To predict the response of complex morphological structures to selection it is necessary to know how the covariation among its different parts is organized. Two key features of covariation are modularity and integration. The Drosophila wing is currently considered a fully integrated structure. Here, we study the patterns of integration of the Drosophila wing and test the hypothesis of the wing being divided into two modules along the proximo-distal axis, as suggested by developmental, biomechanical,...
Data from: Ancient mitochondrial DNA provides high-resolution time scale of the peopling of the AmericasBastien Llamas, Lars Fehren-Schmitz, Guido Valverde, Julien Soubrier, Swapan Mallick, Nadin Rohland, Susanne Nordenfelt, Cristina Valdiosera, Stephen M. Richards, Adam Rohrlach, Maria Inés Barreto Romero, Isabel Flores Espinoza, Elsa Tomasto Cagigao, Lucía Watson Jiménez, Krzysztof Makowski, Ilán Santiago Leboreiro Reyna, Josefina Mansilla Lory, Julio Alejandro Ballivián Torrez, Mario A. Rivera, Richard L. Burger, Maria Constanza Ceruti, Johan Reinhard, R. Spencer Wells, Gustavo Politis, Calogero M. Santoro … & Wolfgang Haak
The exact timing, route, and process of the initial peopling of the Americas remains uncertain despite much research. Archaeological evidence indicates the presence of humans as far as southern Chile by 14.6 thousand years ago (ka), shortly after the Pleistocene ice sheets blocking access from eastern Beringia began to retreat. Genetic estimates of the timing and route of entry have been constrained by the lack of suitable calibration points and low genetic diversity of Native...
The Deseadan South American Land Mammal Age (late Early Oligocene – Late Oligocene) attests to a time of great diversification in the caviomorph rodent fossil record. Nevertheless, Deseadan rodent-bearing localities in Neotropical lowlands are few and poorly known. Here we describe the rodent assemblages from two Late Oligocene localities, near Contamana, Loreto, Peru. Seven taxa are new to science: Palaeosteiromys amazonensis gen. et sp. nov., Plesiosteiromys newelli gen. et sp. nov., Loretomys minutus gen. et...
Data from: Latitudinal and altitudinal patterns of plant community diversity on mountain summits across the tropical AndesFrancisco Cuesta, Priscilla Muriel, Luis D. Llambí, Stephan Halloy, Nikolay Aguirre, Stephan Beck, Julieta Carilla, Rosa I. Meneses, Soledad Cuello, Alfredo Grau, Luis E. Gámez, Javier Irazábal, Jorge Jacome, Ricardo Jaramillo, Lirey Ramírez, Natalia Samaniego, David Suárez-Duque, Natali Thompson, Alfredo Tupayachi, Paul Viñas, Karina Yager, María T. Becerra, Harald Pauli & William D. Gosling
The high tropical Andes host one of the richest alpine floras of the world, with exceptionally high levels of endemism and turnover rates. Yet, little is known about the patterns and processes that structure altitudinal and latitudinal variation in plant community diversity. Herein we present the first continental-scale comparative study of plant community diversity on summits of the tropical Andes. Data were obtained from 792 permanent vegetation plots (1m2) within 50 summits, distributed along a...
Data from: Genome-wide association mapping of quantitative traits in a breeding population of sugarcaneJosefina Racedo, Lucia Gutierrez, María Francisca Perera, Santiago Ostengo, Esteban Mariano Pardo, María Inés Cuenya, Bjorn Welin & Atilio Pedro Castagnaro
Background: Molecular markers associated with relevant agronomic traits could significantly reduce the time and cost involved in developing new sugarcane varieties. Previous sugarcane genome-wide association analyses (GWAS) have found few molecular markers associated with relevant traits at plant-cane stage. The aim of this study was to establish an appropriate GWAS to find molecular markers associated with yield related traits consistent across harvesting seasons in a breeding population. Sugarcane clones were genotyped with DArT (Diversity Array...
Data from: Beyond neutral and forbidden links: morphological matches and the assembly of mutualistic hawkmoth-plant networksFederico D. Sazatornil, Marcela Moré, Santiago Benitez-Vieyra, Andrea A. Cocucci, Ian J. Kitching, Boris O. Schlumpberger, Paulo E. Oliveira, Marlies Sazima & Felipe W. Amorim
A major challenge in evolutionary ecology is to understand how co-evolutionary processes shape patterns of interactions between species at community level. Pollination of flowers with long corolla tubes by long-tongued hawkmoths has been invoked as a showcase model of co-evolution. Recently, optimal foraging models have predicted that there might be a close association between mouthparts' length and the corolla depth of the visited flowers, thus favouring trait convergence and specialization at community level. Here, we...
Data from: On the existence of non-microbiotherian Australidelphian marsupials (Diprotodontia) in the Eocene of PatagoniaMalena Lorente, Laura Chornogubsky & Francisco J. Goin
A diverse assemblage of extinct mammals of early–middle Eocene age (Ypresian–Lutetian boundary) come from the Patagonian localities of La Barda and Laguna Fría around Paso del Sapo in northwestern Chubut Province (Argentina). Metatherians are well represented, mostly by dental remains of ‘Didelphimorphia’, Paucituberculata, Sparassodonta, Microbiotheria, and Polydolopimorphia. Here we analyse three calcanea and one astragalus referable to the same, indeterminate taxon, from La Barda, showing the fusion of their ectal and sustentacular facets. This facet...
Data from: Mating system of Caiman yacare (Reptilia Alligatoridae) described from microsatellite genotypesGuillermo N. Ojeda, Patricia S. Amavet, Eva C. Rueda, Pablo A. Siroski & Alejandro Larriera
The yacare caiman (Caiman yacare) is a reptile from South America and 1 of the 2 crocodilian species present in Argentina. The degradation of their natural habitat and strong hunting pressure led to a sharp numerical decline of wild populations. Nowadays, C. yacare is included in Appendix II of CITES, and ranching practices in some areas in Argentina are helping hatching success. In this context, it is important to better understand the population structure and...
Data from: Ancient mitochondrial DNA reveals convergent evolution of giant short-faced bears (Tremarctinae) in North and South AmericaKieren J. Mitchell, Sarah C. Bray, Pere Bover, Leopoldo Soibelzon, Blaine W. Schubert, Francisco Prevosti, Alfredo Prieto, Fabiana Martin, Jeremy J. Austin & Alan Cooper
The Tremarctinae are a subfamily of bears endemic to the New World, including two of the largest terrestrial mammalian carnivores that have ever lived: the giant, short-faced bears Arctodus simus from North America and Arctotherium angustidens from South America (greater than or equal to 1000 kg). Arctotherium angustidens became extinct during the Early Pleistocene, whereas Arctodus simus went extinct at the very end of the Pleistocene. The only living tremarctine is the spectacled bear (Tremarctos...
Data from: Climate modifies response of non-native and native species richness to nutrient enrichmentHabacuc Flores-Moreno, Peter B. Reich, Eric M. Lind, Lauren L. Sullivan, Eric W. Seabloom, Laura Yahdjian, Andrew S. MacDougall, Lara G. Reichmann, Juan Alberti, Selene Báez, Jonathan D. Bakker, Marc W. Cadotte, Maria C. Caldeira, Enrique J. Chaneton, Carla M. D'Antonio, Philip A. Fay, Jennifer Firn, Nicole Hagenah, W. Stanley Harpole, Oscar Iribarne, Kevin P. Kirkman, Johannes M. H. Knops, Kimberly J. La Pierre, Ramesh Laungani, Andrew D. B. Leakey … & Elizabeth T. Borer
Ecosystem eutrophication often increases domination by non-natives and causes displacement of native taxa. However, variation in environmental conditions may affect the outcome of interactions between native and non-native taxa in environments where nutrient supply is elevated. We examined the interactive effects of eutrophication, climate variability and climate average conditions on the success of native and non-native plant species using experimental nutrient manipulations replicated at 32 grassland sites on four continents. We hypothesized that effects of...
Data from: Demographic history inferred from genome-wide data reveals two lineages of sheldgeese endemic to a glacial refugium in the southern AtlanticCecilia Kopuchian, Leonardo Campagna, Adrián S. Di Giacomo, Robert E. Wilson, Mariana Bulgarella, Pablo Petracci, Juan Mazar Barnett, Ricardo Matus, Olivia Blank & Kevin G. McCracken
Aim: The Malvinas/Falkland Islands (MFI) constitute the largest archipelago in the southern Atlantic, and harbour endemic lineages that presumably evolved after sea-level rise, associated with glacial periods, isolated ancestral populations. We investigate the role of the MFI in isolating populations from continental counterparts of two highly vagile species: the sheldgeese Chloephaga picta and Chloephaga rubidiceps. Location: Patagonia and the Malvinas/Falkland Islands. Methods: We sampled C. picta and C. rubidiceps on the continent and MFI. Using...
Data from: Ancient DNA from the extinct South American giant glyptodont Doedicurus sp. (Xenarthra: Glyptodontidae) reveals that glyptodonts evolved from Eocene armadillosKieren J. Mitchell, Agustín Scanferla, Esteban Soibelzon, Ricardo Bonini, Javier Ochoa & Alan Cooper
Glyptodonts were giant (some of them up to ~2400 kg), heavily armoured relatives of living armadillos, which became extinct during the Late Pleistocene/early Holocene alongside much of the South American megafauna. Although glyptodonts were an important component of Cenozoic South American faunas, their early evolution and phylogenetic affinities within the order Cingulata (armoured New World placental mammals) remain controversial. In this study, we used hybridization enrichment and high-throughput sequencing to obtain a partial mitochondrial genome...
Data from: Biotic and abiotic variables influencing plant litter breakdown in streams: a global studyLuz Boyero, Richard Pearson, Cang Hui, Mark Gessner, Javier Perez, Markos Alexandrou, Manuel Graça, Bradley Cardinale, Ricardo Albariño, M. Arunachalam, Leon Barmuta, Andrew Boulton, Andreas Bruder, Marcos Callisto, Eric Chauvet, Russell Death, David Dudgeon, Andrea Encalada, Veronica Ferreira, Ricardo Figueroa, Alex Flecker, , Julie Helson, Tomoya Iwata, Tajang Jinggut … & Catherine Yule
Plant litter breakdown is a key ecological process in terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems. Streams and rivers, in particular, have high rates of carbon dioxide evasion and they contribute substantially to global carbon fluxes. However, there is little information available on the relative roles of different drivers of plant litter breakdown in fresh waters, particularly at large scales. We present a global-scale study of litter breakdown in streams to compare the roles of biotic, climatic and...
The study of how climatic niches change over evolutionary time has recently attracted the interest of many researchers. Different methodologies have been employed principally to analyze the temporal dynamics of the niche and specially to test for the presence of phylogenetic niche conservatism. Menonvillea, a genus of Brassicaceae including 24 species, is distributed primarily along the Andes of Argentina and Chile, with some taxa growing in southern Patagonia and others in the Atacama Desert and...
National Scientific and Technical Research Council14
University of Adelaide3
University of Buenos Aires2
University of Minnesota2
University of Toronto2
University of Magallanes2
Pontifical Catholic University of Peru1
Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research1