20 Works

Rest-task modulation of fMRI-derived global signal topography is mediated by transient co-activation patterns

Jianfeng Zhang, Zirui Huang, Shankar Tumati & Georg Northoff
Recent resting-state fMRI studies have revealed that the global signal (GS) exhibits a non-uniform spatial distribution across the gray matter. Whether this topography is informative remains largely unknown. We therefore tested rest-task modulation of global signal topography by analyzing static global signal correlation and dynamic co-activation patterns in a large sample of fMRI dataset (n=837) from the Human Connectome Project. The GS topography in the resting-state and in seven different tasks was first measured by...

Quantifying selection on standard metabolic rate and body mass in Drosophila melanogaster

Howard D Rundle, Mathieu Videlier, Vincent Careau & Alastair Wilson
Standard metabolic rate (SMR), defined as the minimal energy expenditure required for self-maintenance, is a key physiological trait. Few studies have estimated its relationship with fitness, most notably in insects. This is presumably due to the difficulty of measuring SMR in a large number of very small individuals. Using high-throughput flow-through respirometry and a Drosophila melanogaster laboratory population adapted to a life-cycle that facilitates fitness measures, we quantified SMR, body mass, and fitness in 515...

Collision between biological process and statistical analysis revealed by mean-centering

David Westneat, Yimen Araya-Ajoy, Hassen Allegue, Barbara Class, Niels Dingemanse, Ned Dochtermann, Laszlo Garamszegi, Julien Martin, Shinichi Nakagawa, Denis Reale & Holger Schielzeth
1. Animal ecologists often collect hierarchically-structured data and analyze these with linear mixed-effects models. Specific complications arise when the effect sizes of covariates vary on multiple levels (e.g., within vs among subjects). Mean-centering of covariates within subjects offers a useful approach in such situations, but is not without problems. 2. A statistical model represents a hypothesis about the underlying biological process. Mean-centering within clusters assumes that the lower level responses (e.g. within subjects) depend on...

The evolution and fate of diversity under hard and soft selection - all data and code

Patrick Chen & Rees Kassen
How genetic variation arises and persists over evolutionary time despite the depleting effects of natural selection remains a long-standing question. Here, we investigate the impacts of two extreme forms of population regulation – at the level of the total, mixed population (hard selection) and at the level of local, spatially distinct patches (soft selection) – on the emergence and fate of diversity under strong divergent selection. We find that while the form of population regulation...

Modelling the impact of antibody-dependent enhancement on disease severity of ZIKV and DENV sequential and co-infection

Biao Tang, Yanni Xiao, Beate Sander, Manisha A. Kulkarni & Jianhong Wu
Human infections with viruses of the genus Flavivirus, including dengue virus (DENV) and Zika virus (ZIKV), are of increasing global importance. Due to antibody dependent enhancement, secondary infection with one Flavivirus following primary infection with another {\it Flavivirus} can result in a significantly larger peak viral load with a much higher risk of severe disease. Although several mathematical models have been developed to quantify the virus dynamics in the primary and secondary infections of DENV,...

The fast and the curious II: performance, personality and metabolism in Karoo bush rats

Paul Agnani, Jennifer Thomson, Carsten Schradin & Vincent Careau
Personality traits (e.g., activity, exploration, boldness) are frequently correlated with each other and with various other traits of biological importance. According to the performance, allocation, and independent models of energy management, the relationship between personality traits and resting metabolic rate (RMR) is predicted to be either positive, negative, or nil. As for the relationship between personality traits and locomotor performance, the trait compensation and co-specialisation hypotheses respectively predict a positive and negative relationship. To test...

The impact of learning opportunities on the development of learning and decision making: an experiment with passerine birds

Isabel Rojas-Ferrer & Julie Morand-Ferron
Learning abilities have been shown to be influenced by the developmental context, namely through experiments that imposed severe nutritional and/or environmental constraints (i.e. lack of enrichment). In contrast, we know little on the impact of opportunities for learning on the development of cognition in animals, despite that such opportunities are known to influence human cognitive development. We exposed young zebra finches (Taenopygia guttata) (n=26) to one of three experimental conditions, i.e. an environment where (i)...

Data from: Do traits of plant species predict the efficacy of species distribution models for finding new occurrences?

J. L. McCune, Hanna Rosner-Katz, Joseph Bennett, Richard Schuster & Heather Kharouba
Species distribution models (SDMs) are used to test ecological theory and to direct targeted surveys for species of conservation concern. Several studies have tested for an influence of species traits on the predictive accuracy of SDMs. However, most used the same set of environmental predictors for all species and/or did not use truly independent data to test SDM accuracy. We built eight SDMs for each of 24 plant species of conservation concern, varying the environmental...

Hypoxia inducible factor-1α knockout does not impair acute thermal tolerance or heat hardening in zebrafish

William Joyce & Steve Perry
The rapid increase in critical thermal maximum (CTmax) in fish (or other animals), previously exposed to critically high temperature is termed ‘heat hardening’, which likely represents a key strategy to cope with increasingly extreme environments. The physiological mechanisms that determine acute thermal tolerance, and the underlying pathways facilitating heat hardening, remain debated. It has been posited, however, that exposure to high temperature is associated with tissue hypoxia and may be associated with increased expression of...

Data from: Temporal scale-dependence of plant-pollinator networks

Benjamin Schwarz, Diego Vázquez, Paul CaraDonna, Tiffany Knight, Gita Benadi, Carsten Dormann, Benoit Gauzens, Elena Motivans, Julian Resasco, Nico Blüthgen, Laura Burkle, Qiang Fang, Christopher Kaiser-Bunbury, Ruben Alarcón, Justin Bain, Natacha Chacoff, Shuang-Quan Huang, Gretchen LeBuhn, Molly MacLeod, Theodora Petanidou, Claus Rasmussen, Michael Simanonok, Amibeth Thompson, Daniel Cariveau, Michael Roswell … & Jochen Fründ
The study of mutualistic interaction networks has led to valuable insights into ecological and evolutionary processes. However, our understanding of network structure may depend upon the temporal scale at which we sample and analyze network data. To date, we lack a comprehensive assessment of the temporal scale-dependence of network structure across a wide range of temporal scales and geographic locations. If network structure is temporally scale-dependent, networks constructed over different temporal scales may provide very...

Terrestrial acclimation and exercise lead to bone functional response in Polypterus pectoral fins

Trina Y. Du & Emily M. Standen
The ability of bones to sense and respond to mechanical loading is a central feature of vertebrate skeletons. However, the functional demands imposed on terrestrial and aquatic animals differ vastly. The pectoral girdle of the basal actinopterygian fish Polypterus senegalus was previously shown to exhibit plasticity following terrestrial acclimation, but the pectoral fin itself has yet to be examined. We investigated skeletal plasticity in the pectoral fins of P. senegalus after exposure to terrestrial loading....

Maternal and paternal age effects on male antler flies: a field experiment

Christopher Angell, Rebecca Janacek & Howard Rundle
In many species, parental age at reproduction can influence offspring performance and lifespan, but the direction of these effects and the traits affected vary among studies. Data on parental age effects are still scarce in non-captive populations, especially insects, despite species such as fruit flies being models in laboratory-based aging research. We performed a biologically relevant experimental manipulation of maternal and paternal age at reproduction of antler flies (Protopiophila litigata) in the laboratory and tracked...

Swimming and defense - competing needs across ontogeny in armored fishes (Agonidae)

Matthew Kolmann, Cassandra Donatelli, Tessa Peixoto, Janne Pfeiffenberger & Adam Summers
Biological armors are potent model systems for understanding the complex series of competing demands on protective exoskeletons; after all, armored organisms are the product of millions of years of refined engineering under the harshest conditions. Fishes are no strangers to armor, with various types of armor plating common to the 400 million years of evolution in both jawed and jawless fishes. Here we focus on the poachers (Agonidae), a family of armored fishes native to...

Age and location influence the costs of compensatory and accelerated growth in a hibernating mammal

Sarah Heissenberger, Gabriela Pinho, Julien Martin & Daniel Blumstein
The increase of structural growth rates to compensate for a poor initial body condition, defined as compensatory growth, may have physiological costs, but little is known about its effects on individual fitness in the wild. Yellow-bellied marmots (Marmota flaviventer) are obligate hibernators and depend on fat accumulation acquired during an approximately 4-month summer to survive overwinter. We investigated the costs to survival and longevity of rapid growth in a wild population of yellow-bellied marmots. We...

Disconnects between ecological theory and data in phenological mismatch research

Heather Kharouba & Elizabeth Wolkovich
Climate change may lead to phenological mismatches, where the timing of critical events between interacting species becomes de-synchronized, with potential negative consequences. Evidence documenting negative impacts on fitness is mixed. The Cushing match-mismatch hypothesis, the most common hypothesis underlying these studies, offers testable assumptions and predictions to determine consequences of phenological mismatch when combined with a pre-climate change baseline. Here, we highlight how improved approaches could rapidly advance mechanistic understanding. We find that currently no...

Data from: Development time mediates the effect of larval diet on ageing and mating success of male antler flies in the wild

Christopher Angell, Mathieu Oudin, Nicolas Rode, Brian Mautz, Russell Bonduriansky & Howard Rundle
High-quality developmental environments often improve individual performance into adulthood, but allocating toward early life traits, such as growth, development rate and reproduction, may lead to trade-offs with late-life performance. It is, therefore, uncertain how a rich developmental environment will affect the ageing process (senescence), particularly in wild insects. To investigate the effects of early life environmental quality on insect life-history traits, including senescence, we reared larval antler flies (Protopiophila litigata) on four diets of varying...

The Influence Law of Eccentric Load on the Performance of Yielding Bolt

Yang Tai, Hongchun Xia, Shaopin Huang, Jie Meng & Wei Li
In order to adapt high stress and large deformation of roadways, the prestressed yielding bolt has been developed. However, borehole deviation makes the boreholes out of perpendicular to the roadway surface, and the prestressed yielding bolt will be under eccentric load. In order to reveal the influence laws of eccentric load on the performance of the prestressed yielding bolt, the numerical simulation was carried out in this paper. Then, the influence of eccentric load on...

Data from: A revised sectional classification of Plukenetia L. (Euphorbiaceae, Acalyphoideae) with four new species from South America

Warren M. Cardinal-McTeague & Lynn J. Gillespie
Abstract—We present a phylogenetic classification for Plukenetia (Euphorbiaceae, Acalyphoideae) based on morphology and molecular phylogenetic studies using nuclear (ETS, ITS, KEA1 introns 11 and 17, TEB exon 17) and plastid (matK, ndhF, psbA-trnH) DNA data. Plukenetia comprises 25 species divided into six sections, with three new sections and four new species described here. The circumscription of Plukenetia is unaltered from recent treatments and we continue to recognize Romanoa as distinct. The sections of Plukenetia correspond...

Genetic variance for behavioural ‘predictability’ of stress response

Pamela M. Prentice, Alastair J. Wilson, Thomas M. Houslay & Jullien G. A. Martin
Genetic factors underpinning phenotypic variation are required if natural selection is to result in adaptive evolution. However, evolutionary and behavioural ecologists typically focus on variation among individuals in their average trait values, and seek to characterise genetic contributions to this. As a result, less attention has been paid to if and how genes could contribute towards within-individual variance, or trait “predictability”. In fact, phenotypic ‘predictability’ can vary among individuals, and emerging evidence from livestock genetics...

Earlier spring reduces potential for gene flow via reduced flowering synchrony across an elevational gradient

Sébastien Rivest, Geneviève Lajoie, David Watts & Mark Vellend
Premise: One of the best-documented ecological responses to climate warming involves temporal shifts of phenological events. However, we lack an understanding of how phenological responses to climate change vary among populations of the same species. Such variability has the potential to affect flowering synchrony among populations and hence the potential for gene flow. Methods: To test if an earlier start of the growing season affects the potential for gene flow among populations, we quantified the...

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