90 Works

Data from: Spatial and temporal variation in nest temperatures forecasts sex ratio skews in a crocodilian with environmental sex determination

Samantha L. Bock, Russell H. Lowers, Thomas R. Rainwater, Eric Stolen, John M. Drake, Philip M. Wilkinson, Stephanie Weiss, Back Brenton, Louis Guillette & Benjamin B. Parrott
Species displaying temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD) are especially vulnerable to the effects of a rapidly changing global climate due to their profound sensitivity to thermal cues during development. Predicting the consequences of climate change for these species, including skewed offspring sex ratios, depends on understanding how climatic factors interface with features of maternal nesting behavior to shape the developmental environment. Here, we measure thermal profiles in 86 nests at two geographically distinct sites in the...

Identification and characterization of QTLs for fruit quality traits in peach through a multi-family approach

Zena Rawandoozi, Timothy P. Hartmann, Silvia Carpenedo, Ksenija Gasic, Cassia Da Silva Linge, Lichun Cai, Eric Van De Weg & David H. Byrne
Background Fruit quality traits have a significant effect on consumer acceptance and subsequently on peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) consumption. Determining the genetic bases of key fruit quality traits is essential for the industry to improve fruit quality and increase consumption. Pedigree-based analysis across multiple peach pedigrees can identify the genomic basis of complex traits for direct implementation in marker-assisted selection. This strategy provides breeders with better-informed decisions and improves selection efficiency and, subsequently, saves...

Westward range expansion from middle latitudes explains the Mississippi River discontinuity in a forest herb of eastern North America

Carly Prior, Nate Layman, Matthew Koski, Laura Galloway & Jeremiah Busch
It is often expected that temperate plants have expanded their geographic ranges northward from primarily southern refugia. Evidence for this hypothesis is mixed in eastern North American species, and there is increasing support for colonization from middle latitudes. We studied genome-wide patterns of variation in RADseq loci to test hypotheses concerning range expansion in a North American forest herb (Campanula americana). First, spatial patterns of genetic differentiation were determined. Then phylogenetic relationships and divergence times...

The effect of locomotion mode on body shape evolution in teleost fishes

Sarah T. Friedman, Samantha A. Price & Peter C. Wainwright
Teleost fishes vary in their reliance on median and paired fins (MPF) or undulation of the body (BCF) to generate thrust during straight-line, steady swimming. Previous work indicates that swimming mode is associated with different body shapes, though this has never been empirically demonstrated across the diversity of fishes. As the body does not play as active a mechanical role in steady swimming by MPF swimmers, this may relax constraints and spur higher rates of...

Phylogenetically diverse diets favor more complex venoms in North American pitvipers

Matthew Holding & Christopher Parkinson
The role of natural selection in the evolution of trait complexity can be characterized by testing hypothesized links between complex forms and their functions across species. Predatory venoms are traits composed of multiple proteins that collectively function to incapacitate prey. Venom complexity fluctuates considerably over evolutionary timescales, with apparent increases and decreases in complexity, yet the evolutionary causes of this variation is unclear. Here, we tested alternative hypotheses for the link between venom complexity and...

Urban specialization reduces habitat connectivity by a highly mobile wading bird

Claire Teitelbaum, Hepinstall-Cymerman Jeffrey, Kidd-Weaver Anjelika, Hernandez Sonia, Altizer Sonia & Hall Richard
Background Mobile animals transport nutrients and propagules across habitats, and are crucial for the functioning of food webs and for ecosystem services. Human activities such as urbanization can alter animal movement behavior, including site fidelity and resource use. Because many urban areas are adjacent to natural sites, mobile animals might connect natural and urban habitats. More generally, understanding animal movement patterns in urban areas can help predict how urban expansion will affect the roles of...

Data used in timing is everything: Dichogamy and pollen germinability underlie variation in autonomous selfing among populations

Laura Galloway & Matthew Koski
Premise of the study: The evolution of multiple floral traits often underlies the transition from outcrossing to selfing. Such traits can influence the ability to self, and the timing at which selfing occurs, which in turn affects the costs of selfing. Species that display variation in autonomous selfing provide an opportunity to dissect the phenotypic changes that contribute to variability in the mating system. Methods: In a common garden, we measured dichogamy and herkogamy in...

Complex genetic patterns and distribution limits mediated by native congeners of the worldwide invasive red‐eared slider turtle

Sayra Espindola, Ella Vázquez-Domínguez, Miguel Nakamura, Luis Osorio-Olvera, Enrique Martínez-Meyer, Edward Myers, Isaac Overcast, Brendan Reid & Frank Burbrink
Non-native (invasive) species offer a unique opportunity to study the geographic distribution and range limits of species, wherein the evolutionary change driven by interspecific interactions between native and non-native closely related species is a key component. The red-eared slider turtle, Trachemys scripta elegans (TSE), has been introduced and successfully established worldwide. It can coexist with its native congeners T. cataspila, T. venusta and T. taylori in Mexico. We performed comprehensive fieldwork, executed a battery of...

Frankliniella fusca activity patterns in wheat

Anders Huseth, James Goethe, Seth Dorman, George Kennedy & Hehe Wang
Tobacco thrips (Frankliniella fusca Hinds) are an important seedling pest of many agricultural crops including, but not limited to cotton, tomato, and tobacco. This insect is mobile and completes several generations on both crop and non-crop plants each growing season in the southern United States. We do know that this insect disperses through a predictable sequence of these habitats each spring, however, it is not well known how abundant early season host crops affect population...

Disentangling interactions among mercury, immunity, and infection in a Neotropical bat community

Daniel Becker, Kelly Speer, Jennifer Korstian, Dmitriy Volokhov, Hannah Droke, Alexis Brown, Catherene Baijnauth, Ticha Padgett-Stewart, Hugh Broders, Raina Plowright, Thomas Rainwater, Brock Fenton, Nancy Simmons & Matthew Chumchal
Contaminants such as mercury are pervasive and can have immunosuppressive effects on wildlife. Impaired immunity could be important for forecasting pathogen spillover risks, as many land-use changes that generate mercury contamination also bring wildlife into close contact with humans and domestic animals. However, the interactions among contaminants, immunity, and infection are difficult to study in natural systems, and empirical tests of possible directional relationships remain rare. We capitalized on extreme mercury variation in a diverse...

Raw genotyped total called structural variant (SV)

Kittikun Songsomboon, Zachary Brenton, James Heuser, Stephen Kresovich, Nadia Shakoor & Elizabeth Cooper
Genomic structural mutations especially deletion are an important source of variation in many species and can play key roles in phenotypic diversification and evolution. Previous work in many plant species, including some crops, has identified multiple instances of structural variations (SVs) occurring in or near genes related to stress response and disease resistance, suggesting a possible role for SVs in local adaptation. Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) is one of the most widely grown cereal...

Data from: Colonization and demographic expansion of freshwater fauna across the Hawaiian Archipelago

Fernando Alda, Roderick B. Gagne, Ryan P. Walter, J. Derek Hogan, Kristine N. Moody, Frida Zink, Peter B. McIntyre, James F. Gilliam & Michael J. Blum
It is widely accepted that insular terrestrial biodiversity progresses with island age because colonization and diversification proceed over time. Here we assess whether this principle extends to oceanic island streams. We examined range-wide mtDNA sequence variation in four stream-dwelling species across the Hawaiian archipelago to characterize the relationship between colonization and demographic expansion, and to determine whether either factor reflects island age. We found that colonization and demographic expansion are not related and that neither...

Data from: The evolution of locomotor rhythmicity in tetrapods

Callum F. Ross, Richard W. Blob, David R. Carrier, Monica A. Daley, Stephen M. Deban, Brigitte Demes, Janaya L. Gripper, Jose Iriarte-Diaz, Brandon Michael Kilbourne, Tobias Landberg, John D. Polk, Nadja Schilling & Bieke Vanhooydonck
Differences in rhythmicity (relative variance in cycle period) between mammal, fish, and lizard feeding systems have been hypothesized to be associated with differences in their sensorimotor control systems. We tested this hypothesis by examining whether the locomotion of tachymetabolic tetrapods (birds and mammals) is more rhythmic than that of bradymetabolic tetrapods (lizards, alligators, turtles, salamanders). Species averages of intra-individual coefficients of variation in cycle period were compared while controlling for gait and substrate. Variance in...

Data from: Plant-soil interactions shape the identity and persistence of soil organic carbon in invaded ecosystems: implication for legacy effects

Vidya Suseela, Peter Alpert, Cindy H. Nakatsu, Arthur Armstrong & Nishanth Tharayil
1. Introduced, invasive plants can alter local soil chemistry and microbial communities, but the underlying mechanisms and extent of these changes are largely unknown. Based on characteristics associated with invasiveness in plants, it was hypothesized that introduced species that produce large amounts of litter with distinctive secondary compounds can a) alter the chemistry of both extractable and bulk carbon in the soil, b) shift microbial communities towards microbes better able to metabolize the compounds in...

Data from: Trade-offs between water loss and gas exchange influence habitat suitability of a woodland salamander

Eric A. Riddell, Jared McPhail, Jason D. Damm & Michael W. Sears
1. Reversible acclimation increases resilience to environmental stress, but acclimation may have hidden costs due to underlying links between related physiological traits. Interactions between physiological traits might result in trade-offs that undermine whole-organism performance if the change in a related trait reduces the net benefits of acclimation or increases susceptibility to alternative environmental stressors. 2. Metabolic rate and water loss rate are two fundamental physiological traits that could interact due to their dependence on gas...

Data from: The rise of biting during the cenozoic fueled reef fish body shape diversification

Katherine Corn, Sarah Friedman, Edward Burress, Christopher Martinez, Olivier Larouche, Samantha Price & Peter Wainwright
Diversity of feeding mechanisms is a hallmark of reef fishes, but the history of this variation is not fully understood. Here, we explore the emergence and proliferation of a biting mode of feeding, which enables fishes to feed on attached benthic prey. We find that feeding modes other than suction, including biting, ram biting, and an intermediate group that uses both biting and suction, were nearly absent among the lineages of teleost fishes inhabiting reefs...

Data from: Identifying demographic and environmental drivers of recruitment and population growth in a cavity nesting sea duck population

Abigail J. Lawson, James S. Sedinger & Eric J. Taylor
Traits with the greatest proportional effects on fitness are typically conserved (Stearns 1992), and traits with larger temporal variation frequently play a dominant role in population dynamics (Cooch et al. 2001). We examined recruitment patterns and population growth in Common Goldeneyes (Bucephala clangula; hereafter goldeneye), using Pradel mark-recapture models from a long-term nest box study (1997-2010). Our objectives were to estimate recruitment (f) and population growth (λ) relative to recruitment origin group (in-situ or unknown),...

Data from: Limb-bone loading in swimming turtles: changes in loading facilitate transitions from tubular to flipper-shaped limbs during aquatic invasions

Vanessa K. Hilliard Young & Richard W. Blob
Members of several terrestrial vertebrate lineages have returned to nearly exclusive use of aquatic habitats. These transitions were often accompanied by changes in skeletal morphology, such as flattening of limb bone shafts. Such morphological changes might be correlated with the exposure of limb bones to altered loading. Though the environmental forces acting on the skeleton differ substantially between water and land, no empirical data exist to quantify the impact of such differences on the skeleton,...

Data from: One foot out the door: limb function during swimming in terrestrial versus aquatic turtles

Vanessa K. Young, Kaitlyn G. Vest, Angela R.V. Rivera, Nora R. Espinoza, Richard W. Blob, Vanessa K Hilliard Young & Angela R. V. Rivera
Specialization for a new habitat often entails a cost to performance in the ancestral habitat. Although aquatic lifestyles are ancestral among extant cryptodiran turtles, multiple lineages, including tortoises (Testudinidae) and emydid box turtles (genus Terrapene), independently specialized for terrestrial habitats. To what extent is swimming function retained in such lineages despite terrestrial specialization? Because tortoises diverged from other turtles over 50 Ma, but box turtles did so only 5 Ma, we hypothesized that swimming kinematics...

Data from: Physical calculations of resistance to water loss improve predictions of species range models

Eric A. Riddell, Evan K. Apanovitch, Jonathon P. Odom, Michael W. Sears & Jonathan P. Odom
Species ranges are constrained by the physiological tolerances of organisms to climatic conditions. By incorporating physiological constraints, species distribution models can identify how biotic and abiotic factors constrain a species’ geographic range. Rates of water loss influence species distributions, but characterizing water loss for an individual requires complex calculations. Skin resistance to water loss (ri) is considered to be the most informative metric of water loss rates because it controls for experimental biases. However, calculating...

Data from: Local adaptation despite high gene flow in the waterfall-climbing Hawaiian goby, Sicyopterus stimpsoni.

Kristine N. Moody, Sabrina N. Hunter, Michael J. Childress, Richard W. Blob, Heiko L. Schoenfuss, Michael J. Blum & M. B. Ptacek
Environmental heterogeneity can promote the emergence of locally adapted phenotypes among subpopulations of a species, whereas gene flow can result in phenotypic and genotypic homogenization. For organisms like amphidromous fishes that change habitats during their life history, the balance between selection and migration can shift through ontogeny, making the likelihood of local adaptation difficult to predict. In Hawaiian waterfall-climbing gobies, it has been hypothesized that larval mixing during oceanic dispersal counters local adaptation to contrasting...

Data from: Body shape diversification along the benthic-pelagic axis in marine fishes

Sarah Friedman, Samantha Price, Katherine Corn, Olivier Larouche, Christopher Martinez & Peter Wainwright
Colonization of novel habitats can result in marked phenotypic responses to the new environment that include changes in body shape and opportunities for further morphological diversification. Fishes have repeatedly transitioned along the benthic-pelagic axis, with varying degrees of association with the substrate. Previous work focusing on individual lineages shows that these transitions are accompanied by highly predictable changes in body form. Here, we generalize expectations drawn from this literature to study the effects of habitat...

The effect of influenza vaccination for the elderly on hospitalization and mortality: an observational study with a regression-discontinuity design

, Carlos Dobkin & Devon Gorry
Replication files for "The Effect of Influenza Vaccination for the Elderly on Hospitalization and Mortality: An Observational Study with a Regression-Discontinuity Design", published in the Annals of Internal Medicine.

Detoxification-related gene expression accompanies anhydrobiosis in the foliar nematode (Aphelenchoides fragariae)

Zhen Fu, Paula Agudelo & Christina Wells
The foliar nematode (Aphelenchoides fragariae) is a quarantined pest that infects a broad range of herbaceous and woody plants. Previous work has demonstrated its remarkable ability to survive rapid and extreme desiccation, although the specific mechanisms underlying its anhydrobiotic response have not been characterized. We used RNA sequencing and de novo transcriptome assembly to compare patterns of gene expression between hydrated and 24-hr desiccated nematodes. Two thousand eighty-three and 953 genes were significantly up- and...

Sex differences in the plasticity of life history in response to social environment

Elizabeth Lange, Margaret Ptacek, Joseph Travis & Kimberly Hughes
Predicting how social environment affects life history variation is critical to understanding if, and when, selection favors alternative life history development, especially in systems in which social interactions change over time or space. While sexual selection theory predicts that males and females should respond differently to variation in the social environment, few studies have examined the responses of both male and female phenotypes to the same gradient of social environment. In this study, we used...

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