59 Works

Data from: Sensitivity to phosphorus limitation increases with ploidy level in a New Zealand snail

Maurine Neiman, Adam D. Kay & Amy C. Krist
Evolutionary and ecological factors that explain natural variation in ploidy level remain poorly understood. One intriguing possibility is that nutrient costs associated with higher per-cell nucleic acid content could differentially influence the fitness of different ploidy levels. Here, we test this hypothesis by determining whether access to phosphorus (P), a main component of nucleic acids, differentially affects growth rate in asexual freshwater snails (Potamopyrgus antipodarum) that differ in ploidy. As expected if larger genomes generate...

Data from: Discordance between nuclear and mitochondrial genomes in sexual and asexual lineages of the freshwater snail Potamopyrgus antipodarum

Dorota Paczesniak, Jukka Jokela, Katelyn Larkin & Maurine Neiman
The presence and extent of mitonuclear discordance in coexisting sexual and asexual lineages provides insight into 1) how and when asexual lineages emerged, and 2) the spatial and temporal scales at which the ecological and evolutionary processes influencing the evolution of sexual and asexual reproduction occur. Here, we used nuclear single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers and a mitochondrial gene to characterize phylogeographic structure and the extent of mitonuclear discordance in Potamopyrgus antipodarum. This New Zealand freshwater...

Data from: Penalized Multi-Marker versus Single-Marker Regression methods for genome-wide association studies of quantitative traits

Hui Yi, Patrick Breheny, Netsanet Iman, Yongmei Liu, Ina Hoeschele & N. Imam
The data from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in humans are still predominantly analyzed using single marker association methods. As an alternative to Single Marker Analysis (SMA), all or subsets of markers can be tested simultaneously. This approach requires a form of Penalized Regression (PR) as the number of SNPs is much larger than the sample size. Here we review PR methods in the context of GWAS, extend them to perform penalty parameter and SNP selection...

Data from: Plasticity of animal genome architecture unmasked by rapid evolution of a pelagic tunicate

France Denoeud, Simon Henriet, Sutada Mungpakdee, Jean-Marc Aury, Corinne Da Silva, Henner Brinkmann, Jana Mikhaleva, Lisbeth C. Olsen, Claire Jubin, Cristian Cañestro, Jean-Marie Bouquet, Gemma Danks, Julie Poulain, Coen Campsteijn, Marcin Adamski, Ismael Cross, Fekadu Yadetie, Matthieu Muffato, Alexandra Louis, Stephen Butcher, Georgia Tsagkogeorga, Anke Konrad, Sarabdeep Singh, Marit F. Jensen, Evelyne Huynh Cong … & Daniel Chourrout
Genomes of animals as different as sponges and humans show conservation of global architecture. Here we show that multiple genomic features including transposon diversity, developmental gene repertoire, physical gene order, and intron-exon organization are shattered in the tunicate Oikopleura, belonging to the sister group of vertebrates and retaining chordate morphology. Ancestral architecture of animal genomes can be deeply modified and may therefore be largely nonadaptive. This rapidly evolving animal lineage thus offers unique perspectives on...

Rule based and information integration category learning

John Freeman & Matthew Broschard
The following dataset includes sessions from rats and humans learning and generalizing to Rule-based and Information Integration categories. Here, category exemplars are Gabor patches, which are circular stimuli that contain black and white gratings. Across exemplars, these gratings can change in their spatial frequency and orientation. For Rule-based tasks, only one stimulus dimension (i.e., spatial frequency or orientation) is category-relevant, and the other dimension varies randomly. For Information Integration tasks, both stimulus dimensions (i.e., spatial...

Data from: Ontogenetic variability in crystallography and mosaicity of conodont apatite: Implications for microstructure, paleothermometry and geochemistry

Mohammad Shohel, Neo McAdams & Bradley Cramer
X-ray diffraction data from Silurian conodonts belonging to various developmental stages of the species Dapsilodus obliquicostatus demonstrate changes in crystallography and degree of nanocrystallite ordering (mosaicity) in both hyaline and albid crown tissue. The exclusive use of a single species in this study, combined with systematic testing of each element type at multiple locations, provided insight into microstructural and crystallographic differentiation between element position (Sa, Sb-c, M) as well as between juveniles and adults. A...

Data from: A mouse model of cochlear implantation with chronic electric stimulation

Alexander D. Claussen, René Vielman Qeuvedo, Brian Mostaert, Jonathon R. Kirk, Wolfram F. Dueck & Marlan R. Hansen
Objectives: Cochlear implants provide an effective treatment option for those with severe hearing loss, including those with preserved low frequency hearing. However, certain issues can reduce implant efficacy including intracochlear tissue response and delayed loss of residual acoustic hearing. We describe a mouse model of cochlear implantation with chronic electric stimulation that can be used to study cochlear implant biology and related pathologies. Methods: Twelve normal hearing adult CBA/J mice underwent unilateral cochlear implantation and...

Data from: No enhancement of 24-hour visuomotor skill retention by post-practice caffeine administration

Sara J. Hussain & Kelly J. Cole
Caffeine is widely consumed throughout the world and appears to indirectly facilitate learning and memory through effects on attention and motivation. Animal work indicates that post-training caffeine administration augments inhibitory avoidance memory, spatial memory, and object memory. In humans, post-training caffeine administration enhances the ability to discern between familiar images and new, similar images. However, the effect of post-training caffeine administration on motor memory has not been examined. Therefore, we tested two groups of low...

Data from: Adaptive phenotypic plasticity in a clonal invader

Gerlien Verhaegen, Kyle E. McElroy, Laura Bankers, Maurine Neiman & Martin Haase
Organisms featuring wide trait variability and occurring in a wide range of habitats, such as the ovoviviparous freshwater New Zealand snail Potamopyrgus antipodarum, are ideal models to study adaptation. Since the mid-19th century, P. antipodarum, characterized by extremely variable shell morphology, has successfully invaded aquatic areas on four continents. Because these obligately and wholy asexual invasive populations harbor low genetic diversity compared to mixed sexual/asexual populations in the native range, we hypothesized that 1) this...

Data from: Inference of chromosomal inversion dynamics from Pool-Seq data in natural and laboratory populations of Drosophila melanogaster

Martin Kapun, Hester Van Schalkwyk, Bryant McAllister, Thomas Flatt & Christian Schlötterer
Sequencing of pools of individuals (Pool-Seq) represents a reliable and cost-effective approach for estimating genome-wide SNP and transposable element insertion frequencies. However, Pool-Seq does not provide direct information on haplotypes so that for example obtaining inversion frequencies has not been possible until now. Here, we have developed a new set of diagnostic marker SNPs for 7 cosmopolitan inversions in Drosophila melanogaster that can be used to infer inversion frequencies from Pool-Seq data. We applied our...

Data from: Collagen network strengthening following cyclic tensile loading

Monica E. Susilo, Jeffrey A. Paten, Edward A. Sander, Thao D. Nguyen & Jeffrey W. Ruberti
The bulk mechanical properties of tissues are highly tuned to the physiological loads they experience and reflect the hierarchical structure and mechanical properties of their constituent parts. A thorough understanding of the processes involved in tissue adaptation is required to develop multi-scale computational models of tissue remodelling. While extracellular matrix (ECM) remodelling is partly due to the changing cellular metabolic activity, there may also be mechanically directed changes in ECM nano/microscale organization which lead to...

Data from: Optical coherence tomography is highly sensitive in detecting prior optic neuritis

Sarah Chaoying Xu, Randy H. Kardon, Jacqueline A. Leavitt, Eoin P. Flanagan, Sean J. Pittock & John J Chen
Objective: To explore sensitivity of optical coherence tomography (OCT) in detecting prior unilateral optic neuritis. Methods: Retrospective, observational clinical study of all patients who presented from 1/1/14 to 6/1/17 with unilateral optic neuritis and OCT available at least three months after the attack. We compared OCT retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and ganglion cell inner plexiform layer (GCIPL) thicknesses between affected and unaffected contralateral eyes. We excluded patients with concomitant glaucoma or other optic neuropathies....

Data from: Niche differentiation and colonization of a novel environment by an asexual parasitic wasp.

Andrew A. Forbes, Laura A. Rice, Nicholas B. Stewart, Wee L. Yee & Maurine Neiman
How do asexual taxa become adapted to a diversity of environments, and how do they persist despite changing environmental conditions? These questions are linked by their mutual focus on the relationship between genetic variation, which is often limited in asexuals, and the ability to respond to environmental variation. Asexual taxa originating from a single ancestor present a unique opportunity to assess rates of phenotypic and genetic change when access to new genetic variation is limited...

Data from: Effects of polyploidy and reproductive mode on life history trait expression

Katelyn Larkin, Claire Tucci & Maurine Neiman
Ploidy elevation is increasingly recognized as a common and important source of genomic variation. Even so, the consequences and biological significance of polyploidy remain unclear, especially in animals. Here, our goal was to identify potential life history costs and benefits of polyploidy by conducting a large multiyear common garden experiment in Potamopyrgus antipodarum, a New Zealand freshwater snail that is a model system for the study of ploidy variation, sexual reproduction, host–parasite coevolution, and invasion...

Data from: Complete species phylogeny of the marine midge Pontomyia (Diptera: Chironomidae) reveals a cosmopolitan species and a new synonym

Danwei Huang, Peter S. Cranston & Lanna Cheng
Pontomyia (Diptera: Chironomidae) is an exclusively marine and flightless insect genus with four described species from the Indo-Pacific and one undescribed taxon known only by its larvae, pupal skins and females from the western Atlantic. A previous study of relationships among three of the Indo-Pacific species reported each of them to be monophyletic, with high genetic diversity within P. natans Edwards, the type species, and P. pacifica Tokunaga. The evolutionary affinities of the Australian endemic...

Data from: Genetic differentiation associated with host plants and geography among six widespread species of South American Blepharoneura fruit flies (Tephritidae)

Kristina Ottens, Isaac S. Winkler, Matthew L. Lewis, Sonja J. Scheffer, Gessica A. Gomes-Costa, Marty A. Condon & Andrew A. Forbes
Tropical herbivorous insects are astonishingly diverse and many are highly host-specific. Much evidence suggests that herbivorous insect diversity is a function of host-plant diversity; yet, the diversity of some lineages exceeds the diversity of plants. Although most species of herbivorous fruit flies in the Neotropical genus Blepharoneura are strongly host-specific (they deposit their eggs in a single host plant species and flower sex), some species are collected from multiple hosts or flowers and these may...

Data from: Overprinting of taphonomic and paleoecological signals across the forest-prairie environmental gradient, mid-continent of North America

Lauren E. Milideo, Russell W. Graham, Carl R. Falk, Holmes A. Semken & Max L. Christie
Taphonomic factors may significantly alter faunal assemblages at varying scales. An exceptional record of late Holocene (< 4000 years old) mammal fanuas establishes a firm baseline to investigate the effects of scale on taphonomy. Our sample contains 73 sites within four contiguous states (North Dakota, South Dakota, Iowa, and Illinois, USA) that transect a strong modern and late Holocene environmental gradient, the prairie-forest ecotone. We performed Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA) and Non-metric Multidimensional Scaling (NMDS)...

Data from: The evolutionary history of dogs in the Americas

Máire Ní Leathlobhair, Angela R. Perri, Evan K. Irving-Pease, Kelsey E. Witt, Anna Linderholm, James Haile, Ophelie Lebrasseur, Carly Ameen, Jeffrey Blick, Adam R. Boyko, Selina Brace, Yahaira Nunes Cortes, Susan J. Crockford, Alison Devault, Evangelos A. Dimopoulos, Morley Eldridge, Jacob Enk, Shyam Gopalakrishnan, Kevin Gori, Vaughan Grimes, Eric Guiry, Anders J. Hansen, Ardern Hulme-Beaman, John Johnson, Andrew Kitchen … & Laurent A. F. Frantz
Dogs were present in the Americas prior to the arrival of European colonists, but the origin and fate of these pre-contact dogs are largely unknown. We sequenced 71 mitochondrial and seven nuclear genomes from ancient North American and Siberian dogs spanning ~9,000 years. Our analysis indicates that American dogs were not domesticated from North American wolves. Instead, American dogs form a monophyletic lineage that likely originated in Siberia and dispersed into the Americas alongside people....

Data from: Developmental changes in hippocampal CA1 single neuron firing and theta activity during associative learning

Jangjin Kim, Mary E. Goldsberry, Thomas C. Harmon & John H. Freeman
Hippocampal development is thought to play a crucial role in the emergence of many forms of learning and memory, but ontogenetic changes in hippocampal activity during learning have not been examined thoroughly. We examined the ontogeny of hippocampal function by recording theta and single neuron activity from the dorsal hippocampal CA1 area while rat pups were trained in associative learning. Three different age groups [postnatal days (P)17-19, P21-23, and P24-26] were trained over six sessions...

Data from: Anatomy of a cline: dissecting anti-predatory adaptations in a marine gastropod along the U.S. Atlantic coast

Mary E. Kosloski, Gregory P. Dietl & John C. Handley
The scope of anti-predatory adaptation is expected to be greater in warm than in cold environments. High temperatures lower the costs associated with the production and maintenance of energetically expensive traits and enable ecological interactions to intensify. We tested this hypothesis by characterizing the expression of anti-predatory morphology within a marine gastropod species (the knobbed whelk, Busycon carica) over a large (>1,400 km) geographic area that spans more than 10°C annual temperature variation. We also...

Ectopic expression of BBS1 rescues male infertility, but not retinal degeneration, in a BBS1 mouse model

Matthew Cring
Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS) is a rare ciliopathy for which there are no current effective treatments. BBS is a genetically heterogeneous disease, though the M390R mutation in BBS1 is involved in approximately 25% of all genetic diagnoses of BBS. The principle features of BBS include retinal degeneration, obesity, male infertility, polydactyly, intellectual disability, and renal abnormalities. Patients with mutations in BBS genes often present with night blindness within the first decade of life, which progresses to...

Data from: Developmental 'awakening' of primary motor cortex to the sensory consequences of movement

James C Dooley & Mark S Blumberg
Before primary motor cortex (M1) develops its motor functions, it functions like a somatosensory area. Here, by recording from neurons in the forelimb representation of M1 in postnatal day (P) 8-12 rats, we demonstrate a rapid shift in its sensory responses. At P8-10, M1 neurons respond overwhelmingly to feedback from sleep-related twitches of the forelimb, but the same neurons do not respond to wake-related movements. By P12, M1 neurons suddenly respond to wake movements, a...

Data from: Gut microbiome critically impacts PCB-induced changes in metabolic fingerprints and the hepatic transcriptome in mice

Joe Lim, Julia Cui, Xueshu Li, Hans-Joachim Lehmler, Dongfang Wang & Haiwei Gu
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are ubiquitously detected in the environment and have been linked to metabolic diseases. The liver serves as a central hub for the metabolism of xenobiotics and endogenous metabolites. Gut dysbiosis is recognized as a critical regulator of disease susceptibility, however, little is known regarding how PCBs and gut microbiome interact to modulate the interface between xenobiotic and intermediary metabolism. We hypothesized that the gut microbiome regulates PCBs-mediated changes in the metabolic fingerprints...

Data from: Parasite resistance predicts fitness better than fecundity in a natural population of the freshwater snail Potamopyrgus antipodarum

Dorota Paczesniak, Kirsten Klappert, Kirstin Kopp, Maurine Neiman, Katri Seppälä, Curtis M. Lively & Jukka Jokela
The cost of males should give asexual females an advantage when in competition with sexual females. In addition, high-fecundity asexual genotypes should have an advantage over low-fecundity clones, leading to reduction in clonal diversity over time. To evaluate fitness components in a natural population, we measured the annual reproductive rate of individual sexual and asexual female Potamopyrgus antipodarum, a New Zealand freshwater snail, in field enclosures that excluded competitors and predators. We used allozyme genotyping...

Abnormal Development of Cerebellar-Striatal Circuitry in Huntington’s Disease: Supplemental Figures

Jordan Schultz, Alexander Tereshchenko, Joel Bruss, Vincent Magnotta, Eric Epping & Peg Nopoulos
Objective: To test the hypothesis that the trajectory of functional connections over time of the striatum and the cerebellum differs between pre-symptomatic patients with the HD gene expansion (GE) and patients with a family history of HD but without the gene-expansion (GNE), we evaluated function MRI data from the Kids-HD study. Methods: We utilized resting-state, functional MRI data from participants in the Kids-HD study between 6 to 18 years old. Participants were divided into the...

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