156 Works

Data from: Benefits and costs of ecological restoration: rapid assessment of changing ecosystem service values at a UK wetland

Francine M. R. Hughes, Kelvin S. H. Peh, Andrew Balmford, Rob H. Field, Anthony Lamb, Jennifer C. Birch, Richard B. Bradbury, Claire Brown, Stuart H. M. Butchart, Martin Lester, Ross Morrison, Isabel Sedgwick, Chris Soans, Alison J. Stattersfield, Peter A. Stroh, Ruth D. Swetnam, David H. L. Thomas, Matt Walpole, Stuart Warrington & Kelvin S.-H. Peh
Restoration of degraded land is recognized by the international community as an important way of enhancing both biodiversity and ecosystem services, but more information is needed about its costs and benefits. In Cambridgeshire, U.K., a long-term initiative to convert drained, intensively farmed arable land to a wetland habitat mosaic is driven by a desire both to prevent biodiversity loss from the nationally important Wicken Fen National Nature Reserve (Wicken Fen NNR) and to increase the...

Data from: Phylogeny, palaeontology, and primates: do incomplete fossils bias the tree of life?

David J. Pattinson, Richard S. Thompson, Aleks K. Piotrowski & Robert J. Asher
Paleontological systematics relies heavily on morphological data that have undergone decay and fossilization. Here, we apply a heuristic means to assess how a fossil's incompleteness detracts from inferring its phylogenetic relationships. We compiled a phylogenetic matrix for primates and simulated the extinction of living species by deleting an extant taxon's molecular data and keeping only those morphological characters present in actual fossils. The choice of characters present in a given living taxon (the subject) was...

Data from: Body mass estimates of an exceptionally complete Stegosaurus (Ornithischia: Thyreophora): comparing volumetric and linear bivariate mass estimation methods

Charlotte A. Brassey, Susannah Maidment, Paul Barrett & P. M. Barrett
Body mass is a key biological variable, but difficult to assess from fossils. Various techniques exist for estimating body mass from skeletal parameters, but few studies have compared outputs from different methods. Here, we apply several mass estimation methods to an exceptionally complete skeleton of the dinosaur Stegosaurus. Applying a volumetric convex-hulling technique to a digital model of Stegosaurus, we estimate a mass of 1560 kg (95% prediction interval 1082–2256 kg) for this individual. By...

Data from: Lessons from genome skimming of arthropod-preserving ethanol

Benjamin Linard, Paula Arribas, Carmelo Andújar, Alex Crampton-Platt & Alfried P. Vogler
Field-collected specimens of invertebrates are regularly killed and preserved in ethanol, prior to DNA extraction from the specimens, while the ethanol fraction is usually discarded. However, DNA may be released from the specimens into the ethanol, which can potentially be exploited to study species diversity in the sample without the need for DNA extraction from tissue. We used shallow shotgun sequencing of the total DNA to characterize the preservative ethanol from two pools of insects...

Data from: Metabarcoding and mitochondrial metagenomics of endogean arthropods to unveil the mesofauna of the soil

Paula Arribas, Carmelo Andújar, Kevin Hopkins, Matthew Shepherd & Alfried P. Vogler
Biological communities inhabiting the soil are among the most diversified, complex and yet most poorly studied terrestrial ecosystems. The greatest knowledge gaps apply to the arthropod mesofauna (0·1–2 mm body size) because conventional morphological and molecular approaches are in many cases insufficient for the characterisation of these complex communities. The development of high-throughput sequencing (HTS) methodologies is required to solve current impediments and to further advance our understanding of below-ground biodiversity. We propose a flotation–Berlese–flotation...

Data from: Time-calibrated molecular phylogeny of pteropods

Alice K. Burridge, Christine Hörnlein, Arie W. Janssen, Martin Hughes, Stephanie L. Bush, Ferdinand Marlétaz, Rebeca Gasca, Annelies C. Pierrot-Bults, Ellinor Michel, Jonathan A. Todd, Jeremy R. Young, Karen J. Osborn, Steph B.J. Menken, Katja T.C.A. Peijnenburg, Katja T. C. A. Peijnenburg & Steph B. J. Menken
Pteropods are a widespread group of holoplanktonic gastropod molluscs and are uniquely suitable for study of long-term evolutionary processes in the open ocean because they are the only living metazoan plankton with a good fossil record. Pteropods have been proposed as bioindicators to monitor the impacts of ocean acidification and in consequence have attracted considerable research interest, however, a robust evolutionary framework for the group is still lacking. Here we reconstruct their phylogenetic relationships and...

Data from: Phylogeny of Anophelinae using mitochondrial protein coding genes

Peter G. Foster, Tatiane M.P. De Oliveira, Eduardo S. Bergo, Jan E. Conn, Denise C. Sant'Ana, Sandra S. Nagaki, Silvio Nihei, Carlos E. Lamas, Christian González, Caio C. Moreira & Maria-Anice M. Sallum
Malaria is a vector-borne disease that is a great burden on the poorest and most marginalized communities of the tropical and subtropical world. About 41 species of Anopheline mosquitoes can effectively spread species of Plasmodium parasites that cause human malaria. Proposing a natural classification for the subfamily Anophelinae has been a continuous effort, addressed using both morphology and DNA sequence data. Monophyly of the genus Anopheles, and phylogenetic placement of the genus Bironella, subgenera Kerteszia,...

Data from: Metabarcoding of freshwater invertebrates to detect the effects of a pesticide spill

Carmelo Andujar, Paula Arribas, Clare Gray, Katherine Bruce, Guy Woodward, Douglas W. Yu & Alfried P. Vogler
Biomonitoring underpins the environmental assessment of freshwater ecosystems and guides management and conservation. Current methodology for surveys of (macro)invertebrates uses coarse taxonomic identification where species-level resolution is difficult to obtain. Next-generation sequencing of entire assemblages (metabarcoding) provides a new approach for species detection, but requires further validation. We used metabarcoding of invertebrate assemblages with two fragments of the cox1 "barcode" and partial nuclear ribosomal (SSU) genes, to assess the effects of a pesticide spill in...

Data from: Persistence, impacts and environmental drivers of covert infections in invertebrate hosts

Inês Fontes, Hanna Hartikainen, Chris Williams & Beth Okamura
Background: Persistent covert infections of the myxozoan, Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae, in primary invertebrate hosts (the freshwater bryozoan, Fredericella sultana) have been proposed to represent a reservoir for proliferative kidney disease in secondary fish hosts. However, we have limited understanding of how covert infections persist and vary in bryozoan populations over time and space and how they may impact these populations. In addition, previous studies have likely underestimated covert infection prevalence. To improve our understanding of the...

Data from: The oldest erect cheilostome bryozoan: Jablonskipora gen. nov. from the upper Albian of south-west England

Silviu O. Martha & Paul D. Taylor
Although dominant at the present day, the bryozoan order Cheilostomata did not appear until the Late Jurassic. For over 55 million years after their first appearance, cheilostomes remained low in diversity and disparity, exclusively encrusting and scant in the fossil record. During the late Albian, however, cheilostomes began an explosive diversification coinciding with the appearance of several key novelties. In this paper, we describe a new monospecific cheilostome genus, Jablonskipora gen. nov. (type species Jablonskipora...

Data from: Speciation below ground: tempo and mode of diversification in a radiation of endogean ground beetles

Carmelo Andújar, Sergio Pérez-González, Paula Arribas, Juan P. Zaballos, Alfried P. Vogler & Ignacio Ribera
Dispersal is a critical factor determining the spatial scale of speciation, which is constrained by the ecological characteristics and distribution of a species' habitat and the intrinsic traits of species. Endogean taxa are strongly affected by the unique qualities of the below-ground environment and its effect on dispersal, and contrasting reports indicate either high dispersal capabilities favoured by small body size and mediated by passive mechanisms, or low dispersal due to restricted movement and confinement...

Data from: Time for a rethink: time sub-sampling methods in disparity-through-time analyses

Thomas Guillerme & Natalie Cooper
Disparity-through-time analyses can be used to determine how morphological diversity changes in response to mass extinctions, and to investigate the drivers of morphological change. These analyses are routinely applied to palaeobiological datasets, yet although there is much discussion about how to best calculate disparity, there has been little consideration of how taxa should be sub-sampled through time. Standard practice is to group taxa into discrete time bins, often based on stratigraphic periods. However, this can...

Data from: Molecular palaeontology illuminates the evolution of ecdysozoan vision

James F. Fleming, Reinhardt M. Kristensen, Martin V. Sørensen, Tae-Yoon S. Park, Kazuharu Arakawa, Mark Blaxter, Lorena Rebecchi, Roberto Guidetti, Tom A. Williams, Nicholas W. Roberts, Jakob Vinther & Davide Pisani
Colour vision is known to have arisen only twice – once in Vertebrata and once within the Ecdysozoa, in Arthropoda. However, the evolutionary history of ecdysozoan vision is unclear. At the molecular level, visual pigments, composed of a chromophore and a protein belonging to the opsin family, have different spectral sensitivities and these mediate colour vision. At the morphological level, ecdysozoan vision is conveyed by eyes of variable levels of complexity; from the simple ocelli...

Data from: Trilobite evolutionary rates constrain the duration of the Cambrian explosion

John R. Paterson, Gregory D. Edgecombe & Michael S. Y. Lee
Trilobites are often considered exemplary for understanding the Cambrian explosion of animal life, due to their unsurpassed diversity and abundance. These biomineralized arthropods appear abruptly in the fossil record with an established diversity, phylogenetic disparity, and provincialism at the beginning of Cambrian Series 2 (~521 Ma), suggesting a protracted but cryptic earlier history that possibly extends into the Precambrian. However, recent analyses indicate elevated rates of phenotypic and genomic evolution for arthropods during the early...

Data from: Microbial-tubeworm associations in a 440 million year old hydrothermal vent community

Magdalena N. Georgieva, Crispin T.S. Little, Russell J. Bailey, Alexander D. Ball, Adrian G. Glover & Crispin T. S. Little
Microorganisms are the chief primary producers within present-day deep-sea hydrothermal vent ecosystems, and play a fundamental role in shaping the ecology of these environments. However, very little is known about the microbes that occurred within, and structured ancient vent communities. The evolutionary history, diversity, and the nature of interactions between ancient vent microorganisms and hydrothermal vent animals are largely undetermined. The oldest known hydrothermal vent community that includes metazoans is preserved within the Ordovician-early Silurian...

Data from: Hurricane effects on Neotropical lizards span geographic and phylogenetic scales

Colin Donihue, Alex Kowaleski, Jonathan Losos, Adam Algar, Simon Baeckens, Robert Buchkowski, Anne-Claire Fabre, Hannah Frank, Anthony Geneva, Graham Reynolds, James Stroud, Julián Velasco, Jason Kolbe, Luke Mahler & Anthony Herrel
Extreme climate events such as droughts, cold snaps, and hurricanes can be powerful agents of natural selection, producing acute selective pressures very different from the everyday pressures acting on organisms. However, it remains unknown whether these infrequent but severe disruptions are quickly erased by quotidian selective forces, or whether they have the potential to durably shape biodiversity patterns across regions and clades. Here, we show that hurricanes have enduring evolutionary impacts on the morphology of...

Eye size and investment in frogs and toads correlate with adult habitat, activity pattern and breeding ecology

Kate N. Thomas, David J. Gower, Rayna C. Bell, Matthew K. Fujita, Ryan K. Schott & Jeffrey W. Streicher
Frogs and toads (Amphibia: Anura) display diverse ecologies and behaviours, which are often correlated with visual capacity in other vertebrates. Additionally, anurans exhibit a broad range of relative eye sizes, which have not previously been linked to ecological factors in this group. We measured relative investment in eye size and corneal size for 220 species of anurans representing all 55 currently recognized families and tested whether they were correlated with six natural history traits hypothesized...

Evolutionary modularity, integration and disparity in an accretionary skeleton: Analysis of venerid Bivalvia

Stewart Edie, Safia Khouja, Katie Collins, Nicholas Crouch & David Jablonski
Modular evolution, the relatively independent evolution of body parts, may promote high morphological disparity in a clade. Conversely, integrated evolution via the stronger covariation of parts may limit disparity. However, integration can also promote high disparity by channeling morphological evolution along lines of least resistance—a process that may be particularly important in the accumulation of disparity among organisms with accretionary growth, as in many invertebrate systems. We use a time-calibrated phylogenetic hypothesis and high-density, 3D...

Microsatellite genotypes of the freshwater bryozoan species Cristatella mucedo and Fredericella sultana

P Ruggeri & B Okamura
This dataset contains genotypes (in three digit-format) for unique clones of the freshwater bryozoan species Cristatella mucedo and Fredericella sultana at microsatellite loci and representing sampling sites across the UK. Cristatella mucedo data additionally covers Northern Ireland.

Data from: Reliable wolf-dog hybrid detection in Europe using a reduced SNP panel developed for non-invasively collected samples

Jenni Harmoinen, Alina Von Thaden, Jouni Aspi, Laura Kvist, Berardino Cocchiararo, Anne Jarausch, Andrea Gazzola, Teodora Sin, Hannes Lohi, Marjo Hytönen, Ilpo Kojola, Astrid Vik Stronen, Romolo Caniglia, Federica Mattucci, Marco Galaverni, Raquel Godinho, Aritz Ruiz-González, Ettore Randi, Violeta Muñoz-Fuentes & Carsten Nowak
Background: Understanding the processes that lead to hybridization of wolves and dogs is of scientific and management importance, particularly over large geographical scales, as wolves can disperse great distances. However, a method to efficiently detect hybrids in routine wolf monitoring is lacking. Microsatellites offer only limited resolution due to the low number of markers showing distinctive allele frequencies between wolves and dogs. Moreover, calibration across laboratories is time-consuming and costly. In this study, we selected...

The life and times of Pteridinium simplex

Simon Darroch, Brandt Gibson, Maggie Syversen, Imran Rahman, Rachel Racicot, Frances Dunn, Susana Gutarra-Diaz, Eberhard Schindler, Achim Wehrmann & Marc Laflamme
Pteridinium simplex is an iconic erniettomorph taxon best known from late Ediacaran successions in South Australia, Russia, and Namibia. Despite nearly 100 years of study, there remain fundamental questions surrounding the paleobiology and -ecology of this organism, including it’s life position relative the sediment-water interface, and how it fed and functioned within benthic communities. Here, we combine a re-description of specimens housed at the Senckenberg Forschungsinstitut und Naturmuseum Frankfurt with field observations of fossiliferous surfaces...

Data from: Community assembly and metaphylogeography of soil biodiversity: insights from haplotype-level community DNA metabarcoding within an oceanic island

Carmelo Andújar Fernández, Paula Arribas, Heriberto López, Yurena Arjona, Antonio José Pérez-Delgado, Pedro Oromí, Alfried P. Vogler & Brent C. Emerson
Most of our understanding of island diversity comes from the study of aboveground systems, while the patterns and processes of diversification and community assembly for belowground biotas remain poorly understood. Here we take advantage of a relatively young and dynamic oceanic island to advance our understanding of eco-evolutionary processes driving community assembly within soil mesofauna. Using whole organism community DNA (wocDNA) metabarcoding and the recently developed metaMATE pipeline, we have generated spatially explicit and reliable...

Chemical and Mineralogical analysis, SEM images and elemental diffusion timescales

Chiara M Petrone
Major and trace elements data for whole rock and clinopyroxene; major elements data for glassy groundmasses; BSE (back-scattered electron) images of clinopyroxene; Fe-Mg elemental diffusion timescales of clinopyroxene; LA-ICP-MS chemical maps of clinopyroxene.

Data from: Heterogeneous models place the root of the placental mammal phylogeny

Claire C. Morgan, Peter G. Foster, Andrew E. Webb, Davide Pisani, James O. McInerney & Mary J. O'Connell
Heterogeneity among life traits in mammals has resulted in considerable phylogenetic conflict, particularly concerning the position of the placental root. Layered upon this are gene- and lineage-specific variation in amino acid substitution rates and compositional biases. Life trait variations that may impact upon mutational rates are longevity, metabolic rate, body size and germ line generation time. Over the past 12 years, three main conflicting hypotheses have emerged for the placement of the placental root. These...

Data from: Evolution of Manduca sexta hornworms and relatives: biogeographical analysis reveals an ancestral diversification in Central America

Akito Y. Kawahara, Jesse W. Breinholt, Francesca V. Ponce, Jean Haxaire, Lei Xiao, Greg P. A. Lamarre, Daniel Rubinoff & Ian J. Kitching
The hawkmoth genus Manduca is a diverse group of very large, conspicuous moths that has served as an important model across many biological disciplines. Two species in particular, the tobacco hornworm (Manduca sexta) and the tomato hornworm (Manduca quinquemaculatus) have been researched extensively. Studies across biological fields have referred to these two species as being closely related or even sister species, but the extent to which these two model organisms are related remains largely unknown....

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