237 Works

BCI 50-ha Plot Taxonomy

Richard Condit, Rolando Pérez, Salomón Aguilar, Suzanne Lao, Robin Foster & Hubbell Stephen
BCI 50-ha Plot Taxonomy The 50-ha plot at Barro Colorado Island was initially demarcated and fully censused in 1982, and has been fully censused 7 times since, every 5 years from 1985 through 2015 (Hubbell and Foster 1983, Hubbell et al. 1990, Condit et al. 2012, Condit et al. 2017). The taxonomic component required repeated collecting and sorting so that every individual could be matched to a previously described species from Croat (1978). Over 300...

Heliconiini butterflies can learn time-dependent reward associations

Wyatt Toure, Fletcher Young, W. McMillan & Stephen Montgomery
For many pollinators, flowers provide predictable temporal schedules of resource availability, meaning an ability to learn time-dependent information could be widely beneficial. However, this ability has only been demonstrated in a handful of species. Observational studies of Heliconius butterflies suggest that they may have an ability to form time-dependent foraging preferences. Heliconius are unique among butterflies in actively collecting pollen, a dietary behaviour linked to spatiotemporally faithful ‘trap-line’ foraging. Time-dependency of foraging preferences is hypothesised...

Alignments of Sequence Data for Phylogenetic Analysis of Damsel

Emily McFarland, Carole Baldwin, D Ross Robertson, Luiz Rocha & Luke Tornabene
Initially described in 1882, Chromis enchrysurus, the Yellowtail Reeffish, was redescribed in 1982 to account for an observed color morph that possesses a white tail instead of a yellow one, but morphological and geographic boundaries between the two color morphs were not well understood. Taking advantage of newly collected material from submersible studies of deep reefs and photographs from rebreather dives, we sought to determine whether the white-tailed Chromis is actually a color morph of...

Marine species formation along the rise of Central America: the anomuran crab Megalobrachium

Alexandra Hiller & Harilaos Lessios
The evolution of marine neotropical shallow water species is expected to have been greatly affected by physical events related to the emergence of the Central American Isthmus. The anomuran crab Megalobrachium, a strictly neotropical porcellanid genus, consists of four species in the West Atlantic (WA) and nine in the East Pacific (EP). Dispersal is limited to a relatively short planktonic phase, which lasts approximately two weeks. We obtained DNA sequences of three mitochondrial and two...

Global meta-analysis of how marine upwelling affects herbivory

Andrew Sellers, Brian Leung & Mark Torchin
Aim: Nutrient subsidies support high primary productivity, increasing herbivore abundance and influencing their top-down control of producers. Wind-driven upwelling events deliver cold nutrient-rich water to coastlines, supporting highly productive marine environments. Results from studies comparing ecological processes across upwelling regimes are mixed: some reveal weaker herbivory in upwelling regions, while others report a positive relationship between upwelling and herbivory. In this synthesis we examine the influence of upwelling on top-down control of producers across the...

Data from: Size-related scaling of tree form and function in a mixed-age forest

Kristina J. Anderson-Teixeira, Jennifer C. McGarvey, Helene C. Muller-Landau, Janice Y. Park, Erika B. Gonzalez-Akre, Valentine Herrmann, Amy C. Bennett, Christopher V. So, Norman A. Bourg, Jonathan R. Thompson, Sean M. McMahon & William J. McShea
Many morphological, physiological and ecological traits of trees scale with diameter, shaping the structure and function of forest ecosystems. Understanding the mechanistic basis for such scaling relationships is key to understanding forests globally and their role in Earth's changing climate system. Here, we evaluate theoretical predictions for the scaling of nine variables in a mixed-age temperate deciduous forest (CTFS-ForestGEO forest dynamics plot at the Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute, Virginia, USA) and compare observed scaling parameters...

Data from: Species-specific responses of foliar nutrients to long-term nitrogen and phosphorus additions in a lowland tropical forest

Jordan R. Mayor, S. Joseph Wright & Benjamin L. Turner
1) The concentration, stoichiometry, and resorption of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in plant leaves are often used as proxies of the availability of these growth-limiting nutrients, but the responses of these metrics to changes in nutrient availability remains largely untested for tropical forest trees. 2) We evaluated changes in N and P concentrations, N:P ratios, and resorption for 4 common tree species after 13 years of factorial N and P additions in a lowland...

Data from: Trait-based scaling of temperature-dependent foliar respiration in a species-rich tropical forest canopy

Martijn Slot, Camilo Rey-Sánchez, Klaus Winter & Kaoru Kitajima
The scarcity of empirical data on leaf respiration (R) and its temperature sensitivity (e.g., Q10, defined as the proportional increase in R per 10°C warming) causes uncertainty in current estimates of net primary productivity of tropical forests. We measured temperature response curves of R on 123 upper-canopy leaves of 28 species of trees and lianas from a tropical forest in Panama, and analyzed variations in R and Q10 in relation to other leaf functional traits....

Data from: Environmental gradients and the evolution of successional habitat specialization: a test case with 14 Neotropical forest sites

Susan G. Letcher, Jesse R. Lasky, Robin L. Chazdon, Natalia Norden, S. Joseph Wright, Jorge A. Meave, Eduardo A. Pérez-García, Rodrigo Muñoz, Eunice Romero-Pérez, Ana Andrade, José Luis Andrade, Patricia Balvanera, Justin M. Becknell, Tony V. Bentos, Radika Bhaskar, Frans Bongers, Vanessa Boukili, Pedro H. S. Brancalion, Ricardo G. César, Deborah A. Clark, David B. Clark, Dylan Craven, Alexander DeFrancesco, Juan M. Dupuy, Bryan Finegan … & G. Bruce Williamson
1. Successional gradients are ubiquitous in nature, yet few studies have systematically examined the evolutionary origins of taxa that specialize at different successional stages. Here we quantify successional habitat specialization in Neotropical forest trees and evaluate its evolutionary lability along a precipitation gradient. Theoretically, successional habitat specialization should be more evolutionarily conserved in wet forests than in dry forests due to more extreme microenvironmental differentiation between early and late successional stages in wet forest. 2....

Data from: The rise and fall of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal diversity during ecosystem retrogression

Manuela Krüger, François P. Teste, Etienne Laliberté, Hans Lambers, Megan Coghlan, Graham Zemunik & Michael Bunce
Ecosystem retrogression following long-term pedogenesis is attributed to phosphorus (P) limitation of primary productivity. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) enhance P acquisition for most terrestrial plants, but it has been suggested that this strategy becomes less effective in strongly weathered soils with extremely low P availability. Using next generation sequencing of the large subunit ribosomal RNA gene in roots and soil, we compared the composition and diversity of AMF communities in three contrasting stages of a...

Data from: Foliar nutrient concentrations and resorption efficiency in plants of contrasting nutrient-acquisition strategies along a 2-million year dune chronosequence

Patrick Hayes, Benjamin L. Turner, Hans Lambers & Etienne Laliberté
1. Long-term pedogenesis leads to important changes in the availability of soil nutrients, especially nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P). Changes in the availability of micronutrients can also occur, but are less well understood. We explored whether changes in leaf nutrient concentrations and resorption were consistent with a shift from N to P limitation of plant productivity with soil age along a >2-million year dune chronosequence in south-western Australia. We also compared these traits among plants...

Data from: Keeping the band together: evidence for false boundary disruptive coloration in a butterfly

Brett M. Seymoure & Annette Aiello
There is a recent surge of evidence supporting disruptive coloration, in which patterns break up the animal's outline through false edges or boundaries, increasing survival in animals by reducing predator detection and/or preventing recognition. Though research has demonstrated that false edges are successful for reducing predation of prey, research into the role of internal false boundaries (i.e., stripes and bands) in reducing predation remains warranted. Many animals, have stripes and bands that may function disruptively....

Data from: Testing the role of ecology and life history in structuring genetic variation across a landscape: a trait-based phylogeographic approach

Andrea Paz, Roberto Ibáñez, Karen R. Lips & Andrew J. Crawford
Hypotheses to explain phylogeographic structure traditionally invoke geographic features, but often fail to provide a general explanation for spatial patterns of genetic variation. Organisms' intrinsic characteristics might play more important roles than landscape features in determining phylogeographic structure. We developed a novel comparative approach to explore the role of ecological and life-history variables in determining spatial genetic variation and tested it on frog communities in Panama. We quantified spatial genetic variation within 31 anuran species...

Data from: Pervasive and strong effects of plants on soil chemistry: a meta-analysis of individual plant ‘Zinke’ effects

Bonnie G. Waring, Leonor Álvarez-Cansino, Kathryn E. Barry, Kristen K. Becklund, Sarah Dale, Maria G. Gei, Adrienne B. Keller, Omar R. Lopez, Lars Markesteijn, Scott Mangan, Charlotte E. Riggs, Maria Elizabeth Rodríguez-Ronderos, R. Max Segnitz, Stefan A. Schnitzer & Jennifer S. Powers
Plant species leave a chemical signature in the soils below them, generating fine-scale spatial variation that drives ecological processes. Since the publication of a seminal paper on plant-mediated soil heterogeneity by Paul Zinke in 1962, a robust literature has developed examining effects of individual plants on their local environments (individual plant effects). Here, we synthesize this work using meta-analysis to show that plant effects are strong and pervasive across ecosystems on six continents. Overall, soil...

Data from: Acoustic identification of Mexican bats based on taxonomic and ecological constraints on call design

Veronica Zamora-Gutierrez, Celia Lopez-Gonzalez, M. Cristina MacSwiney Gonzalez, Brock Fenton, Gareth Jones, Elisabeth K. V. Kalko, Sebastien J. Puechmaille, Vassilios Stathopoulos & Kate E. Jones
Monitoring global biodiversity is critical for understanding responses to anthropogenic change, but biodiversity monitoring is often biased away from tropical, megadiverse areas that are experiencing more rapid environmental change. Acoustic surveys are increasingly used to monitor biodiversity change, especially for bats as they are important indicator species and most use sound to detect, localise and classify objects. However, using bat acoustic surveys for monitoring poses several challenges, particularly in megadiverse regions. Many species lack reference...

Data from: Photosynthetic acclimation to warming in tropical forest tree seedlings

Martijn Slot & Klaus Winter
Tropical forests have a mitigating effect on man-made climate change by acting as a carbon sink. For that effect to continue, tropical trees will have to acclimate to rising temperatures, but it is currently unknown whether they have this capacity. We grew seedlings of three tropical tree species over a range of temperature regimes (TGrowth = 25, 30, 35 °C) and measured the temperature response of photosynthetic CO2 uptake. All species showed signs of acclimation:...

Data from: No evidence for maintenance of a sympatric Heliconius species barrier by chromosomal inversions

John W. Davey, Sarah L. Barker, Pasi M. Rastas, Ana Pinharanda, Simon H. Martin, Richard Durbin, W. Owen McMillan, Richard M. Merrill & Chris D. Jiggins
Mechanisms that suppress recombination are known to help maintain species barriers by preventing the breakup of coadapted gene combinations. The sympatric butterfly species Heliconius melpomene and Heliconius cydno are separated by many strong barriers, but the species still hybridize infrequently in the wild, and around 40% of the genome is influenced by introgression. We tested the hypothesis that genetic barriers between the species are maintained by inversions or other mechanisms that reduce between-species recombination rate....

Data from: Cascading effects of predator activity on tick-borne disease risk

Tim R. Hofmeester, Patrick A. Jansen, Hendrikus J. Wijnen, Elena C. Coipan, Manoj Fonville, Herbert H.T. Prins, Hein Sprong, Sip E. Van Wieren, Herbert H. T. Prins & Sipke E. Van Wieren
Predators and competitors of vertebrates can in theory reduce the density of infected nymphs (DIN)—an often-used measure of tick-borne disease risk—by lowering the density of reservoir-competent hosts and/or the tick burden on reservoir-competent hosts. We investigated this possible indirect effect of predators by comparing data from 20 forest plots across the Netherlands that varied in predator abundance. In each plot, we measured the density of questing Ixodes ricinus nymphs (DON), DIN for three pathogens, rodent...

Data from: Host-specific effects of soil microbial filtrates prevail over those of arbuscular mycorrhizae in a fragmented landscape

Camila Pizano, Scott A. Mangan, James H. Graham & Kaoru Kitajima
Plant-soil interactions have been shown to determine plant community composition in a wide range of environments. However, how plants distinctly interact with beneficial and detrimental organisms across mosaic landscapes containing fragmented habitats is still poorly understood. We experimentally tested feedback responses between plants and soil microbial communities from adjacent habitats across a disturbance gradient within a human-modified tropical montane landscape. In a greenhouse experiment, two components of soil microbial communities were amplified; arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi...

Data from: Anchored hybrid enrichment provides new insights into the phylogeny and evolution of longhorned beetles (Cerambycidae)

Stephanie Haddad, Seunggwan Shin, Alan R. Lemmon, Emily Moriarty Lemmon, Petr Svacha, Brian Farrell, Adam Ślipiński, Donald Windsor & Duane D. McKenna
Cerambycidae is a species-rich family of mostly wood-feeding (xylophagous) beetles containing nearly 35 000 known species. The higher-level phylogeny of Cerambycidae has never been robustly reconstructed using molecular phylogenetic data or a comprehensive sample of higher taxa, and its internal relationships and evolutionary history remain the subjects of ongoing debate. We reconstructed the higher-level phylogeny of Cerambycidae using phylogenomic data from 522 single copy nuclear genes, generated via anchored hybrid enrichment. Our taxon sample (31...

Data from: Distance-dependent seedling mortality and long-term spacing dynamics in a neotropical forest community

Stephen J. Murphy, Thorsten Wiegand & Liza S. Comita
Negative distance dependence (NDisD), or reduced recruitment near adult conspecifics, is thought to explain the astounding diversity of tropical forests. While many studies show greater mortality at near vs. far distances from adults, these studies do not seek to track changes in the peak seedling curve over time, thus limiting our ability to link NDisD to coexistence. Using census data collected over 12 years from central Panama in conjunction with spatial mark-connection functions, we show...

Data from: Molecular signatures of host specificity linked to habitat specialization in Exaiptasia sea anemones.

Emily S. Bellis, Reid B. Edlund, Hazel K. Berrios, Harilaos A. Lessios, Dee R. Denver & Reid. B. Edlund
Rising ocean temperatures associated with global climate change induce breakdown of the symbiosis between coelenterates and photosynthetic microalgae of the genus Symbiodinium. Association with more thermotolerant partners could contribute to resilience, but the genetic mechanisms controlling specificity of hosts for particular Symbiodinium types are poorly known. Here we characterize wild populations of a sea anemone laboratory model system for anthozoan symbiosis, from contrasting environments in Caribbean Panama. Patterns of anemone abundance and symbiont diversity were...

Data from: A split sex ratio in solitary and social nests of a facultatively social bee

Adam R. Smith, Karen M. Kapheim, Callum J. Kingwell & William T. Wcislo
A classic prediction of kin selection theory is that a mixed population of social and solitary nests of haplodiploid insects should exhibit a split sex ratio among offspring: female biased in social nests, male biased in solitary nests. Here we provide the first evidence of a solitary-social split sex ratio, using the sweat bee Megalopta genalis (Halictidae). Data from 2502 offspring collected from naturally occurring nests across six years spanning the range of the M....

Data from: A hyperspectral image can predict tropical tree growth rates in single-species stands

T. Trevor Caughlin, Sarah J. Graves, Gregory P. Asner, Michiel Van Breugel, Jefferson S. Hall, Roberta E. Martin, Mark S. Ashton & Stephanie A. Bohlman
Remote sensing is increasingly needed to meet the critical demand for estimates of forest structure and composition at landscape to continental scales. Hyperspectral images can detect tree canopy properties, including species identity, leaf chemistry and disease. Tree growth rates are related to these measurable canopy properties but whether growth can be directly predicted from hyperspectral data remains unknown. We used a single hyperspectral image and LiDAR-derived elevation to predict growth rates for twenty tropical tree...

Data from: The Automated Root Exudate System (ARES): a method to apply solutes at regular intervals to soils in the field

Luis Lopez-Sangil, Charles T. George, Eduardo Medina-Barcenas, Ali J. Birkett, Catherine Baxendale, Laetitia M. Bréchet, Eduard Estradera-Gumbau, Emma J. Sayer & Charles George
1) Root exudation is a key component of nutrient and carbon dynamics in terrestrial ecosystems. Exudation rates vary widely by plant species and environmental conditions but our understanding of how root exudates affect soil functioning is incomplete, in part because there are few viable methods to manipulate root exudates in situ. To address this, we devised the Automated Root Exudate System (ARES), which simulates increased root exudation by applying small amounts of labile solutes at...

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