156 Works

Data from: Reversal to air-driven sound production revealed by a molecular phylogeny of tongueless frogs, family Pipidae

Iker Irisarri, Miguel Vences, Diego San Mauro, Frank Glaw & Rafael Zardoya
BACKGROUND: Evolutionary novelties often appear by conferring completely new functions to pre- existing structures or by innovating the mechanism through which a particular function is performed. Sound production plays a central role in the behavior of frogs, which use their calls to delimit territories and attract mates. Therefore, frogs have evolved complex vocal structures capable of producing a wide variety of advertising sounds. It is generally acknowledged that most frogs call by moving an air...

Data from: Inter-specific gene flow dynamics during the Pleistocene-dated speciation of forest-dependent mosquitoes in Southeast Asia

Katy Morgan, Yvonne-Marie Linton, Pradya Somboon, Prasanta Saikia, Vas Dev, Duong Socheat & Catherine Walton
Tropical forests have undergone repeated fragmentation and expansion during Pleistocene glacial and interglacial periods, respectively. The effects of this repeated forest fragmentation in driving vicariance in tropical taxa have been well studied. However, relatively little is known about how often this process results in allopatric speciation, since it may be inhibited by recurrent gene flow during repeated secondary contact, or to what extent Pleistocene-dated speciation results from ecological specialisation in the face of gene flow....

Data from: Host tracking or cryptic adaptation? Phylogeography of Pediobius saulius (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae), a parasitoid of the highly invasive horse-chestnut leafminer

Antonio Hernández-López, Rodolphe Rougerie, Sylvie Augustin, David C. Lees, Rumen Tomov, Marc Kenis, Ejup Çota, Endrit Kullaj, Christer Hansson, Giselher Grabenweger, Alain Roques & Carlos López-Vaamonde
Classical biological control is often advocated as a tool for managing invasive species. However, accurate evaluations of parasitoid species complexes and assessment of host-specificity are impeded by the lack of morphological variation. Here we study the possibility of host races/species within the eulophid wasp Pediobius saulius, a pupal generalist parasitoid that parasitize the highly invasive horse-chestnut leaf-mining moth Cameraria ohridella. We analysed the population genetic structure, host associations and phylogeographic patterns of P. saulius in...

Data from: Taxonomic structure of the fossil record is shaped by sampling bias

Graeme T. Lloyd, Jeremy R. Young & Andrew B. Smith
Understanding biases that affect how species are partitioned into higher taxa is critical for much of palaeobiology, as higher taxa are commonly used to estimate species diversity through time. Using the deep-sea record of coccolithophorid microfossils over the last 150 million years (myr), we demonstrate that sampling and taxonomic effort are important drivers of the species/genus ratio. An unexpected two-stepped change in the ratio of species to genera over the last 150 myr correlates strongly...

Data from: Hybridization and barriers to gene flow in an island bird radiation

Ben H. Warren, Eldredge Bermingham, Yann Bourgeois, Laura K. Estep, Robert P. Prys-Jones, Dominique Strasberg & Christophe Thébaud
While reinforcement may play a role in all major modes of speciation, relatively little is known about the timescale over which species hybridize without evolving complete reproductive isolation. Birds have high potential for hybridization, and islands provide simple settings for uncovering speciation and hybridization patterns. Here we develop a phylogenetic hypothesis for a phenotypically-diverse radiation of finch-like weaver-birds (Foudia) endemic to the western Indian Ocean islands. We find that unlike Darwin’s finches, each island-endemic Foudia...

Data from: Identifying heterogeneity in rates of morphological evolution: discrete character change in the evolution of lungfish (Sarcopterygii; Dipnoi)

Graeme T Lloyd, Steve C Wang & Stephen L Brusatte
Quantifying rates of morphological evolution is important in many macroevolutionary studies, and critical when assessing possible adaptive radiations and episodes of punctuated equilibrium in the fossil record. However, studies of morphological rates of change have lagged behind those on taxonomic diversification, and most authors have focused on continuous characters and quantifying patterns of morphological rates over time. Here, we provide a phylogenetic approach, using discrete characters and three statistical tests to determine points on a...

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