26 Works

Data from: Patterns of domestication in the Ethiopian oil-seed crop Noug (Guizotia abyssinica)

Hannes Dempewolf, Misteru Tesfaye, Abel Teshome, Anne Bjorkman, Rose L. Andrew, Moira Scascitelli, Scott Black, Endashaw Bekele, Johannes M. M. Engels, Quentin C. B. Cronk, Loren H. Rieseberg & Anne D. Bjorkman
Noug (Guizotia abyssinica) is a semi-domesticated oil-seed crop, which is primarily cultivated in Ethiopia. Unlike its closest crop relative, sunflower, noug has small seeds, small flowering heads, many branches, many flowering heads, indeterminate flowering, and it shatters in the field. Here we conducted common garden studies and microsatellite analyses of genetic variation to test whether high levels of crop-wild gene flow and/or unfavorable phenotypic correlations have hindered noug domestication. With the exception of one population,...

Data from: Competition between sympatric wolf taxa: an example involving African and Ethiopian Wolves

Tariku Mekonnen Gutema, Anagaw Atickem, Afework Bekele, Claudio Sillero-Zubiri, Mohammed Kasso, Diress Tsegaye, Vivek V. Venkataraman, Peter J. Fashing, Dietmar Zinner & Nils C. Stenseth
Carnivore populations are declining globally due to range contraction, persecution and prey depletion. One consequence of these patterns is increased range and niche overlap with other carnivores, and thus an elevated potential for competitive exclusion. Here we document competition between an endangered canid, the Ethiopian wolf (EW), and the newly discovered African wolf (AW) in central Ethiopia. The diet of the ecological specialist EW was dominated by rodents whereas the AW consumed more diverse diet...

Temporal dynamics and biocontrol potential of a hyperparasite on coffee leaf rust across a landscape in Arabica coffee’s native range

Beyene Zewdie, Ayco Tack, Biruk Ayalew, Girma Adugna, Sileshi Nemomissa & Kristoffer Hylander
Agroforestry systems can provide habitats for rich biodiversity including multitrophic interactions, which presents opportunities to develop natural pest control. Shade coffee systems in several coffee-growing areas of the world host such unique habitats where pests and their natural enemies interact. One of the major global challenges for coffee production, coffee leaf rust caused by the fungal pathogen Hemileia vastatrix is attacked by the fungal hyperparasite, Lecanicillium lecanii. However, we lack insights in the dynamics and...

Data from: Species diversity and habitat use of birds in Menagesha Suba State Forest, central highlands of Ethiopia

Hailu Tilahun
This study was carried out to investigate the species diversity and habitat use of birds in the Menagesha Suba State forest and surrounding farmland. The study was conducted from July 2018 to January 2019 during the wet and dry seasons. The study area was stratified based on the dominant habitat types. A standardized survey technique was employed using systematically established point counts for all habitat types. EstimateS software (version 9.1) and Chi-square test were applied...

Additional file 1 of Low birth weight and its associated factors in East Gojjam Zone, Amhara, Ethiopia

Birhanie Muluken Walle, Adeyemi O. Adekunle, Ayodele O. Arowojolu, Tesfaye Tolessa Dugul & Akiloge Lake Mebiratie
Additional file 1.

Data from: DNA metabarcoding reveals diet overlap between the endangered Walia ibex and domestic goats - implications for conservation

Berihun Gebremedhin, Øystein Flagstad, Afework Bekele, Desalegn Chala, Vegar Bakkestuen, Sanne Boessenkool, Magnus Popp, Galina Gussarova, Audun Schrøder-Nielsen, Sileshi Nemomissa, Christian Brochmann, Nils Christian Stenseth, Laura Saskia Epp & Nils Chr. Stenseth
Human population expansion and associated degradation of the habitat of many wildlife species cause loss of biodiversity and species extinctions. The small Simen Mountains National Park in Ethiopia is one of the last strongholds for the preservation of a number of afro-alpine mammals, plants and birds, and it is home to the rare endemic Walia ibex, Capra walie. The narrow distribution range of this species as well as potential competition for resources with livestock, especially...

Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccination against bovine tuberculosis: Is Perfect the Enemy of Good?

S. Srinivasan, V. Kapur, A. Conlan, L. Easterling, C. Herrera, P. Dandapat, M. Veerasami, G. Ameni, N. Jindal, J. Wood, N. Juleff, D. Bakker & K. Vordermeier
More than 50 million cattle are likely exposed to bovine tuberculosis (bTB) worldwide, highlighting a need for vaccination in regions where bTB is endemic and test-and-slaughter approaches are unfeasible. Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) was first evaluated as a vaccine in cattle even before its widespread use in humans, yet its efficacy in cattle remains poorly understood. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis on the efficacy of BCG against bTB challenge in cattle, which demonstrated a...

Delays in emergency obstetrics referrals in Addis Ababa hospitals, Ethiopia: a facility-based, cross-sectional study

Endalkachew Assefa & Yemane Berhane
Objectives: To assess where the delays occur in the referral chain at most and maternal health outcomes based on the three delay model in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Design: The study was a facility-based cross-sectional study Setting: Two public and tertiary hospitals in Addis Ababa Participants: All pregnant women who were referred for only labor and delivery services after 28 weeks of gestation between December 2018 and February 2019 in Zewditu and Gandhi Memorial hospitals. Primary...

Data from: Ecology and genomics of an important crop wild relative as a prelude to agricultural innovation

Eric J. B. Von Wettberg, Peter L Chang, Fatma Başdemir, Noelia Carrasquila-Garcia, Lijalem Korbu, Susan M. Moenga, Gashaw Bedada, Alex Greenlon, Ken S. Moriuchi, Vasantika Suryawanshi, Matilde A Cordeiro, Nina V. Noujdina, Kassaye Negash Dinegde, Syed Gul Abbas Shah Sani, Tsegaye Getahun, Lisa Vance, Emily Bergmann, Donna Lindsay, Bullo Erena Mamo, Emily J. Warschefsky, Emmanuel Dacosta-Calheiros, Edward Marques, Mustafa Abdullah Yilmaz, Ahmet Murat Cakmak, Janna Rose … & Douglas R. Cook
Domesticated species are impacted in unintended ways during domestication and breeding. Changes in the nature and intensity of selection impart genetic drift, reduce diversity, and increase the frequency of deleterious alleles. Such outcomes constrain our ability to expand the cultivation of crops into environments that differ from those under which domestication occurred. We address this need in chickpea, an important pulse legume, by harnessing the diversity of wild crop relatives. We document an extreme domestication-related...

Effects of BCG vaccination against Bovine Tuberculosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis Date

V. Srikrishnan, A. Conlan, L. Easterling, C. Herrara, P. Dandapat, M. Veerasami, G. Ameni, D. Bakker, M. Vordermeier & V. Kapur
Despite the effective control of Bovine Tuberculosis (bTB) in many countries using test-and-slaughter, more than 50 million cattle are still likely to be infected worldwide, highlighting the urgent need for alternative interventions such as vaccines to reduce disease burden and control spread of bTB. Vaccination may be particularly important in regions where the disease is endemic, and test-and-slaughter is neither practical nor acceptable socio-economically. Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) has been in experimental use in cattle for...

Magnetotelluric and Transient Electromagnetic data from the Main Ethiopian Rift

Juliane Huebert & Kathy Whaler
This data set includes the original time series collected with broadband and long-period MT instruments during two field seasons in 2016 and 2017 by a team of researchers from the University of Edinburgh, UK and the Institute for Geophysics, Space Science and Astronomy at Addis Ababa university, Ethiopia. For the magnetotelluric stations, processed transfer functions are included in the edi file format. The time series data is provided both in the original raw data format...

Oxytenanthera abyssinica (A. Rich.) Munro; lowland bamboo (Poaceae, Bambusinea) in Ethiopia: Genetic diversity, population structure and gene flow analysis

Oumer Abdie Oumer
As one of the most important non-timber forest resources, a potential alternative to wood and wood product and fastest-growing plant in the world (91 cm (35 in) per day), bamboo is a member of the grass family (Poaceae) and constitutes a single subfamily Bambusoideae. 67% of total area of bamboo in Africa and 7% of world total is contributed by Ethiopia giving more than 1.44 million hectares. Silica gel dried young fresh leaves from 130...

Spatial variation in human disturbances and their effects on forest structure and biodiversity across an Afromontane forest

Dinkissa Beche, Ayco J.M. Tack, Sileshi Nemomissa, Bikila Warkineh, Debissa Lemessa, Patricia Rodrigues, Joern Fischer & Kristoffer Hylander
Context Human disturbances can have large impacts on forest structure and biodiversity, and thereby result in forest degradation, a property difficult to detect by remote sensing. Objectives To investigate spatial variation in anthropogenicdisturbances and their effects on forest structure and biodiversity. Methods In 144 plots of 20 x 20 m distributed across a forest area of 750 km2 in Southwest Ethiopia, we recorded: landscape variables (e.g., distance to forest edge), different human disturbances, forest structure...

Data from: Land use legacy effects on woody vegetation in agricultural landscapes of southwestern Ethiopia

Girma Shumi, Jannik Schultner, Ine Dorresteijn, Patrícia Rodrigues, Jan Hanspach, Kristoffer Hylander, Feyera Senbeta & Joern Fischer
Aim: Past land use legacy effects – extinction debts and immigration credits – might be particularly pronounced in regions characterized by complex and dynamic landscape change. The aim of this study was to evaluate how current woody plant species distribution, composition and richness related to historical and present land uses. Location: A smallholder farming landscape in southwestern Ethiopia. Methods: We surveyed woody plants in 72 randomly selected 1 ha sites in farmland, and grouped them...

Data from: Waiving the extinction debt: can shade from coffee prevent extinctions of epiphytic plants from isolated trees?

Kristoffer Hylander & Sileshi Nemomissa
Aim: Local extinction after habitat modifications is often delayed, leading to an extinction debt. Our first aim was to develop a conceptual model for natural and human-mediated habitat improvements after a disturbance that may waive part of the predicted extinction debt. Second, we wanted to test this model on the distribution of epiphytic plants on trees that had been isolated in the agricultural matrix after forest clearing, around which coffee subsequently had been planted with...

Data from: A preliminary survey of medium and large‐sized mammals from Lebu Natural Protected Forest, Southwest Showa, Ethiopia

Chala Qufa & Afework Bekele
Abstract: This study was conducted to determine the species composition and diversity of medium and large-sized mammals from Lebu Natural Protected Forest, Ethiopia. Surveys were conducted to record mammals through direct observation and indirect evidence from three habitat types, namely: Natural forest, Bushland, and Riverine forest. A total of 15 mammalian species was recorded. The species recorded were Papio anubis, Chlorocebus aethiops, Tragelaphus scriptus, Canis aureus, Crocuta crocuta, Panthera pardus, Procavia capensis, Colobus guereza, Sylvicapra...

Plant biodiversity declines with increasing coffee yield in Ethiopia’s coffee agroforests

Beyene Zewdie, Ayco Tack, Biruk Ayalew, Melaku Wondafrash, Sileshi Nemomissa & Kristoffer Hylander
1. Tropical agroforestry systems provide farmers with resources for their livelihoods, but are also well recognized as refuges for biodiversity. However, the relationship between yield and biodiversity might be negative in these systems, reflecting a potential trade-off between managing for increased yield or biodiversity. The potential for synergies will depend partly on the shape of the biodiversity-yield relationship, where a concave relationship suggests a faster decline of biodiversity with increasing yields than a linear or...

Data from: Use of ancient sedimentary DNA as a novel conservation tool for high-altitude tropical biodiversity

Sanne Boessenkool, Gayle McGlynn, Laura S. Epp, David Taylor, Manuel Pimentel, Abel Gizaw, Sileshi Nemomissa, Christian Brochmann & Magnus Popp
Conservation of biodiversity may in the future increasingly depend upon the availability of scientific information to set suitable restoration targets. In traditional paleoecology, sediment-based pollen provides a means to define preanthropogenic impact conditions, but problems in establishing the exact provenance and ecologically meaningful levels of taxonomic resolution of the evidence are limiting. We explored the extent to which the use of sedimentary ancient DNA (sedaDNA) may complement pollen data in reconstructing past alpine environments in...

Data from: Multilocus genotyping of Giardia duodenalis isolates from children in Oromia Special Zone, central Ethiopia

Teklu W. Wegayehu
Background: Giardia duodenalis is the etiologic agent of giardiasis in humans and other mammals worldwide. The burden of disease is high among children in developing countries where sanitation is inadequate. However, the epidemiology and genetic diversity of this parasite is poorly understood in Ethiopia. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and genetic diversity of G. duodenalis in asymptomatic children in Oromia Special Zone, central Ethiopia. Results: A total of 286 fresh fecal specimens were...

Data from: The importance of accounting for larval detectability in mosquito habitat-association studies

Matthew Low, Admasu Tassew Tsegaye, Rickard Ignell, Sharon Hill, Rasmus Elleby, Vilhelm Feltelius & Richard Hopkins
Background: Mosquito habitat-association studies are an important basis for disease control programmes and/or vector distribution models. However, studies do not explicitly account for incomplete detection during larval presence and abundance surveys, with potential for significant biases because of environmental influences on larval behaviour and sampling efficiency. Methods: Data were used from a dip-sampling study for Anopheles larvae in Ethiopia to evaluate the effect of six factors previously associated with larval sampling (riparian vegetation, direct sunshine,...

Data from: A heterogeneous landscape does not guarantee high crop pollination

Ulrika Samnegård, Peter A. Hambäck, Debissa Lemessa, Sileshi Nemomissa & Kristoffer Hylander
The expansion of pollinator-dependent crops, especially in the developing world, together with reports of worldwide pollinator declines, raises concern of possible yield gaps. Farmers directly reliant on pollination services for food supply often live in regions where our knowledge of pollination services is poor. In a manipulative experiment replicated at 23 sites across an Ethiopian agricultural landscape, we found poor pollination services and severe pollen limitation in a common oil crop. With supplementary pollination, the...

Data from: Genome-wide diversity and demographic dynamics of Cameroon goats and their divergence from east African, north African, and Asian conspecifics

Getinet M. Tarekegn, Patrick Wouobeng, Kouam S. Jaures, Raphael Mrode, Zewdu Edea, Bin Liu, Wenguang Zhang, Okeyo A. Mwai, Tadelle Dessie, Kassahun Tesfaye, Erling Strandberg, Britt Berglund, Mutai Mutai, Sarah Osama, Asaminew T. Wolde, Josephine Birungi, Appolinaire Djikeng & Félix Meutchieye
Indigenous goats make significant contributions to Cameroon’s national and local economy, but little effort has been devoted to identifying the populations. Here, we assessed the genetic diversity and demographic dynamics of Cameroon goat populations using mitochondrial DNA (two populations) and autosomal markers (four populations) generated with the Caprine 50K SNP chip. To infer genetic relationships at continental and global level, genotype data on six goat populations from Ethiopia and one population each from Egypt, Morocco,...

Stakeholder priorities determine the impact of an alien tree invasion on ecosystem multifunctionality

Theo Linders, Urs Schaffner, Tena Alamirew, Eric Allan, Simon Choge, René Eschen, Hailu Shiferaw & Peter Manning
1. While the ecological impact of environmental change drivers, such as alien plant invasions, is relatively well-described, quantitative social-ecological studies detailing how these changes impact multiple ecosystem services, and subsequently stakeholders, are lacking. 2. We used a social-ecological approach to assess how Prosopis juliflora (Prosopis henceforth)¸ an invasive tree, affects the provision of multiple ecosystem services to different stakeholder groups in a degraded East African dryland. We combined plot-based ecological data on the impacts of...

Data from: Rapid post-fire re-assembly of species-rich bryophyte communities in Afroalpine heathlands

Kristoffer Hylander, Carl Alexander Frisk, Sileshi Nemomissa & Maria Ulrika Johansson
Questions: In some fire-prone ecosystems, bryophytes play a crucial role by providing the surface fuel that controls the fire-return interval. Afroalpine heathlands are such an ecosystem, yet almost nothing is known about the bryophytes in this system. We do not know the level of species richness, or if there is a successive accumulation of species over time, or if some species are adapted to specific phases along the successional gradient, for example early-successional species sensitive...

Hemotological and morphometric measurements from geladas

Kenneth L. Chiou, Mareike C. Janiak, India A. Schneider-Crease, Sharmi Sen, Ferehiwot Ayele, Idrissa S. Chuma, Sascha Knauf, Alemayehu Lemma, Anthony V. Signore, Anthony M. D’Ippolito, Belayneh Abebe, Abebaw Azanaw Haile, Fanuel Kebede, Peter J. Fashing, Nga Nguyen, Colleen McCann, Marlys L. Houck, Jeffrey D. Wall, Andrew S. Burrell, Christina M. Bergey, Jeffrey Rogers, Jane E. Phillips-Conroy, Clifford J. Jolly, Amanda D. Melin, Jay F. Storz … & Noah Snyder-Mackler
Primates have adapted to numerous environments and lifestyles but very few species are native to high elevations. Here, we investigated high-altitude adaptations in the gelada (Theropithecus gelada), a monkey endemic to the Ethiopian Plateau. We examined genome-wide variation in conjunction with measurements of haematological and morphological traits. Our new gelada reference genome is highly intact and assembled at chromosome-length levels. Unexpectedly, we identified a chromosomal polymorphism in geladas that could potentially contribute to reproductive barriers...

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