used to make and test blind predictions...

Data from: Do pathogens limit the distributions of tropical trees across a rainfall gradient?

Erin R. Spear, Phyllis D. Coley & Thomas A. Kursar
1. Organisms are adapted to particular habitats; consequently, community composition changes across environmental gradients, enhancing regional diversity. In Panama, a rainfall gradient correlates with the spatial turnover of tree species. While strong evidence suggests that tree species common in the wetter forests are excluded from the drier forests by seasonal drought, the factor(s) excluding drought-tolerant species, common in the drier forests, from the wetter forests remain ambiguous. 2. Here, we show that seedlings were significantly...

Data from: Male-male aggression is unlikely to stabilize a poison frog polymorphism

Yusan Yang, Matthew B. Dugas, Houston J. Sudekum, Sean N. Murphy & Corinne L. Richards-Zawacki
Phenotypic polymorphism is common in animals, and the maintenance of multiple phenotypes in a population requires forces that act against homogenizing drift and selection. Male-male competition can contribute to the stability of a polymorphism when males compete primarily with males of the same phenotype. In and around a contact zone between red and blue lineages of the poison frog Oophaga pumilio, we used simulated territorial intrusions to test the non-exclusive predictions that males would direct...

Data from: Biotic and abiotic plant-soil feedback depends on nitrogen-acquisition strategy and shifts during long-term ecosystem development

Guochen Kenny Png, Hans Lambers, Paul Kardol, Benjamin L. Turner, David A. Wardle & Etienne Laliberté
1. Feedback between plants and soil is an important driver of plant community structure, but it remains unclear whether plant-soil feedback (PSF): (i) reflects changes in biotic or abiotic properties, (ii) depends on environmental context in terms of soil nutrient availability, and (iii) varies among plant functional groups. Because soil nutrient availability strongly affects plant distribution and performance, soil chemical properties and plant nutrient-acquisition strategies might serve as important drivers of PSF. 2. We used...

Data from: The molecular biogeography of the Indo-Pacific: testing hypotheses with multispecies genetic patterns

Eric D. Crandall, Cynthia Riginos, Chris E. Bird, Libby Liggins, Eric Treml, Maria Beger, Paul H. Barber, Sean R. Connolly, Peter F. Cowman, Joseph D. Dibattista, Jeff A. Eble, Sharon F. Magnuson, John B. Horne, Marc Kochzius, Harilaos A. Lessios, Shang Yin Vanson Liu, William B. Ludt, Hawis Madduppa, John M. Pandolfi, Robert R. Toonen, Contributing Members Of Diversity Of The Indo-Pacific Network & Michelle R. Gaither
Aim: To test hypothesized biogeographic partitions of the tropical Indo-Pacific Ocean with phylogeographic data from 56 taxa, and to evaluate the strength and nature of barriers emerging from this test. Location: The Indo-Pacific Ocean. Time Period: Pliocene through the Holocene. Major Taxa Studied: 56 marine species. Methods: We tested eight biogeographic hypotheses for partitioning of the Indo-Pacific using a novel modification to analysis of molecular variance. Putative barriers to gene flow emerging from this analysis...

Data from: Hybridization and barriers to gene flow in an island bird radiation

Ben H. Warren, Eldredge Bermingham, Yann Bourgeois, Laura K. Estep, Robert P. Prys-Jones, Dominique Strasberg & Christophe Thébaud
While reinforcement may play a role in all major modes of speciation, relatively little is known about the timescale over which species hybridize without evolving complete reproductive isolation. Birds have high potential for hybridization, and islands provide simple settings for uncovering speciation and hybridization patterns. Here we develop a phylogenetic hypothesis for a phenotypically-diverse radiation of finch-like weaver-birds (Foudia) endemic to the western Indian Ocean islands. We find that unlike Darwin’s finches, each island-endemic Foudia...

Data from: Plant-soil feedback and the maintenance of diversity in Mediterranean-climate shrublands

Francois P. Teste, Paul Kardol, Benjamin L. Turner, David A. Wardle, Graham Zemunik, Michael Renton & Etienne Laliberté
Soil biota influence plant performance through plant-soil feedback, but it is unclear whether the strength of such feedback depends on plant traits and whether plant-soil feedback drives local plant diversity. We grew 16 co-occurring plant species with contrasting nutrient-acquisition strategies from hyperdiverse Australian shrublands and exposed them to soil biota from under their own or other plant species. Plant responses to soil biota varied according to their nutrient-acquisition strategy, including positive feedback for ectomycorrhizal plants...

Data from: Poison frog color morphs express assortative mate preferences in allopatry but not sympatry

Yusan Yang, Corinne L. Richards-Zawacki, Anisha Devar & Matthew B. Dugas
The concurrent divergence of mating traits and preferences is necessary for the evolution of reproductive isolation via sexual selection, and such coevolution has been demonstrated in diverse lineages. However, the extent to which assortative mate preferences are sufficient to drive reproductive isolation in nature is less clear. Natural contact zones between lineages divergent in traits and preferences provide exceptional opportunities for testing the predicted evolutionary consequences of such divergence. The strawberry poison frog (Oophaga pumilio)...

Data from: The mechanical defence advantage of small seeds

Evan C. Fricke & S. Joseph Wright
Seed size and toughness affect seed predators, and size-dependent investment in mechanical defence could affect relationships between seed size and predation. We tested how seed toughness and mechanical defence traits (tissue density and protective tissue content) are related to seed size among tropical forest species. Absolute toughness increased with seed size. However, smaller seeds had higher specific toughness both within and among species, with the smallest seeds requiring over 2000 times more energy per gram...

Data from: A treefrog with reproductive mode plasticity reveals a changing balance of selection for non-aquatic egg-laying

Justin C. Touchon
Non-aquatic reproduction has evolved repeatedly, but the factors that select for laying eggs on land are not well understood. The treefrog Dendropsophus ebraccatus has plasticity in reproductive mode, laying eggs that successfully develop in or out of water. This permits the first experimental comparison of the selective agents that shape adult oviposition behavior and embryo developmental capacity. I quantified the sources and strength of arboreal and aquatic egg mortality, how mortality varies with weather patterns,...

Data from: Warning signals are seductive: relative contributions of color and pattern to predator avoidance and mate attraction in Heliconius butterflies

Susan D. Finkbeiner, Adriana D. Briscoe & Robert D. Reed
Visual signaling in animals can serve many uses, including predator deterrence and mate attraction. In many cases, signals used to advertise unprofitability to predators are also used for intraspecific communication. Although aposematism and mate choice are significant forces driving the evolution of many animal phenotypes, the interplay between relevant visual signals remains little explored. Here, we address this question in the aposematic passion-vine butterfly Heliconius erato by using color- and pattern-manipulated models to test the...

Data from: Asymmetric dispersal and colonization success of Amazonian plant-ants queens

Emilio M. Bruna, Thiago J. Izzo, Brian D. Inouye, Maria Uriarte & Heraldo L. Vasconcelos
Background: The dispersal ability of queens is central to understanding ant life-history evolution, and plays a fundamental role in ant population and community dynamics, the maintenance of genetic diversity, and the spread of invasive ants. In tropical ecosystems, species from over 40 genera of ants establish colonies in the stems, hollow thorns, or leaf pouches of specialized plants. However, little is known about the relative dispersal ability of queens competing for access to the same...

Data from: Population genomics of local adaptation versus speciation in coral reef fishes (Hypoplectrus spp, Serranidae)

Sophie Picq, Owen McMillan, Oscar Puebla & W. Owen McMillan
Are the population genomic patterns underlying local adaptation and the early stages of speciation similar? Addressing this question requires a system in which i. local adaptation and the early stages of speciation can be clearly identified and distinguished, ii. the amount of genetic divergence driven by the two processes is similar, and iii. comparisons can be repeated both taxonomically (for local adaptation) and geographically (for speciation). Here, we report just such a situation in the...

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