134 Works

Data from: Sampling bias and the fossil record of planktonic foraminifera on land and in the deep sea

Graeme T. Lloyd, Paul N. Pearson, Jeremy R. Young & Andrew B. Smith
Large-scale trends in planktonic foraminiferal diversity have so far been based on utilization of synoptic biostratigraphic range charts. Although this approach ensures the taxonomic consistency and quality of the data being used, it takes no formal account of any sampling biases that might exist in the fossil record. We demonstrate that the occurrence data of planktonic foraminifera, as recorded in the primary literature, are strongly biased by sampling. We do this by demonstrating that raw...

Data from: Dramatic niche shifts and morphological change in two insular bird species

Per Alström, Jon Fjeldså, Knud Andreas Jønsson, Anders Ödeen, Per G. P. Ericson, Martin Irestedt, J. Fjeldsa, K. A. Jonsson, P. Alstrom & A. Odeen
Colonizations of islands are often associated with rapid morphological divergence. We present two previously unrecognized cases of dramatic morphological change and niche shifts in connection with colonization of tropical forest-covered islands. These evolutionary changes have concealed the fact that the passerine birds madanga, Madanga ruficollis, from Buru, Indonesia, and São Tomé shorttail, Amaurocichla bocagii, from São Tomé, Gulf of Guinea, are forest-adapted members of the family Motacillidae (pipits and wagtails). We show that Madanga has...

Data from: A large 28S rDNA-based phylogeny confirms the limitations of established morphological characters for classification of proteocephalidean tapeworms (Platyhelminthes, Cestoda)

Alain De Chambrier, Andrea Waeschenbach, Makda Fisseha, Tomas Scholz & Jean Mariaux
Proteocephalidean tapeworms form a diverse group of parasites currently known from 315 valid species. Most of the diversity of adult proteocephalideans can be found in freshwater fishes (predominantly catfishes), a large proportion infects reptiles, but only a few infect amphibians, and a single species has been found to parasitize possums. Although they have a cosmopolitan distribution, a large proportion of taxa are exclusively found in South America. We analyzed the largest proteocephalidean cestode molecular dataset...

Data from: Repeated eye reduction events reveal multiple pathways to degeneration in a family of marine snails

Lauren Sumner-Rooney, Julia D. Sigwart, Jenny McAfee, Lisa Smith & Suzanne T. Williams
Eye reduction occurs in many troglobitic, fossorial, and deep-sea animals but there is no clear consensus on its evolutionary mechanism. Given the highly conserved and pleiotropic nature of many genes instrumental to eye development, degeneration might be expected to follow consistent evolutionary trajectories in closely related animals. We tested this in a comparative study of ocular anatomy in solariellid snails from deep and shallow marine habitats using morphological, histological, and tomographic techniques, contextualized phylogenetically. Of...

Data from: High lability of sexual system over 250 million years of evolution in morphologically conservative tadpole shrimps

Thomas C. Mathers, Robert L. Hammond, Ronald A. Jenner, Thorid Zierold, Bernd Hänfling & Africa Gómez
Background: Sexual system is a key factor affecting the genetic diversity, population structure, genome structure and the evolutionary potential of species. The sexual system androdioecy -- where males and hermaphrodites coexist in populations -- is extremely rare, yet is found in three crustacean groups, barnacles, a genus of clam shrimps Eulimnadia, and in the order Notostraca, the tadpole shrimps. In the ancient crustacean order Notostraca, high morphological conservatism contrasts with a wide diversity of sexual...

Data from: A review of Western Amblyscelio and Baryconus (Hymenoptera: Platygastroidea, Platygastridae)

Ovidiu Alin Popovici, Lubomir Masner, David G. Notton & Mariana Popovici
The European species of the genera Amblyscelio and Baryconus are reviewed and revised based on morphological data. Females of Amblyscelio striaticeps Kieffer, 1913 and Baryconus graeffei (Kieffer, 1908) are described and the ovipositor of Amblyscelio is illustrated for the first time. The monotypic genus Amblyscelio was previously known only from a single male specimen. Baryconus graeffei is confirmed as a distinct species, while B. orbus Kononova, 2008 is recognized as a junior subjective synonym of...

Data from: Echinorhynchus salmonis Müller, 1784 (Acanthocephala: Echinorhynchidae) from the Bothnian Bay, Baltic Sea: morphological variability and radial asymmetry of proboscis hooks

Matthew T. Wayland, David I. Gibson & Christina Sommerville
Echinorhynchus salmonis is a common parasite of salmoniform and other fishes, occurring in fresh and brackish waters throughout the Holarctic. Presented here is the first analysis of the morphometric and meristic variation in a Palaearctic population of E. salmonis, collected from whitefish Coregonus lavaretus L. and smelt Osmerus eperlaus (L.) from the Bothnian Bay, northern Baltic Sea. Morphological data were compared with published descriptions of congeneric taxa. Nearctic populations of salmonid echinorhynchids considered by some...

Data from: A refined modelling approach to assess the influence of sampling on palaeobiodiversity curves: new support for declining Cretaceous dinosaur richness

Graeme T. Lloyd
Modelling has been underdeveloped with respect to constructing palaeobiodiversity curves, but it offers an additional tool for removing sampling from their estimation. Here an alternative to subsampling approaches, which often require large sample sizes, is explored by the extension and refinement of a pre-existing modelling technique that uses a geological proxy for sampling. Application of the model to the three main clades of dinosaurs suggests that much of their diversity fluctuations cannot be explained by...

Data from: Episodic radiations in the fly tree of life

Brian M. Wiegmann, Michelle D. Trautwein, Isaac S. Winkler, Norman B. Barr, Jung-Wook Kim, Christine Lambkin, Matthew A. Bertone, Brian K. Cassel, Keith M. Bayless, Alysha M. Heimberg, Benjamin M. Wheeler, Kevin J. Peterson, Thomas Pape, Bradley J. Sinclair, Jeffrey H. Skevington, Vladimir Blagoderov, Jason Caravas, Sujatha Narayanan Kutty, Urs Schmidt-Ott, Gail E. Kampmeier, F. Christian Thompson, David A. Grimaldi, Andrew T. Beckenbach, Gregory W. Courtney, Markus Friedrich … & J.-W. Kim
Flies are one of four superradiations of insects (along with beetles, wasps, and moths) that account for the majority of animal life on Earth. Diptera includes species known for their ubiquity (Musca domestica house fly), their role as pests (Anopheles gambiae malaria mosquito), and their value as model organisms across the biological sciences (Drosophila melanogaster). A resolved phylogeny for flies provides a framework for genomic, developmental, and evolutionary studies by facilitating comparisons across model organisms,...

Data from: Increases in sampling support the southern Gondwanan hypothesis for the origin of dinosaurs

Júlio C. A. Marsola, Gabriel S. Ferreira, Max C. Langer, David J. Button & Richard J. Butler
Dinosaurs were ubiquitous in terrestrial ecosystems through most of the Mesozoic and are still diversely represented in the modern fauna in the form of birds. Recent efforts to better understand the origins of the group have resulted in the discovery of many new species of early dinosaurs and their closest relatives (dinosauromorphs). In addition, recent re-examinations of early dinosaur phylogeny have highlighted uncertainties regarding the interrelationships of the main dinosaur lineages (Sauropodomorpha, Theropoda and Ornithischia),...

Data from: Evolution of cranial telescoping in echolocating whales (Cetacea: Odontoceti)

Morgan Churchill, Jonathan H. Geisler, Brian L. Beatty & Anjali Goswami
Odontocete (echolocating whale) skulls exhibit extreme posterior displacement and overlapping of facial bones, here referred to as retrograde cranial telescoping. To examine retrograde cranial telescoping across 40 million years of whale evolution, we collected 3D scans of whale skulls spanning odontocete evolution. We used a sliding semilandmark morphometric approach with Procrustes superimposition and PCA to capture and describe the morphological variation present in the facial region, followed by Ancestral Character State Reconstruction (ACSR) and evolutionary...

Data from: Liverworts to the rescue: an investigation of their efficacy as mycorrhizal inoculum for vascular plants

Jill Kowal, Silvia Pressel, Jeffrey G. Duckett & Martin I. Bidartondo
Pezoloma ericae (D.J. Read) Baral, a widespread mycorrhizal fungus of plants in the Ericales, is known to form intracellular associations with several families of leafy liverworts (Schistochilaceae, Lepidoziaceae, Cephaloziaceae, Cephaloziellaceae) in vitro. The ecological significance of this link between vascular and non-vascular plants is unknown. Fungal symbionts were isolated from rhizoids of the leafy liverworts Cephalozia connivens (Dicks.) Lindb. and C. bicuspidata (L.) Dum. (Cephaloziaceae), as well as from the hair roots of two dominant...

Data from: X-rays and virtual taphonomy resolve the first Cissus (Vitaceae) macrofossils from Africa as early diverging members of the genus

Neil F. Adams, Margaret E. Collinson, Selena Y. Smith, Marion K. Bamford, Félix Forest, Panagiota Malakasi, Federica Marone & Dan Sykes
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Fossilized seeds similar to Cissus (Vitaceae) have been recognized from the Miocene of Kenya, though some were previously assigned to the Menispermaceae. We undertook a comparative survey of extant African Cissus seeds to identify the fossils and consider their implications for the evolution and biogeography of Cissus and for African early Miocene paleoenvironments. METHODS: Micro-computed tomography (µCT) and synchrotron-based X-ray tomographic microscopy (SRXTM) were used to study seed morphology and anatomy....

Data from: Echinorhynchus brayi n. sp. (Acanthocephala: Echinorhynchidae) from Pachycara crassiceps (Roule) (Zoarcidae), a deep-sea fish

Matthew T. Wayland, Christina Sommerville & David I. Gibson
Echinorhynchus brayi n. sp. (Palaeacanthocephala: Echinorhynchidae) is described from Pachycara crassiceps (Roule) (Zoarcidae) from the Porcupine Seabight, Northeast Atlantic. The new species closely resembles E. canyonensis Huffman & Kliever, 1977, a parasite of a Pacific zoarcid, but has longer lemnisci, larger eggs and larger testes. E. brayi n. sp. can be readily differentiated from the ten other Echinorhynchus spp. recorded from deep-sea fishes (E. abyssicola, E. gadi, E. longiproboscis, E. malacocephali, E. melanoglaeae, E. muraenolepisi,...

Data from: Climatic niche evolution is faster in sympatric than allopatric lineages of the butterfly genus Pyrgus

Camille Pitteloud, Nils Arrigo, Tomasz Suchan, Alicia Mastretta-Yanes, Roger Vila, Vlad Dinca, Juan Hernández-Roldán, Ernst Brockmann, Yannick Chittaro, Irena Kleckova, Luca Fumagalli, Sven Buerki, Loïc Pellissier & Nadir Alvarez
Understanding how speciation relates to ecological divergence has long fascinated biologists. It is assumed that ecological divergence is essential to sympatric speciation, as a mechanism to avoid competition and eventually lead to reproductive isolation, while divergence in allopatry is not necessarily associated with niche differentiation. The impact of the spatial context of divergence on the evolutionary rates of abiotic dimensions of the ecological niche has rarely been explored for an entire clade. Here, we compare...

Data from: Assessment of available anatomical characters for linking living mammals to fossil taxa in phylogenetic analyses

Thomas Guillerme & Natalie Cooper
Analyses of living and fossil taxa are crucial for understanding biodiversity through time. The total evidence method allows living and fossil taxa to be combined in phylogenies, using molecular data for living taxa and morphological data for living and fossil taxa. With this method, substantial overlap of coded anatomical characters among living and fossil taxa is vital for accurately inferring topology. However, although molecular data for living species are widely available, scientists generating morphological data...

Data from: Epidemiological interactions between urogenital and intestinal human schistosomiasis in the context of praziquantel treatment across three West African countries

Sarah C. L. Knowles, Bonnie L. Webster, Amadou Garba, Moussa Sacko, Oumar T. Diaw, Alan Fenwick, David Rollinson & Joanne P. Webster
Background: In many parts of sub-Saharan Africa, urogenital and intestinal schistosomiasis co-occur, and mixed species infections containing both Schistosoma haematobium and S. mansoni can be common. During co-infection, interactions between these two species are possible, yet the extent to which such interactions influence disease dynamics or the outcome of control efforts remains poorly understood. Methodology/Principal Findings: Here we analyse epidemiological data from three West African countries co-endemic for urogenital and intestinal schistosomiasis (Senegal, Niger and...

A broadly resolved molecular phylogeny of New Zealand cheilostome bryozoans as a framework for hypotheses of morphological evolution

Russell Orr, E. Di Martino, D.P. Gordon, M.H. Ramsfjell, H.L. Mello, A.M. Smith & L.H. Liow
Larger and larger molecular phylogenies based on ever more genes are becoming commonplace with the advent of cheaper and more streamlined sequencing and bioinformatics pipelines. However, many groups of inconspicuous but no less evolutionarily or ecologically important marine invertebrates are still neglected in the quest for understanding species- and higher-level phylogenetic relationships using high-throughput sequencing approaches. Here, we alleviate this issue by presenting a 17 gene phylogeny of >200 newly sequenced cheilostome bryozoan species, mainly...

Eggs of extinct dwarf island emus retained large-size: Electronic supplementary material

Julian Hume & Christian Robertson
Islands off southern Australia once harboured three subspecies of the mainland emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae), the smaller Tasmanian emu (D. n. diemenensis), and two dwarf emus, King Island emu (D. n. minor) and Kangaroo Island emu (D. n. baudinianus), which all became extinct rapidly after discovery by human settlers. Little was recorded about their life histories and only a few historical museum specimens exist, including a number of complete eggs from Tasmania and a unique egg...

On defining and finding islands of trees and mitigating large island bias

Ana Serra Silva & Mark Wilkinson
How best can we summarise sets of phylogenetic trees? Systematists have relied heavily on consensus methods, but if tree distributions can be partitioned into distinct subsets it may be helpful to provide separate summaries of these rather than relying entirely upon a single consensus tree. How sets of trees can most helpfully be partitioned and represented leads to many open questions, but one natural partitioning is provided by the islands of trees found during tree...

Ecomorphological variation in Trithemis (Odonata, Libellulidae) dragonfly wings reconsidered

Norman MacLeod, Banjamin Price & Zachary Stevens
In the analysis and interpretation of organismal morphology it is important to take a number of factors into consideration. The phylogenetic ecology of the Afro-Asian dragonfly genus Trithemis has been investigated by Damm et al. [1] and Trithemis wing ecomorphology by Outomuro et al. [2]. However, the latter study focused exclusively on a somewhat coarse sampling of forewing and hindwing outlines and reported results that were at odds in some ways with expectations given the...

Community metabarcoding reveals the relative role of environmental filtering and spatial processes in metacommunity dynamics of soil microarthropods across a mosaic of montane forests

Víctor Noguerales, Emmanouil Meramveliotakis, Adrián Castro-Insua, Carmelo Andújar, Paula Arribas, Thomas Creedy, Isaac Overcast, Hélène Morlon, Brent C. Emerson, Alfried P. Vogler & Anna Papadopoulou
Disentangling the relative role of environmental filtering and spatial processes in driving metacommunity structure across mountainous regions remains challenging, as the way we quantify spatial connectivity in topographically and environmentally heterogeneous landscapes can influence our perception of which process predominates. More empirical datasets are required to account for taxon- and context-dependency but relevant research in understudied areas is often compromised by the taxonomic impediment. We here employed haplotype-level community DNA metabarcoding, enabled by stringent filtering...

Data from: Exploring data interaction and nucleotide alignment in a multiple gene analysis of Ips (Coleoptera: Scolytinae)

Anthony I. Cognato & Alfried P. Vogler
The possibility of gene tree incongruence in a species-level phylogenetic analysis of the genus Ips (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) was investigated based on mitochondrial 16S rRNA and nuclear Elongation factor-1α sequences, and existing Cytochrome Oxidase I and non-molecular data sets. Separate cladistic analyses of the data partitions resulted in partially discordant most-parsimonious trees but revealed only low conflict of the phylogenetic signal. Interactions among data partitions, which differed in the level of sequence divergence (COI > 16S...

Data from: Ancient plants with ancient fungi: liverworts associate with early-diverging arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

William R. Rimington, Silvia Pressel, Jeffrey G. Duckett, Katie J. Field, David J. Read & Martin I. Bidartondo
Arbuscular mycorrhizas are widespread in land plants including liverworts, some of the closest living relatives of the first plants to colonise land 500 MYA. Previous investigations reported near-exclusive colonisation of liverworts by the most recently evolved arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, the Glomeraceae, indicating a recent acquisition from flowering plants at odds with the widely-held notion that arbuscular mycorrhizal-like associations in liverworts represent the ancestral symbiotic condition in land plants. We performed an analysis of symbiotic fungi...

Data from: Metamorphosis revealed: time-lapse three-dimensional imaging inside a living chrysalis

Tristan Lowe, Russell J. Garwood, Thomas J. Simonsen, Robert S. Bradley & Philip J. Withers
Studies of model insects have greatly increased our understanding our animal development. Yet they are limited in scope to this small pool of model species: a small number of representatives for a hyperdiverse group with highly varied developmental processes. One factor behind this narrow scope is the challenging nature of traditional methods of study, such as histology and dissection, which can preclude quantitative analysis and do not allow the development of a single individual to...

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