31 Works

Data from: Reassessment of the non-titanosaurian somphospondylan Wintonotitan wattsi (Dinosauria: Sauropoda: Titanosauriformes) from the mid-Cretaceous Winton Formation, Queensland, Australia

Stephen F. Poropat, Philip D. Mannion, Paul Upchurch, Scott A. Hocknull, Benjamin P. Kear & David A. Elliott
Wintonotitan wattsi, a Cretaceous titanosauriform sauropod from central Queensland, Australia, is redescribed following a full revision of its osteology. The holotype specimen, a partial postcranial skeleton derived from the lower Upper Cretaceous Winton Formation, comprises axial and appendicular elements. Wintonotitan has been commonly resolved as a non-titanosaurian somphospondylan titanosauriform since its description, in contrast to its more derived contemporary Diamantinasaurus matildae. We provide a detailed redescription, taking this opportunity to correct four misinterpretations made in...

Data from: Diversification across biomes in a continental lizard radiation

Lauren G. Ashman, Jason G. Bragg, Paul Doughty, Mark Norman Hutchinson, Sarah Bank, Nick Matzke, Paul M. Oliver, Craig Moritz, N. J. Matzke & P. Oliver
Ecological opportunity is a powerful driver of evolutionary diversification, and predicts rapid lineage and phenotypic diversification following colonisation of competitor-free habitats. Alternatively, topographic or environmental heterogeneity could be key to generating and sustaining diversity. We explore these hypotheses in a widespread lineage of Australian lizards: the Gehyra variegata group. This clade occurs across two biomes: the Australian monsoonal tropics (AMT), where it overlaps a separate, larger bodied clade of Gehyra and is largely restricted to...

Floral attraction and flower visitors of a subcanopy tropical rainforest tree, F. picrosperma_Data

Elektra Grant, Helen Wallace, Peter Brooks, Chris Burwell, Paul Reddell & Steven Ogbourne
1. Flowering plants in tropical rainforests rely heavily on pollen vectors for successful reproduction. Research into pollination systems in tropical rainforests is dominated by canopy species, while subcanopy plant-pollinator interactions remain under-represented. The microclimate beneath the rainforest canopy is characterised by low light levels and is markedly different from the canopy environment that receives more light energy. 2. We studied the floral attractants and floral visitors of a dioecious, subcanopy tree, Fontainea picrosperma (Euphorbiaceae) in...

Data from: Cranial remains of Ramsayia magna from the Late Pleistocene of Australia and the evolution of gigantism in wombats (Vombatidae; Marsupialia)

Julien Louys, Mathieu Duval, Robin M.D. Beck, Eleanor Pease, Ian Sobbe, Noel Sands & Gilbert J. Price
Giant wombats (defined here as body mass ≥ 70 kg) are found in the genera Phascolonus, Ramsayia, and perhaps also Sedophascolomys. Of these, Ramsayia is the currently the most poorly known, having been described from fragmentary mandibular and cranial fragments. Here, we report the most complete cranial remains attributable to the genus, identified as the species R. magna. The remains provide new important insights into the anatomy of the species and the evolutionary adaptations to...

Mygalomorph spiders: Discrete data matrix of burrow construction behavior and somatic morphology

Jeremy Wilson, Jason Bond, Mark Harvey, Martin Ramirez & Michael Rix
Mygalomorph spiders (trapdoor spiders and their kin) have long been associated with high levels of homoplasy, and many convergent features can be intuitively associated with different behavioral niches. This dataset includes two discrete behavioral characters and 55 somatic morphological characters (scored from adult females), for 110 genera of mygalomorph spiders, along with a complete reference list and exemplar list used when constructing the dataset. This dataset was used to reconstruct the evolution of burrowing behavior...

Data from: Episodic radiations in the fly tree of life

Brian M. Wiegmann, Michelle D. Trautwein, Isaac S. Winkler, Norman B. Barr, Jung-Wook Kim, Christine Lambkin, Matthew A. Bertone, Brian K. Cassel, Keith M. Bayless, Alysha M. Heimberg, Benjamin M. Wheeler, Kevin J. Peterson, Thomas Pape, Bradley J. Sinclair, Jeffrey H. Skevington, Vladimir Blagoderov, Jason Caravas, Sujatha Narayanan Kutty, Urs Schmidt-Ott, Gail E. Kampmeier, F. Christian Thompson, David A. Grimaldi, Andrew T. Beckenbach, Gregory W. Courtney, Markus Friedrich … & J.-W. Kim
Flies are one of four superradiations of insects (along with beetles, wasps, and moths) that account for the majority of animal life on Earth. Diptera includes species known for their ubiquity (Musca domestica house fly), their role as pests (Anopheles gambiae malaria mosquito), and their value as model organisms across the biological sciences (Drosophila melanogaster). A resolved phylogeny for flies provides a framework for genomic, developmental, and evolutionary studies by facilitating comparisons across model organisms,...

Data from: Across the Indian Ocean: a remarkable example of trans-oceanic dispersal in an austral mygalomorph spider

Sophie E. Harrison, Mark S. Harvey, Steven J.B. Cooper, Andrew D. Austin, Michael G. Rix & Steve J. B. Cooper
The Migidae are a family of austral trapdoor spiders known to show a highly restricted and disjunct distribution pattern. Here, we aim to investigate the phylogeny and historical biogeography of the group, which was previously thought to be vicariant in origin, and examine the biogeographic origins of the genus Moggridgea using a dated multi-gene phylogeny. Moggridgea specimens were sampled from southern Australia and Africa, and Bertmainus was sampled from Western Australia. Sanger sequencing methods were...

Data from: Patterns of ecological diversification in thelodonts

Humberto G. Ferrón, Carlos Martínez-Pérez, Susan Turner, Esther Manzanares & Héctor Botella
Here we explore the spatial, temporal and phylogenetic patterns of ecological diversification for the entire clade of thelodonts, one of the earliest groups of vertebrates and longest lasting of the Palaeozoic agnathans in the fossil record. Parsimony and maximum-likelihood methods are used to reconstruct ancestral states of their geographical distributions, habitats and lifestyles. Our results support the concept that thelodonts originated during the Middle?–Late Ordovician probably in marine open waters of Laurasia, with a demersal...

Phylogenomic resolution of sea spider diversification through integration of multiple data classes

Jesus Ballesteros, Emily Setton, Carlos Santibáñez-López, Claudia Arango, Georg Brenneis, Saskia Brix, Kevin Corbett, Esperanza Cano-Sánchez, Merai Dandouch, Geoffrey Dilly, Marc Eleaume, Guilherme Gainett, Cyril Gallut, Sean McAtee, Lauren McIntyre, Randy Moran, Pablo López-González, Gerhard Scholtz, Clay Williamson, Arthur Woods, Jakob Zehms, Ward Wheeler & Prashant Sharma
Despite significant advances in invertebrate phylogenomics over the past decade, the higher-level phylogeny of Pycnogonida (sea spiders) remains elusive. Due to the inaccessibility of some small-bodied lineages, few phylogenetic studies have sampled all sea spider families. Previous efforts based on a handful of genes have yielded unstable tree topologies. Here, we inferred the relationships of 89 sea spider species using targeted capture of the mitochondrial genome, 56 conserved exons, 101 ultraconserved elements, and three nuclear...

The rediscovery of a relict unlocks the first global phylogeny of whip spiders (Amblypygi)

Gustavo De Miranda, Siddharth Kulkarni, Jessica Tagliatela, Caitlin Baker, Alessandro P.L. Giupponi, Facundo Labarque, Efrat Gavish-Regev, Michael Rix, Leonardo Carvalho, Livia Fusari, Hannah Wood & Prashant Sharma
Asymmetrical rates of cladogenesis and extinction abound in the Tree of Life, resulting in numerous minute clades that are dwarfed by larger sister groups. Such taxa are commonly regarded as phylogenetic relicts or “living fossils” when they exhibit an ancient first appearance in the fossil record and prolonged external morphological stasis, particularly in comparison to their more diversified sister groups. Due to their special status, various phylogenetic relicts tend to be well-studied and prioritized for...

Data from: Changes in host-parasitoid food web structure with elevation

Sarah C. Maunsell, Roger L. Kitching, Chris J. Burwell & Rebecca J. Morris
Gradients in elevation are increasingly used to investigate how species respond to changes in local climatic conditions. While many studies have shown elevational patterns in species richness and turnover, little is known about how food web structure is affected by elevation. Contrasting responses of predator and prey species to elevation may lead to changes in food web structure. We investigated how the quantitative structure of a herbivore-parasitoid food web changes with elevation in Australian subtropical...

Data from: DNA barcoding reveals the coral “laboratory-rat”, Stylophora pistillata encompasses multiple identities

Shashank Keshavmurthy, Sung-Yin Yang, Ada Alamaru, Yao-Yang Chuang, Michel Pichon, David Obura, Silvia Fontana, Stephane De Palmas, Fabrizio Stefani, Francesca Benzoni, Angus MacDonald, Annika M. E. Noreen, Chienshun Chen, Carden C. Wallace, Ruby M. Pillay, Vianney Denis, Affendi Yang Amri, James D. Reimer, Takuma Mezaki, Charles Sheppard, Yossi Loya, Avidor Abelson, Mohammed S. Mohammed, Andrew C. Baker, Pargol G. Mostafavi … & Chaolun A. Chen
Stylophora pistillata is a widely used coral “lab-rat” species with highly variable morphology and a broad biogeographic range (Red Sea to western central Pacific). Here we show, by analysing Cytochorme Oxidase I sequences, from 241 samples across this range, that this taxon in fact comprises four deeply divergent clades corresponding to the Pacific-Western Australia, Chagos-Madagascar-South Africa, Gulf of Aden-Zanzibar- Madagascar, and Red Sea-Persian/Arabian Gulf-Kenya. On the basis of the fossil record of Stylophora, these four...

Data from: Measuring the success of reforestation for restoring biodiversity and ecosystem functioning

Mia A. Derhé, Helen Murphy, Geoff Monteith & Rosa Menéndez
Effective assessment of the success of ecological restoration projects is critical in justifying the use of restoration in natural resource management as well as improving best practice. One of the main goals of ecological restoration is the recovery of ecosystem function, yet most researchers assume that increasing species and or functional diversity equates with restoration of ecosystem function, rather than empirically demonstrating these mechanistic relationships. In this study, we assess how dung beetle species diversity,...

A genome-skimmed phylogeny of a widespread bryozoan family, Adeonidae

Russell John Scott Orr, Marianne N. Haugen, Björn Berning, Philip Bock, Robyn Cumming, Wayne Florence, Masato Hirose, Emanuela Di Martino, Mali H. Ramsfjell, Maja M. Sannum, Abigail M. Smith, Leandro M. Vieira, Andrea Waeschenbach & Lee Hsiang Liow
Understanding the phylogenetic relationships among species is one of the main goals of systematic biology. Simultaneously, credible phylogenetic hypotheses are often the first requirement for unveiling the evolutionary history of traits and for modelling macroevolutionary processes. However, many non-model taxa have not yet been sequenced to an extent such that statistically well-supported molecular phylogenies can be constructed for these purposes. Here, we use a genome-skimming approach to extract sequence information for 15 mitochondrial and 2...

Data from: Species identity and depth predict bleaching severity in reef building corals: shall the deep inherit the reef?

Paul R. Muir, Paul A. Marshall, Ameer Abdulla & J. David Aguirre
Mass bleaching associated with unusually high sea temperatures represents one of the greatest threats to corals and coral reef ecosystems. Deeper reef areas are hypothesized as potential refugia, but the susceptibility of Scleractinian species over depth has not been quantified. During the most severe bleaching event on record, we found up to 83% of coral cover severely affected on Maldivian reefs at a depth of 3–5 m, but significantly reduced effects at 24–30 m. Analysis...

Data from: Age and area predict patterns of species richness in pumice rafts contingent on oceanic climatic zone encountered

Eleanor Velasquez, Scott E. Bryan, Merrick Ekins, Alex G. Cook, Lucy Hurrey & Jennifer Firn
The Theory of Island Biogeography predicts that area and age explain species richness patterns (or alpha diversity) in insular habitats. Using a unique natural phenomenon, pumice rafting, we measured the influence of area, age and oceanic climate on patterns of species richness. Pumice rafts are formed simultaneously when submarine volcanoes erupt, the pumice clasts break-up irregularly, forming irregularly shaped pumice stones which while floating through the ocean are colonised by marine biota. We analyse two...

Species-level coral bleaching data for Maldives and GBR

Paul Muir, Terence Done & David Aguirre
Response to coral bleaching for 7368 coral colonies exposed to similar levels of temperature stress at a similar depth of occurrence and similar subsequent mortality. Collected in situ following moderate thermal bleaching events in the GBR in 2002 and the Maldives in 2016. Data gives species, site, depth of occurence and bleaching response which was scored by tissue colour.

Data from: Dealing with uncertainty in landscape genetic resistance models: a case of three co-occurring marsupials

Rachael Y. Dudaniec, Jessica Worthington-Wilmer, Jeffrey O. Hanson, Matthew Warren, Sarah Bell, Jonathan R. Rhodes & Jessica Worthington Wilmer
Landscape genetics lacks explicit methods for dealing with the uncertainty in landscape resistance estimation, which is particularly problematic when sample sizes of individuals are small. Unless uncertainty can be quantified, valuable but small datasets may be rendered unusable for conservation purposes. We offer a method to quantify uncertainty in landscape resistance estimates using multi-model inference as an improvement over single-model based inference. We illustrate the approach empirically using co-occurring, woodland-preferring Australian marsupials within a common...

Data from: Placoderms and the evolutionary origin of teeth: a comment on Rücklin & Donoghue (2015)

Carole Burrow, Yuzhi Hu & Gavin Young
Anterior supragnathal of an Early Devonian arthrodire (ANU V244)PLY file of the anterior supragnathal (ASG) of an Early Devonian arthrodire (ANU V244).ASG_LowRes.zip

Data from: Australian spiny mountain crayfish and their temnocephalan ectosymbionts: an ancient association on the edge of coextinction?

Jennifer F. Hoyal Cuthill, Kim B. Sewell, Lester R. G. Cannon, Michael A. Charleston, Susan Lawler, D. Timothy J. Littlewood, Peter D. Olson & David Blair
Australian spiny mountain crayfish (Euastacus, Parastacidae) and their ecotosymbiotic temnocephalan flatworms (Temnocephalida, Platyhelminthes) may have co-occurred and interacted through deep time, during a period of major environmental change. Therefore, reconstructing the history of their association is of evolutionary, ecological, and conservation significance. Here, time-calibrated Bayesian phylogenies of Euastacus species and their temnocephalans (Temnohaswellia and Temnosewellia) indicate near-synchronous diversifications from the Cretaceous. Statistically significant cophylogeny correlations between associated clades suggest linked evolutionary histories. However, there is...

Data from: An enhanced target-enrichment bait set for Hexacorallia provides phylogenomic resolution of the staghorn corals (Acroporidae) and close relatives

Peter Cowman, Andrea Quattrini, Thomas Bridge, Greg Watkins-Colwell, Nur Fadli, Mila Grinblat, Thomas Edward Roberts, Catherine McFadden, David Miller & Andrew Baird
Targeted enrichment of genomic DNA can profoundly increase the phylogenetic resolution of clades and inform taxonomy. Here, we redesign a custom bait set previously developed for the cnidarian class Anthozoa to more efficiently target and capture ultraconserved elements (UCEs) and exonic loci within the subclass Hexacorallia. We test this enhanced bait set (targeting 2,476 loci) on 99 specimens of scleractinian corals spanning both the “complex” (Acroporidae, Agariciidae) and “robust” (Fungiidae) clades.Focused sampling in the staghorn...

Data from: Universal target-enrichment baits for anthozoan (Cnidaria) phylogenomics: new approaches to long-standing problems

Andrea M. Quattrini, Brant C. Faircloth, Luisa F. Dueñas, Thomas C.L. Bridge, Mercer R. Brügler, Ivan F. Calixto-Botía, Danielle M. DeLeo, Sylvain Foret, Santiago Herrera, Simon M.Y. Lee, David J. Miller, Carlos Prada, Gandhi Rádis-Baptista, Catalina Ramírez-Portilla, Juan A. Sánchez, Estefania Rodriguez, Catherine S. McFadden, Tom C. L. Bridge & Simon M. Y. Lee
Anthozoans (e.g., corals, anemones) are an ecologically important and diverse group of marine metazoans that occur from shallow to deep waters worldwide. However, our understanding of the evolutionary relationships among the ~7500 species within this class is hindered by the lack of phylogenetically informative markers that can be reliably sequenced across a diversity of taxa. We designed and tested 16,308 RNA baits to capture 720 Ultraconserved Element loci and 1,071 exon loci. Library preparation and...

Chronogram or phylogram for ancestral state estimation? Model-fit statistics indicate the branch lengths underlying a binary character’s evolution: R scripts and simulated trees

Jeremy Wilson, Nicolás Mongiardino Koch & Martín Ramírez
All R scripts used in this study, and the set of simulated phylogenetic trees used in the study. 1. Modern methods of ancestral state estimation (ASE) incorporate branch length information, and it has been demonstrated that ASEs are more accurate when conducted on the branch lengths most correlated with a character’s evolution; however, a reliable method for choosing between alternate branch length sets for discrete characters has not yet been proposed.2. In this study, we...

A global analysis of viviparity in squamates highlights its prevalence in cold climates

Anna Zimin, Sean Zimin, Richard Shine, Luciano Avila, Aaron Bauer, Monika Böhm, Rafe Brown, Goni Barki, Gabriel Henrique De Oliveira Caetano, Fernando-Castro Herrera, David Chapple, Laurent Chirio, Guarino Colli, Tiffany Doan, Frank Glaw, L. Lee Grismer, Yuval Itescu, Fred Kraus, Matthew LeBreton, Marcio Martins, Mariana Morado, Gopal Murali, Zoltán Nagy, Maria Novosolov, Paul Oliver … & Shai Meiri
Aim: Viviparity has evolved more times in squamates than in any other vertebrate group. Therefore, squamates offer an excellent model system to study the patterns, drivers, and implications of reproductive mode evolution. Based on current species distributions we examined three selective forces hypothesized to drive squamate viviparity evolution: (1) cold climate, (2) variable climate, and (3) hypoxic conditions, and tested whether viviparity is associated with larger body size. Location: Global. Time period: present day. Taxon:...

Data from: Bush Blitz aids description of three new species and a new genus of Australian beeflies (Diptera, Bombyliidae, Exoprosopini)

Christine L. Lambkin, Justin S. Bartlett & Justin Bartlett
Bush Blitz is a three-year multimillion dollar program to document the plants and animals in hundreds of properties across Australia’s National Reserve System. The core focus is on nature discovery – identifying and describing new species of plants and animals. The Bush Blitz program has enabled the collection and description of beeflies (Diptera, Bombyliidae) from surveys in Western Australia and Queensland. Three new species of Australian beeflies belonging to the Exoprosopini are described; Palirika mackenziei...

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