Data from: Spatial prioritisation of EU’s LIFE-Nature program to strengthen the conservation impact of Natura 2000Virgilio Hermoso, Dani Villero, Miguel Clavero & Lluís Brotons
1. Despite advances in conservation efforts within Europe during recent decades, assessments highlight a need for adequate financing mechanisms to support the Natura 2000 network; the centrepiece of the EU´s Biodiversity Strategy. Besides the need for greater investment (currently only covering a fifth of the estimated cost of the network), better planning for this investment could help better achieve conservation goals. 2. We demonstrate a method that could be used to identify priority Natura 2000...
Human societies depend on an Earth System that operates within a constrained range of nutrient availability, yet the recent trajectory of terrestrial nitrogen (N) availability is uncertain. Examining patterns of foliar N concentrations ([N]) and isotope ratios (15N) from more than 42,000 samples acquired over 37 years, here we show that foliar [N] declined by 8% and foliar 15N declined by 0.8 – 1.9 ‰. Examining patterns across different climate spaces, foliar 15N declined across...
Data from: Effects of chronic anthropogenic disturbance and rainfall on the specialization of ant-plant mutualistic networks in the Caatinga, a Brazilian dry forestTalita Câmara, Inara R. Leal, Nico Blüthgen, Fernanda M. P. Oliveira, Rubens T. De Queiroz & Xavier Arnan
1. Anthropogenic disturbance and climate change might negatively affect the ecosystem services provided by mutualistic networks. However, the effects of such forces remain poorly characterized. They may be especially important in dry forests, which (1) experience chronic anthropogenic disturbances (CADs) as human populations exploit forest resources and (2) are predicted to face a 22% decline in rainfall under climate change. 2. In this study, we investigated the separate and combined effects of CADs and rainfall...
Data from: Combined exposure to sublethal concentrations of an insecticide and a fungicide affect feeding, ovary development and longevity in a solitary beeFabio Sgolastra, Xavier Arnan, Riccardo Cabbri, Gloria Isani, Piotr Medrzycki, Dariusz Teper & Jordi Bosch
Pollinators in agroecosystems are often exposed to pesticide mixtures. Even at low concentrations, the effects of these mixtures on bee populations are difficult to predict due to potential synergistic interactions. We orally exposed newly-emerged females of the solitary bee Osmia bicornis to environmentally-realistic levels of clothianidin (neonicotinoid insecticide) and propiconazole (fungicide), singly and in combination. The amount of feeding solution consumed was highest in bees exposed to the neonicotinoid, and lowest in bees exposed to...
Data from: Shock and stabilisation following long-term drought in tropical forest from 15 years of litterfall dynamicsLucy Rowland, Antonio C. L. Da Costa, Alex A. R. Oliveira, Samuel S. Almeida, Leandro V. Ferreira, Yadvinder Malhi, Dan B. Metcalfe, Maurizio Mencuccini, John Grace & Patrick Meir
Litterfall dynamics in tropical forests are a good indicator of overall tropical forest function, indicative of carbon invested in both photosynthesising tissues and reproductive organs such as flowers and fruits. These dynamics are sensitive to changes in climate, such as drought, but little is known about the long-term responses of tropical forest litterfall dynamics to extended drought stress. We present a 15-year dataset of litterfall (leaf, flower and fruit, and twigs) from the world's only...
The spatial heterogeneity of resource availability is a major driver of biodiversity patterns. Some environmental conditions and resources are characterized by large-scale patterns of variation within the landscape. Clumped local discontinuities or discrete elements also increase spatial heterogeneity, romoting local “biodiversity hot-spots” by modifying habitat characteristics and promoting plant-animal interactions. Clay licks are faunal attractors owing to their role in the nutritional ecology of the user species; nevertheless, the effect of their presence on the...
Data from: The choice of universal primers and the characteristics of the species mixture determines when DNA metabarcoding can be quantitative.Josep Pinol, Miquel Angel Senar & William O. C. Symondson
DNA metabarcoding is a technique used to survey biodiversity in many ecological settings, but there are doubts about whether it can provide quantitative results, i.e. the proportions of each species in the mixture as opposed to a species list. While there are several experimental studies that report quantitative metabarcoding results, there are a similar number that fail to do so. Here we provide the rationale to understand under what circumstances the technique can be quantitative....
Data from: Phenotypic biomarkers of climatic impacts on declining insect populations: a key role for decadal drought, thermal buffering and amplification effects and host plant dynamicsJofre Carnicer, Constantí Stefanescu, Maria Vives-Ingla, Carlos López, Sofia Cortizas, Christopher Wheat, Roger Vila, Joan Llusià & Josep Penuelas
1. Widespread population declines have been reported for diverse Mediterranean butterflies over the last three decades, and have been significantly associated to increased global change impacts. The specific landscape and climatic drivers of these declines remain uncertain for most declining species. 2. Here we analyse whether plastic phenotypic traits of a model butterfly species (Pieris napi) perform as reliable biomarkers of vulnerability to extreme temperature impacts in natural populations, showing contrasting trends in thermally exposed...
Data from: Trade-offs and synergies between bird conservation and wildfire suppression in the face of global changeAdrian Regos, Virgilio Hermoso, Manuela D'Amen, Antoine Guisan & Lluís Brotons
1. The combined effects of climate change and other factors, such as land use change or fire disturbance, pose daunting challenges for biodiversity conservation worldwide. 2. In this study, we predicted the future effectiveness of the Natura 2000 (N2000), the current network of protected areas (PA) in Europe, at maintaining and representing suitable environmental conditions for a set of 79 bird species between 2000 and 2050 in a fire-prone area strongly affected by land abandonment...
Data from: Quantifying temporal change in plant population attributes: insights from a resurrection approachRocío Gómez, Belen Mendez-Vigo, Arnald Marcer, Carlos Alonso-Blanco & F. Xavier Picó
Rapid evolution in annual plants can be quantified by comparing phenotypic and genetic changes between past and contemporary individuals from the same populations over several generations. Such knowledge will help understand the response of plants to rapid environmental shifts, such as the ones imposed by global climate change. To that end, we undertook a resurrection approach in Spanish populations of the annual plant Arabidopsis thaliana that were sampled twice over a decade. Annual weather records...
Centre for Research on Ecology and Forestry Applications10
Estación Biológica de Doñana2
Spanish National Research Council2
Autonomous University of Barcelona2
South African National Biodiversity Institute1
Centre for Ecology and Hydrology1
Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi1
Moscow State University1
University of Bologna1