126 Works

Divergent natural selection alters male sperm competition success in Drosophila melanogaster

Biz Turnell, Klaus Reinhardt, Ralph Dobler, Marc Charette & Katrin Kaplan
Sexually selected traits may also be subject to non-sexual selection. If optimal trait values depend on environmental conditions, then “narrow sense” (i.e., non-sexual) natural selection can lead to local adaptation, with fitness in a certain environment being highest among individuals selected under that environment. Such adaptation can in turn drive ecological speciation via sexual selection. To date, most research on the effect of narrow-sense natural selection on sexually selected traits has focused on precopulatory measures...

Rest-task modulation of fMRI-derived global signal topography is mediated by transient co-activation patterns

Jianfeng Zhang, Zirui Huang, Shankar Tumati & Georg Northoff
Recent resting-state fMRI studies have revealed that the global signal (GS) exhibits a non-uniform spatial distribution across the gray matter. Whether this topography is informative remains largely unknown. We therefore tested rest-task modulation of global signal topography by analyzing static global signal correlation and dynamic co-activation patterns in a large sample of fMRI dataset (n=837) from the Human Connectome Project. The GS topography in the resting-state and in seven different tasks was first measured by...

The evolution and fate of diversity under hard and soft selection - all data and code

Patrick Chen & Rees Kassen
How genetic variation arises and persists over evolutionary time despite the depleting effects of natural selection remains a long-standing question. Here, we investigate the impacts of two extreme forms of population regulation – at the level of the total, mixed population (hard selection) and at the level of local, spatially distinct patches (soft selection) – on the emergence and fate of diversity under strong divergent selection. We find that while the form of population regulation...

Data from: Epicuticular compounds of Protopiophila litigata (Diptera: Piophilidae): identification and sexual selection across two years in the wild

Christopher Angell, Sharon Curtis, Anaïs Ryckenbusch & Howard Rundle
The epicuticular compounds (ECs) of insects serve both to waterproof the cuticle and, in many taxa, as pheromones that are important for various social interactions including mate choice within populations. However, ECs have not been individually identified in many species and most studies of their role in mate choice have been performed in a laboratory setting. Here we newly identify and quantify the ECs of the antler fly, Protopiophila litigata Bonduriansky, and use a cross-sectional...

Collision between biological process and statistical analysis revealed by mean-centering

David Westneat, Yimen Araya-Ajoy, Hassen Allegue, Barbara Class, Niels Dingemanse, Ned Dochtermann, Laszlo Garamszegi, Julien Martin, Shinichi Nakagawa, Denis Reale & Holger Schielzeth
1. Animal ecologists often collect hierarchically-structured data and analyze these with linear mixed-effects models. Specific complications arise when the effect sizes of covariates vary on multiple levels (e.g., within vs among subjects). Mean-centering of covariates within subjects offers a useful approach in such situations, but is not without problems. 2. A statistical model represents a hypothesis about the underlying biological process. Mean-centering within clusters assumes that the lower level responses (e.g. within subjects) depend on...

Quantifying selection on standard metabolic rate and body mass in Drosophila melanogaster

Howard D Rundle, Mathieu Videlier, Vincent Careau & Alastair Wilson
Standard metabolic rate (SMR), defined as the minimal energy expenditure required for self-maintenance, is a key physiological trait. Few studies have estimated its relationship with fitness, most notably in insects. This is presumably due to the difficulty of measuring SMR in a large number of very small individuals. Using high-throughput flow-through respirometry and a Drosophila melanogaster laboratory population adapted to a life-cycle that facilitates fitness measures, we quantified SMR, body mass, and fitness in 515...

Nasopharyngeal swabs vs. saliva sampling for SARS-CoV-2 detection: A cross-sectional survey of acceptability for caregivers and children after experiencing both methods

Francois Gagnon
Background: Saliva sampling is a promising alternative to nasopharyngeal swabs for SARS-CoV-2 testing, but acceptability data is lacking. We characterize the acceptability of saliva sampling and nasopharyngeal swabs for primary decision makers and their children after experiencing both testing modalities. Results: 48 participants and 48 primary decision makers completed the survey. Nasopharyngeal swab acceptability differed between scenarios, ranging 79% [95%CI: 66, 88] to 100% [95%CI: 95, 100]); saliva sampling acceptability was similar across scenarios, ranging...

Data from: Characterizing innovators: ecological and individual predictors of problem-solving performance

Sanjay Prasher, Julian C. Evans, Megan J. Thompson & Julie Morand-Ferron
Behavioural innovation, the use of new behaviours or existing ones in novel contexts, can have important ecological and evolutionary consequences for animals. An understanding of these consequences would be incomplete without considering the traits that predispose certain individuals to exhibit innovative behaviour. Several individual and ecological variables are hypothesized to affect innovativeness, but empirical studies show mixed results. We examined the effects of dominance rank, exploratory personality, and urbanisation on the innovativeness of wild-caught black-capped...

Data from: No consistent pollinator-mediated impacts of alien plants on natives

Julia A. Charlebois & Risa D. Sargent
The introduction of an alien plant is widely assumed to have negative consequences for the pollinator-mediated fitness of nearby natives. Indeed, a number of studies, including a highly cited meta-analysis, have concluded that the trend for such interactions is ompetitive. Here we provide evidence that publication bias and study design have obscured our ability to ssess the pollinator-mediated impacts of alien plants. In a meta-analysis of 76 studies, we demonstrate that alien/native status does not...

Data from: High temperature intensifies negative density dependence of fitness in red flour beetles

William D. Halliday, Alison S. Thomas & Gabriel Blouin-Demers
Competition for food, space, or other depletable resources has strong impacts on the fitness of organisms and can lead to a pattern known as negative density dependence, where fitness decreases as population density increases. Yet, many resources that have strong impacts on fitness are nondepletable (e.g., moisture or temperature). How do these nondepletable resources interact with depletable resources to modify negative density dependence? We tested the hypothesis that negative density dependence is modulated by temperature...

Data from: Polyphasic taxonomy of Aspergillus section Aspergillus (formerly Eurotium), and its occurrence in indoor environments and food

Amanda Juan Chen, Vit Hubka, Jens C. Frisvad, Cobus M. Visagie, Jos Houbraken, Martin Meijer, Janos Varga, Rasime Demirel, Željko Jurjević, Alena Kubátová, František Sklenář, Y. G. Zhou & Robert A. Samson
Aspergillus section Aspergillus (formerly the genus Eurotium) includes xerophilic species with uniseriate conidiophores, globose to subglobose vesicles, green conidia and yellow, thin walled eurotium-like ascomata with hyaline, lenticular ascospores. In the present study, a polyphasic approach using morphological characters, extrolites, physiological characters and phylogeny was applied to investigate the taxonomy of this section. Over 500 strains from various culture collections and new isolates obtained from indoor environments and a wide range of substrates all over...

Data from: Resolving rapid radiations within angiosperm families using anchored phylogenomics

Étienne Léveillé-Bourret, Julian R. Starr, Bruce A. Ford, Emily Moriarty Lemmon & Alan R. Lemmon
Despite the promise that molecular data would provide a seemingly unlimited source of independent characters, many plant phylogenetic studies are still based on only two regions, the plastid genome and nuclear ribosomal DNA (nrDNA). Their popularity can be explained by high copy numbers and universal PCR primers that make their sequences easily amplified and converted into parallel datasets. Unfortunately, their utility is limited by linked loci and limited characters resulting in low confidence in the...

Data from: Evidence for rapid evolutionary change in an invasive plant in response to biological control

Michael Stastny & Risa D. Sargent
We present evidence that populations of an invasive plant species that have become re-associated with a specialist herbivore in the exotic range through biological control have rapidly evolved increased anti-herbivore defences compared to populations not exposed to biocontrol. We grew half-sib families of the invasive plant Lythrum salicaria sourced from 17 populations near Ottawa, Canada, that differed in their history of exposure to a biocontrol agent, the specialist beetle Neogalerucella calmariensis. In a greenhouse experiment,...

Data from: Flexibility, variability and constraint in energy management strategies across vertebrate taxa revealed by long-term heart rate measurements

Lewis G. Halsey, Jonathan A. Green, Sean D. Twiss, Walter Arnold, Sarah J. Burthe, Patrick J. Butler, Steve J. Cooke, David Gremillet, Thomas Ruf, Olivia Hicks, Katarzyna J. Minta, Tanya S. Prystay, Claudia A.F. Wascher, Vincent Careau, Steven J Cooke, Tania S Prystay & Claudia AF Wascher
1) Animals are expected to be judicious in the use of the energy they gain due to the costs and limits associated with its intake. The management of energy expenditure (EE) exhibited by animals has previously been considered in terms of three patterns: the constrained, independent and performance patterns of energy management. These patterns can be interpreted by regressing daily EE against maintenance EE measured over extended periods. From the multiple studies on this topic,...

Data from: Dominance and the initiation of group feeding events: the modifying effect of sociality

Julian C. Evans, Teri B. Jones & Julie Morand-Ferron
Individuals can differ in how much they benefit from being in a group depending on characteristics such as their dominance rank or their behaviour. Understanding which categories of individuals influence the decisions of a group could help understand which individuals are benefiting the most. We examine these ideas in wild flocks of black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus), which feature stable group membership and linear dominance hierarchies. We attempt to infer which individuals are influencing group movement...

Data from: Stronger convex (stabilizing) selection on homologous sexual display traits in females than in males: a multipopulation comparison in Drosophila serrata

Howard D. Rundle & Stephen F. Chenoweth
Mutual mate choice for homologous sexual display traits has been demonstrated in Mutual mate choice for homologous sexual display traits has been demonstrated in several recent studies yet little attention has been given to quantitative comparison of the strength and form of mate preferences between the sexes. Such comparisons may provide important insight into the evolution of mate choice for honest signals. In particular, because females generally provide the majority of resources for initial offspring...

Eastern monarch larval performance may not be affected by shifts in phenological synchrony with milkweed

Heather Kharouba, Sydney Gilmour & Heather Kharouba
1. Interacting species are experiencing disruptions in the relative timing of their key life history events due to climate change. These shifts can sometimes be detrimental to the fitness of the consumer in trophic interactions but not always. 2. The potential consequences of phenological asynchrony for the monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) and its host plant (Asclepias spp.) have not been well studied. Given that plants generally undergo seasonal declines in quality, if climate change delays...

Data from: Behavioural responses of naked mole rats to acute hypoxia and anoxia

Aaron N. Ilacqua, Alexia M. Kirby & Matthew E. Pamenter
Naked mole rats (NMRs) are among the most hypoxia-tolerant mammals. Other species respond to hypoxia by either escaping the hypoxic environment or drastically decreasing behavioural activity and body temperature (Tb) to conserve energy. However, NMRs rarely leave their underground burrows, which are putatively hypoxic and thermally stable near the NMRs' preferred Tb. Therefore, we asked whether NMRs are able to employ behavioural and thermoregulatory strategies in response to hypoxia despite their need to remain active...

Modelling the impact of antibody-dependent enhancement on disease severity of ZIKV and DENV sequential and co-infection

Biao Tang, Yanni Xiao, Beate Sander, Manisha A. Kulkarni & Jianhong Wu
Human infections with viruses of the genus Flavivirus, including dengue virus (DENV) and Zika virus (ZIKV), are of increasing global importance. Due to antibody dependent enhancement, secondary infection with one Flavivirus following primary infection with another {\it Flavivirus} can result in a significantly larger peak viral load with a much higher risk of severe disease. Although several mathematical models have been developed to quantify the virus dynamics in the primary and secondary infections of DENV,...

The fast and the curious II: performance, personality and metabolism in Karoo bush rats

Paul Agnani, Jennifer Thomson, Carsten Schradin & Vincent Careau
Personality traits (e.g., activity, exploration, boldness) are frequently correlated with each other and with various other traits of biological importance. According to the performance, allocation, and independent models of energy management, the relationship between personality traits and resting metabolic rate (RMR) is predicted to be either positive, negative, or nil. As for the relationship between personality traits and locomotor performance, the trait compensation and co-specialisation hypotheses respectively predict a positive and negative relationship. To test...

Data from: Between-sex genetic covariance constrains the evolution of sexual dimorphism in Drosophila melanogaster

Fiona C. Ingleby, Paolo Innocenti, Howard D. Rundle & E. H. Morrow
Males and females share much of their genome, and as a result, intralocus sexual conflict is generated when selection on a shared trait differs between the sexes. This conflict can be partially or entirely resolved via the evolution of sex-specific genetic variation that allows each sex to approach, or possibly achieve, its optimum phenotype, thereby generating sexual dimorphism. However, shared genetic variation between the sexes can impose constraints on the independent expression of a shared...

Data from: Performance trade-offs and ageing in the ‘world's greatest athletes’

Vincent Careau & Robbie S. Wilson
The mechanistic foundations of performance trade-offs are clear: because body size and shape constrains movement, and muscles vary in strength and fibre type, certain physical traits should act in opposition with others (e.g. sprint versus endurance). Yet performance trade-offs are rarely detected, and traits are often positively correlated. A potential resolution to this conundrum is that within-individual performance trade-offs can be masked by among-individual variation in ‘quality’. Although there is a current debate on how...

Data from: Global biogeography of mating system variation in seed plants

David A. Moeller, Ryan D. Briscoe Runquist, Annika M. Moe, Monica A. Geber, Carol Goodwillie, Pierre-Olivier Cheptou, Christopher G. Eckert, Elizabeth Elle, Mark O. Johnston, Susan Kalisz, Richard H. Ree, Risa D. Sargent, Mario Vallejo-Marin & Alice A. Winn
Latitudinal gradients in biotic interactions have been suggested as causes of global patterns of biodiversity and phenotypic variation. Plant biologists have long speculated that outcrossing mating systems are more common at low than high latitudes owing to a greater predictability of plant–pollinator interactions in the tropics; however, these ideas have not previously been tested. Here, we present the first global biogeographic analysis of plant mating systems based on 624 published studies from 492 taxa. We...

Data from: Conspicuous female ornamentation and tests of male mate preference in threespine sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus)

Daniel Shane Wright, Michele E.R. Pierotti, Howard D. Rundle, Jeffrey S. McKinnon & Michele E. R. Pierotti
Sexual selection drives the evolution of exaggerated male ornaments in many animal species. Female ornamentation is now acknowledged also to be common but is generally less well understood. One example is the recently documented red female throat coloration in some threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) populations. Although female sticklebacks often exhibit a preference for red male throat coloration, the possibility of sexual selection on female coloration has been little studied. Using sequential and simultaneous mate choice...

Data from: Testing for local adaptation in adult male and female fitness among populations evolved under different mate competition regimes

Li Yun, Malak Bayoumi, Seon Yang, Patrick J. Chen, Howard D Rundle & Aneil F. Agrawal
Mating/fertilization success and fecundity are influenced by sexual interactions among individuals, the nature and frequency of which can vary among different environments. The extent of local adaptation for such adult fitness components is poorly understood. We allowed 63 populations of Drosophila melanogaster to independently evolve in one of three mating environments that alter sexual interactions: one involved enforced monogamy while the other two permitted polygamy in either structurally simple standard fly vials or in larger...

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