15 Works

Data from: Adaptive phenotypic plasticity in a clonal invader

Gerlien Verhaegen, Kyle E. McElroy, Laura Bankers, Maurine Neiman & Martin Haase
Organisms featuring wide trait variability and occurring in a wide range of habitats, such as the ovoviviparous freshwater New Zealand snail Potamopyrgus antipodarum, are ideal models to study adaptation. Since the mid-19th century, P. antipodarum, characterized by extremely variable shell morphology, has successfully invaded aquatic areas on four continents. Because these obligately and wholy asexual invasive populations harbor low genetic diversity compared to mixed sexual/asexual populations in the native range, we hypothesized that 1) this...

Data from: Optical coherence tomography is highly sensitive in detecting prior optic neuritis

Sarah Chaoying Xu, Randy H. Kardon, Jacqueline A. Leavitt, Eoin P. Flanagan, Sean J. Pittock & John J Chen
Objective: To explore sensitivity of optical coherence tomography (OCT) in detecting prior unilateral optic neuritis. Methods: Retrospective, observational clinical study of all patients who presented from 1/1/14 to 6/1/17 with unilateral optic neuritis and OCT available at least three months after the attack. We compared OCT retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and ganglion cell inner plexiform layer (GCIPL) thicknesses between affected and unaffected contralateral eyes. We excluded patients with concomitant glaucoma or other optic neuropathies....

Data from: Corollary discharge in precerebellar nuclei of sleeping infant rats

Didhiti Mukherjee, Greta Sokoloff & Mark S. Blumberg
In week-old rats, somatosensory input arises predominantly from external stimuli or from sensory feedback (reafference) associated with myoclonic twitches during active sleep. A previous study suggested that the brainstem motor structures that produce twitches also send motor copies (or corollary discharge, CD) to the cerebellum. We tested this possibility by recording from two precerebellar nuclei—the inferior olive (IO) and lateral reticular nucleus (LRN). In most IO and LRN neurons, twitch-related activity peaked sharply around twitch...

Data from: Sex in the wild: how and why field-based studies contribute to solving the problem of sex

Maurine Neiman, Patrick Gerardus Meirmans, Tanja Schwander & Stephanie Meirmans
Why and how sexual reproduction is maintained in natural populations, the so-called “queen of problems”, is a key unanswered question in evolutionary biology. Recent efforts to solve the problem of sex have often emphasized results generated from laboratory settings. Here, we use a survey of representative “sex in the wild” literature to review and synthesize the outcomes of empirical studies focused on natural populations. Especially notable results included relatively strong support for mechanisms involving niche...

Data from: Overprinting of taphonomic and paleoecological signals across the forest-prairie environmental gradient, mid-continent of North America

Lauren E. Milideo, Russell W. Graham, Carl R. Falk, Holmes A. Semken & Max L. Christie
Taphonomic factors may significantly alter faunal assemblages at varying scales. An exceptional record of late Holocene (< 4000 years old) mammal fanuas establishes a firm baseline to investigate the effects of scale on taphonomy. Our sample contains 73 sites within four contiguous states (North Dakota, South Dakota, Iowa, and Illinois, USA) that transect a strong modern and late Holocene environmental gradient, the prairie-forest ecotone. We performed Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA) and Non-metric Multidimensional Scaling (NMDS)...

Data from: The evolutionary history of dogs in the Americas

Máire Ní Leathlobhair, Angela R. Perri, Evan K. Irving-Pease, Kelsey E. Witt, Anna Linderholm, James Haile, Ophelie Lebrasseur, Carly Ameen, Jeffrey Blick, Adam R. Boyko, Selina Brace, Yahaira Nunes Cortes, Susan J. Crockford, Alison Devault, Evangelos A. Dimopoulos, Morley Eldridge, Jacob Enk, Shyam Gopalakrishnan, Kevin Gori, Vaughan Grimes, Eric Guiry, Anders J. Hansen, Ardern Hulme-Beaman, John Johnson, Andrew Kitchen … & Laurent A. F. Frantz
Dogs were present in the Americas prior to the arrival of European colonists, but the origin and fate of these pre-contact dogs are largely unknown. We sequenced 71 mitochondrial and seven nuclear genomes from ancient North American and Siberian dogs spanning ~9,000 years. Our analysis indicates that American dogs were not domesticated from North American wolves. Instead, American dogs form a monophyletic lineage that likely originated in Siberia and dispersed into the Americas alongside people....

Data from: Developmental 'awakening' of primary motor cortex to the sensory consequences of movement

James C Dooley & Mark S Blumberg
Before primary motor cortex (M1) develops its motor functions, it functions like a somatosensory area. Here, by recording from neurons in the forelimb representation of M1 in postnatal day (P) 8-12 rats, we demonstrate a rapid shift in its sensory responses. At P8-10, M1 neurons respond overwhelmingly to feedback from sleep-related twitches of the forelimb, but the same neurons do not respond to wake-related movements. By P12, M1 neurons suddenly respond to wake movements, a...

Data from: PCB126 inhibits the activation of AMPK-CREB signal transduction required for energy sensing in liver

Gopi S. Gadupudi, Benjamin A. Elser, Fabian A. Sandgruber, Xueshu Li, Katherine N. Gibson-Corley & Larry W. Robertson
3,3’,4,4’,5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB126), a dioxin-like PCB, elicits toxicity through a wide array of non-carcinogenic effects, including metabolic syndrome, wasting, and non-alcoholic fatty-liver disease (NAFLD). Previously, we reported decreases in the transcription of several enzymes involved in gluconeogenesis, before the early onset of lipid accumulation. Hence, this study was aimed at understanding the impact of resultant decreases gluconeogenic enzymes on growth, weight and metabolism in the liver, upon extended exposure. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (75-100 g), fed a...

Data from: Anatomy of a neotropical insect radiation

Isaac Scott Winkler, Sonja J. Scheffer, Matthew L. Lewis, Kristina J. Ottens, Andrew P. Rasmussen, Géssica A. Gomes-Costa, Luz Maria Huerto Santillan, Marty A. Condon & Andrew A. Forbes
Background: Much evolutionary theory predicts that diversity arises via both adaptive radiation (diversification driven by selection against niche-overlap within communities) and divergence of geographically isolated populations. We focus on tropical fruit flies (Blepharoneura, Tephritidae) that reveal unexpected patterns of niche-overlap within local communities. Throughout the Neotropics, multiple sympatric non-interbreeding populations often share the same highly specialized patterns of host use (e.g., flies are specialists on flowers of a single gender of a single species of...

Data from: Camponotus floridanus ants incur a trade-off between phenotypic development and pathogen susceptibility from their mutualistic Endosymbiont Blochmannia

Veronica M. Sinotte, Samantha N. Freedman, Line V. Ugelvig, Marc A. Seid, Line Ugelvig, Samantha Freedman, Veronica Sinotte & Marc Seid
Various insects engage in microbial mutualisms in which the reciprocal benefits exceed the costs. Ants of the genus Camponotus benefit from nutrient supplementation by their mutualistic endosymbiotic bacteria, Blochmannia, but suffer a cost in tolerating and regulating the symbiont. This cost suggests that the ants face secondary consequences such as susceptibility to pathogenic infection and transmission. In order to elucidate the symbiont’s effects on development and disease defence, Blochmannia floridanus was reduced in colonies of...

Data from: Biophysical models reveal the relative importance of transporter proteins and impermeant anions in chloride homeostasis

Kira Michaela Düsterwald, Christopher Brian Currin, Richard Joseph Burman, Colin J. Akerman, Alan R. Kay & Joseph Valentino Raimondo
Fast synaptic inhibition in the nervous system depends on the transmembrane flux of Cl- ions based on the neuronal Cl- driving force. Established theories regarding the determinants of Cl- driving force have recently been questioned. Here we present biophysical models of Cl- homeostasis using the pump-leak model. Using numerical and novel analytic solutions, we demonstrate that the Na+/K+-ATPase, ion conductances, impermeant anions, electrodiffusion, water fluxes and cation-chloride cotransporters (CCCs) play roles in setting the Cl-...

Data from: Postconvulsive central apnea as a biomarker for sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP)

Laura Vilella, Nuria Lacuey, Johnson P. Hampson, M.R. Sandhya Rani, Rup K. Sanju, Daniel Friedman, Maromi Nei, Kingman Strohl, Catherine Scott, Brian K. Gehlbach, Bilal Zony, Norma J. Hupp, Anita Zaremba, Nassim Shafiabadi, Xihue Zhao, Victoria Reick-Mitrisin, Stephan Schuele, Jennifer Ogren, Ronald M. Harper, Beate Diehl, Lisa Bateman, Orrin Devinsky, George B. Richerson, Philippe Ryvlin & Samden D. Lhatoo
Objective: To characterize peri-ictal apnea and post-ictal asystole in generalized convulsive seizures (GCS) of intractable epilepsy. Methods: Prospective, multi-center epilepsy monitoring study of autonomic and breathing biomarkers of SUDEP in patient’s ≥18 years old with intractable epilepsy and monitored GCS. Video EEG, thoraco-abdominal excursions, nasal airflow, capillary oxygen saturation and electrocardiography were analyzed. Results: We studied 148 GCS in 87 patients. Nineteen patients had generalized epilepsy, 65 had focal, one had both and in two,...

Data from: Loss of murine Paneth cell function alters the immature intestinal microbiome and mimics changes seen in neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis

Shiloh R. Lueschow, Jessica Stumphy, Huiyu Gong, Stacy L. Kern, Timothy G. Elgin, Mark A. Underwood, Karen M. Kalanetra, David A. Mills, Melissa H. Wong, David K. Meyerholz, Misty Good & Steven J. McElroy
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) remains the leading cause of gastrointestinal morbidity and mortality in premature infants. Human and animal studies suggest a role for Paneth cells in NEC pathogenesis. Paneth cells play critical roles in host-microbial interactions and epithelial homeostasis. The ramifications of eliminating Paneth cell function on the immature host-microbial axis remains incomplete. Paneth cell function was depleted in the immature murine intestine using chemical and genetic models, which resulted in intestinal injury consistent with...

Data from: Recalibrating timing behavior via expected covariance between temporal cues

Benjamin J. De Corte, Rebecca R. Della Valle & Matthew S. Matell
Individuals must predict future events to proactively guide their behavior. Predicting when events will occur is a critical component of these expectations. Temporal expectations are often generated based on individual cue-duration relationships. However, the durations associated with different environmental cues will often co-vary due to a common cause. We show that timing behavior may be calibrated based on this expected covariance, which we refer to as the 'common cause hypothesis'. In five experiments using rats,...

Data from: Contemporaneous radiations of fungi and plants linked to symbiosis

François Lutzoni, Michael D. Nowak, Michael E. Alfaro, Valérie Reeb, Jolanta Miadlikowska, Michael Krug, A. Elizabeth Arnold, Louise A. Lewis, David L. Swofford, David Hibbett, Khidir Hilu, Timothy Y. James, Dietmar Quandt & Susana Magallón
Interactions between fungi and plants, including parasitism, mutualism, and saprotrophy, have been invoked as key to their respective macroevolutionary success. Here we evaluate the origins of plant-fungal symbioses and saprotrophy using a time-calibrated phylogenetic framework that reveals linked and drastic shifts in diversification rates of each kingdom. Fungal colonization of land was associated with at least two origins of terrestrial green algae and preceded embryophytes (as evidenced by losses of fungal flagellum, ca. 720 Ma),...

Registration Year

  • 2018
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Affiliations

  • University of Iowa
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  • Duke University
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  • University of Greifswald
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