62 Works

Data from: PCB126 inhibits the activation of AMPK-CREB signal transduction required for energy sensing in liver

Gopi S. Gadupudi, Benjamin A. Elser, Fabian A. Sandgruber, Xueshu Li, Katherine N. Gibson-Corley & Larry W. Robertson
3,3’,4,4’,5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB126), a dioxin-like PCB, elicits toxicity through a wide array of non-carcinogenic effects, including metabolic syndrome, wasting, and non-alcoholic fatty-liver disease (NAFLD). Previously, we reported decreases in the transcription of several enzymes involved in gluconeogenesis, before the early onset of lipid accumulation. Hence, this study was aimed at understanding the impact of resultant decreases gluconeogenic enzymes on growth, weight and metabolism in the liver, upon extended exposure. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (75-100 g), fed a...

Data from: The evolutionary relationships and age of Homo naledi: an assessment using dated Bayesian phylogenetic methods

Mana Dembo, Davorka Radovčić, Heather M. Garvin, Myra F. Laird, Lauren Schroeder, Jill E. Scott, Juliet Brophy, Rebecca R. Ackermann, Charles M. Musiba, Darryl J. De Ruiter, Arne Ø. Mooers, Mark Collard & Chares M. Musiba
Homo naledi is a recently discovered species of fossil hominin from South Africa. A considerable amount is already known about H. naledi but some important questions remain unanswered. Here we report a study that addressed two of them: “Where does H. naledi fit in the hominin evolutionary tree?” and “How old is it?” We used a large supermatrix of craniodental characters for both early and late hominin species and Bayesian phylogenetic techniques to carry out...

Data from: Higher rate of tissue regeneration in polyploid asexual vs. diploid sexual freshwater snails

Nicole R. Krois, Anvesh Cherukuri, Nikhil Puttagunta & Maurine Neiman
Characterizing phenotypic differences between sexual and asexual organisms is a critical step towards understanding why sexual reproduction is so common. Because asexuals are often polyploid, understanding how ploidy influences phenotype is directly relevant to the study of sex and will provide key insights into the evolution of ploidy-level variation. The well-established association between genome size and cell cycle duration, evidence for a link between genome size and tissue regeneration rate and the growing body of...

Data from: Anatomy of a neotropical insect radiation

Isaac Scott Winkler, Sonja J. Scheffer, Matthew L. Lewis, Kristina J. Ottens, Andrew P. Rasmussen, Géssica A. Gomes-Costa, Luz Maria Huerto Santillan, Marty A. Condon & Andrew A. Forbes
Background: Much evolutionary theory predicts that diversity arises via both adaptive radiation (diversification driven by selection against niche-overlap within communities) and divergence of geographically isolated populations. We focus on tropical fruit flies (Blepharoneura, Tephritidae) that reveal unexpected patterns of niche-overlap within local communities. Throughout the Neotropics, multiple sympatric non-interbreeding populations often share the same highly specialized patterns of host use (e.g., flies are specialists on flowers of a single gender of a single species of...

Data from: Camponotus floridanus ants incur a trade-off between phenotypic development and pathogen susceptibility from their mutualistic Endosymbiont Blochmannia

Veronica M. Sinotte, Samantha N. Freedman, Line V. Ugelvig, Marc A. Seid, Line Ugelvig, Samantha Freedman, Veronica Sinotte & Marc Seid
Various insects engage in microbial mutualisms in which the reciprocal benefits exceed the costs. Ants of the genus Camponotus benefit from nutrient supplementation by their mutualistic endosymbiotic bacteria, Blochmannia, but suffer a cost in tolerating and regulating the symbiont. This cost suggests that the ants face secondary consequences such as susceptibility to pathogenic infection and transmission. In order to elucidate the symbiont’s effects on development and disease defence, Blochmannia floridanus was reduced in colonies of...

Data from: Biophysical models reveal the relative importance of transporter proteins and impermeant anions in chloride homeostasis

Kira Michaela Düsterwald, Christopher Brian Currin, Richard Joseph Burman, Colin J. Akerman, Alan R. Kay & Joseph Valentino Raimondo
Fast synaptic inhibition in the nervous system depends on the transmembrane flux of Cl- ions based on the neuronal Cl- driving force. Established theories regarding the determinants of Cl- driving force have recently been questioned. Here we present biophysical models of Cl- homeostasis using the pump-leak model. Using numerical and novel analytic solutions, we demonstrate that the Na+/K+-ATPase, ion conductances, impermeant anions, electrodiffusion, water fluxes and cation-chloride cotransporters (CCCs) play roles in setting the Cl-...

Data from: Postconvulsive central apnea as a biomarker for sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP)

Laura Vilella, Nuria Lacuey, Johnson P. Hampson, M.R. Sandhya Rani, Rup K. Sanju, Daniel Friedman, Maromi Nei, Kingman Strohl, Catherine Scott, Brian K. Gehlbach, Bilal Zony, Norma J. Hupp, Anita Zaremba, Nassim Shafiabadi, Xihue Zhao, Victoria Reick-Mitrisin, Stephan Schuele, Jennifer Ogren, Ronald M. Harper, Beate Diehl, Lisa Bateman, Orrin Devinsky, George B. Richerson, Philippe Ryvlin & Samden D. Lhatoo
Objective: To characterize peri-ictal apnea and post-ictal asystole in generalized convulsive seizures (GCS) of intractable epilepsy. Methods: Prospective, multi-center epilepsy monitoring study of autonomic and breathing biomarkers of SUDEP in patient’s ≥18 years old with intractable epilepsy and monitored GCS. Video EEG, thoraco-abdominal excursions, nasal airflow, capillary oxygen saturation and electrocardiography were analyzed. Results: We studied 148 GCS in 87 patients. Nineteen patients had generalized epilepsy, 65 had focal, one had both and in two,...

Data from: Loss of murine Paneth cell function alters the immature intestinal microbiome and mimics changes seen in neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis

Shiloh R. Lueschow, Jessica Stumphy, Huiyu Gong, Stacy L. Kern, Timothy G. Elgin, Mark A. Underwood, Karen M. Kalanetra, David A. Mills, Melissa H. Wong, David K. Meyerholz, Misty Good & Steven J. McElroy
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) remains the leading cause of gastrointestinal morbidity and mortality in premature infants. Human and animal studies suggest a role for Paneth cells in NEC pathogenesis. Paneth cells play critical roles in host-microbial interactions and epithelial homeostasis. The ramifications of eliminating Paneth cell function on the immature host-microbial axis remains incomplete. Paneth cell function was depleted in the immature murine intestine using chemical and genetic models, which resulted in intestinal injury consistent with...

Data from: Recalibrating timing behavior via expected covariance between temporal cues

Benjamin J. De Corte, Rebecca R. Della Valle & Matthew S. Matell
Individuals must predict future events to proactively guide their behavior. Predicting when events will occur is a critical component of these expectations. Temporal expectations are often generated based on individual cue-duration relationships. However, the durations associated with different environmental cues will often co-vary due to a common cause. We show that timing behavior may be calibrated based on this expected covariance, which we refer to as the 'common cause hypothesis'. In five experiments using rats,...

Data from: Contemporaneous radiations of fungi and plants linked to symbiosis

François Lutzoni, Michael D. Nowak, Michael E. Alfaro, Valérie Reeb, Jolanta Miadlikowska, Michael Krug, A. Elizabeth Arnold, Louise A. Lewis, David L. Swofford, David Hibbett, Khidir Hilu, Timothy Y. James, Dietmar Quandt & Susana Magallón
Interactions between fungi and plants, including parasitism, mutualism, and saprotrophy, have been invoked as key to their respective macroevolutionary success. Here we evaluate the origins of plant-fungal symbioses and saprotrophy using a time-calibrated phylogenetic framework that reveals linked and drastic shifts in diversification rates of each kingdom. Fungal colonization of land was associated with at least two origins of terrestrial green algae and preceded embryophytes (as evidenced by losses of fungal flagellum, ca. 720 Ma),...

Data from: Conformational dynamics in TRPV1 channels reported by an encoded coumarin amino acid

Ximena Steinberg, Marina A. Kasimova, Deny Cabezas-Bratesco, Jason D. Galpin, Ernesto Ladron-De-Guevara, Federica Villa, Vincenzo Carnevale, Leon Islas, Christopher A. Ahern & Sebastian E Brauchi
TRPV1 channels support the detection of noxious and nociceptive input. Currently available functional and structural data suggest that TRPV1 channels have two gates within their permeation pathway: one formed by a ′bundle-crossing′ at the intracellular entrance and a second constriction at the selectivity filter. To describe conformational changes associated with channel gating, the fluorescent non-canonical amino acid coumarin-tyrosine was genetically encoded at Y671, a residue proximal to the selectivity filter. Total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy...

MicroRNA quantitative RT-PCR analysis of CMT1A Plasma

John Svaren, Hongge Wang, Matthew Davison & Michael Shy
Objective: To determine if microRNA’s (miR) are elevated in the plasma of individuals affected by the inherited peripheral neuropathy Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease, type 1A (CMT1A), miR profiling was employed to compare control and CMT1A plasma. Methods: We undertook a screen of CMT1A and control plasma samples to identify miRs that are elevated in CMT1A using a pilot screen of plasma miR by next generation sequencing, followed by validation of selected miRs by quantitative PCR, and correlation...

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