690 Works

Data from: Landscape genetics of leaf-toed geckos in the tropical dry forest of northern Mexico

Christopher Blair, Victor H. Jiménez Arcos, Fausto R. Mendez De La Cruz & Robert W. Murphy
Habitat fragmentation due to both natural and anthropogenic forces continues to threaten the evolution and maintenance of biological diversity. This is of particular concern in tropical regions that are experiencing elevated rates of habitat loss. Although less well-studied than tropical rain forests, tropical dry forests (TDF) contain an enormous diversity of species and continue to be threatened by anthropogenic activities including grazing and agriculture. However, little is known about the processes that shape genetic connectivity...

Data from: Diplostigmaty in plants: a novel mechanism that provides reproductive assurance

Jonathan Kissling & Spencer C. H. Barrett
Differentiation of female sexual organs in flowering plants is rare, and contrasts with the wide range of male reproductive strategies. An unusual example involves diplostigmaty, the possession of spatially and temporally distinct stigmas in Sebaea (Gentianaceae). Here, the single pistil within a flower has an apical stigma, as occurs in most flowering plants, but also a secondary stigma that occurs mid-way down the style, which is physically discrete and receptive several days after the apical...

Data from: Ecological limits on diversification of the Himalayan core Corvoidea

Jonathan David Kennedy, Jason T. Weir, Daniel Marc Hooper, D. Thomas Tietze, Jochen Martens & Trevor Douglas Price
Within regions, differences in the number of species among clades must be explained by clade age, net diversification rate, or immigration. We examine these alternatives by assessing historical causes of the low diversity of a bird parvorder in the Himalayas (the core Corvoidea, 57 species present) relative to its more species rich sister clade. The core Corvoidea contain ecologically diverse species spanning a large range of body sizes and elevations. Despite this diversity, on the...

Data from: Independence among physiological traits suggests flexibility in the face of ecological demands on phenotypes

Deborah M. Buehler, Francois Vézina, Wolfgang Goymann, Ingrid Schwabl, Maaike Versteegh, B. Irene Tieleman & Theunis Piersma
Phenotypic flexibility allows animals to adjust their physiology to diverse environmental conditions encountered over the year. Examining how these varying traits covary gives insights into potential constraints or freedoms that may shape evolutionary trajectories. In this study we examined relationships among hematocrit, baseline corticosterone concentration, constitutive immune function and basal metabolic rate in red knot Calidris canutus islandica individuals subjected to experimentally manipulated temperature treatments over an entire annual cycle. If covariation among traits is...

Data from: Adaptive molecular evolution of a defence gene in sexual but not functionally asexual evening primroses

Erika I. Hersch-Green, Henrietta Myburg & Marc T. J. Johnson
Theory predicts that sexual reproduction provides evolutionary advantages over asexual reproduction by reducing mutational load and increasing adaptive potential. Here, we test the latter prediction in the context of plant defences against pathogens because pathogens frequently reduce plant fitness and drive the evolution of plant defences. Specifically, we ask whether sexual evening primrose plant lineages (Onagraceae) have faster rates of adaptive molecular evolution and altered gene expression of a class I chitinase, a gene implicated...

Data from: The eco-evolutionary responses of a generalist consumer to resource competition

Peter A. Abrams
This article explores the combined evolutionary and ecological responses of resource uptake abilities in a generalist consumer to exploitative competition for one resource using a simple 2-resource model. It compares the sizes of ecologically and evolutionarily caused changes in population densities in cases where the original consumer has a strong or a weak trade-off in its abilities to consume the two resources. The analysis also compares the responses of the original species to competition when...

Data from: Stability and phylogenetic correlation in gut microbiota: lessons from ants and apes

Jon G. Sanders, Scott Powell, Daniel J. C. Kronaue, Heraldo L. Vasconcelos, Megan E. Fredrickson, Naomi E. Pierce, Daniel J. C. Kronauer & Megan E. Frederickson
Correlation between gut microbiota and host phylogeny could reflect codiversification over shared evolutionary history or a selective environment that is more similar in related hosts. These alternatives imply substantial differences in the relationship between host and symbiont, but can they be distinguished based on patterns in the community data themselves? We explored patterns of phylogenetic correlation in the distribution of gut bacteria among species of turtle ants (genus Cephalotes), which host a dense gut microbial...

Data from: A novel integrative method for measuring body condition in ecological studies based on physiological dysregulation

Emmanuel Milot, Alan A. Cohen, François Vézina, Deborah M. Buehler, Kevin D. Matson, Theunis Piersman & Theunis Piersma
1. The body condition of free-ranging animals affects their response to stress, decisions, ability to fulfil vital needs and, ultimately, fitness. However, this key attribute in ecology remains difficult to assess, and there is a clear need for more integrative measures than the common univariate proxies. 2. We propose a systems biology approach that positions individuals along a gradient from a ‘normal/optimal’ to ‘abnormal/suboptimal’ physiological state based on Mahalanobis distance computed from physiological biomarkers. We...

Data from: Experimental test of plant defense evolution in four species using long-term rabbit exclosures

Teresa J. Didiano, Nash E. Turley, Georg Everwand, Hanno Schaefer, Michael J. Crawley & Marc T. J. Johnson
Plant defense traits have evolved over macro- and microevolutionary timescales in response to herbivores. Although a number of studies have investigated the evolutionary impacts of herbivores over short timescales, few studies have experimentally examined what defense traits most commonly evolve and whether multiple coexisting species exhibit similar evolutionary responses to herbivores. We addressed these questions using a long-term experiment at Silwood Park, England, United Kingdom, where we excluded rabbits from 38 grassland plots for <1...

Data from: Population divergence along lines of genetic variance and covariance in the invasive plant Lythrum salicaria in eastern North America

Robert I. Colautti & Spencer C. H. Barrett
Evolution during biological invasion may occur over contemporary timescales, but the rate of evolutionary change may be inhibited by a lack of standing genetic variation for ecologically relevant traits and by fitness trade-offs among them. The extent to which these genetic constraints limit the evolution of local adaptation during biological invasion has rarely been examined. To investigate genetic constraints on life-history traits, we measured standing genetic variance and covariance in 20 populations of the invasive...

Data from: Genome skimming by shotgun sequencing helps resolve the phylogeny of a pantropical tree family

Pierre-Jean G. Malé, Léa Bardon, Guillaume Besnard, Eric Coissac, Frédéric Delsuc, Julien Engel, Emeline Lhuillier, Caroline Scotti-Saintagne, Alexandra Tinaut & Jérôme Chave
Whole genome sequencing is helping generate robust phylogenetic hypotheses for a range of taxonomic groups that were previously recalcitrant to classical molecular phylogenetic approaches. As a case study, we performed a shallow shotgun sequencing of eight species in the tropical tree family Chrysobalanaceae to retrieve large fragments of high-copy number DNA regions and test the potential of these regions for phylogeny reconstruction. We were able to assemble the nuclear ribosomal cluster (nrDNA), the complete plastid...

Data from: Ontogeny, morphology and taxonomy of the soft-bodied Cambrian ‘mollusc’ Wiwaxia

Martin R. Smith
The soft-bodied Cambrian organism Wiwaxia poses a taxonomic conundrum. Its imbricated dorsal scleritome suggests a relationship with the polychaete annelid worms, whereas its mouthparts and naked ventral surface invite comparison with the molluscan radula and foot. 476 new and existing specimens from the 505-Myr-old Burgess Shale cast fresh light on Wiwaxia's sclerites and scleritome. My observations illuminate the diversity within the genus and demonstrate that Wiwaxia did not undergo discrete moult stages; rather, its scleritome...

Data from: Impaired T Cell Responsiveness to Interleukin-6 in Hematological Patients with Invasive Aspergillosis

Jose F. Camargo, Alyajahan Bhimji, Deepali Kumar, Rupert Kaul, Rhea Pavan, Andre Schuh, Matthew Seftel, Jeffrey H. Lipton, Vikas Gupta, Atul Humar & Shahid Husain
Invasive mold infections (IMI) are among the most devastating complications following chemotherapy and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), with high mortality rates. Yet, the molecular basis for human susceptibility to invasive aspergillosis (IA) and mucormycosis remain poorly understood. Herein, we aimed to characterize the immune profile of individuals with hematological malignancies (n = 18) who developed IMI during the course of chemotherapy or HSCT, and compared it to that of hematological patients who had no...

Data from: No evidence that sex and transposable elements drive genome size variation in evening primroses

J. Arvid Ågren, Stephan Greiner, Marc T. J. Johnson & Stephen I. Wright
Genome size varies dramatically across species, but despite an abundance of attention there is little agreement on the relative contributions of selective and neutral processes in governing this variation. The rate of sex can potentially play an important role in genome size evolution because of its effect on the efficacy of selection and transmission of transposable elements. Here, we used a phylogenetic comparative approach and whole genome sequencing to investigate the contribution of sex and...

Data from: Simultaneous pulsed flowering in a temperate legume: causes and consequences of multimodality in the shape of floral display schedules

Susana M. Wadgymar, Emily J. Austen, Matthew N. Cumming & Arthur E. Weis
1. In plants, the temporal pattern of floral displays, or display schedules, delimits an individual's mating opportunities. Thus, variation in the shape of display schedules can affect the degree of population synchrony and the strength of phenological assortative mating by flowering onset date. A good understanding of the mechanisms regulating the timing of flowering onset has been developed, but we know less about factors influencing subsequent patterns of floral display. 2. We observed unusual multimodal...

Data from: Managing anabolic steroids in pre-hibernating Arctic ground squirrels: obtaining their benefits and avoiding their costs

Rudy Boonstra, Kaiguo Mo & Douglas Ashley Monks
Androgens have benefits, such as promoting muscle growth, but also significant costs, including suppression of immune function. In many species, these trade-offs in androgen action are reflected in regulated androgen production, which is typically highest only in reproductive males. However, all non-reproductive Arctic ground squirrels, irrespective of age and sex, have high levels of androgens prior to hibernating at sub-zero temperatures. Androgens appear to be required to make muscle in summer, which, together with lipid,...

Data from: Standing genetic variation in host preference for mutualist microbial symbionts

Anna K. Simonsen & John R. Stinchcombe
Many models of mutualisms show that mutualisms are unstable if hosts lack mechanisms enabling preferential associations with mutualistic symbiotic partners over exploitative partners. Despite the theoretical importance of mutualism-stabilizing mechanisms, we have little empirical evidence to infer their evolutionary dynamics in response to exploitation by non-beneficial partners. Using a model mutualism—the interaction between legumes and nitrogen-fixing soil symbionts—we tested for quantitative genetic variation in plant responses to mutualistic and exploitative symbiotic rhizobia in controlled greenhouse...

Data from: Acute, delayed and chronic remote ischemic conditioning is associated with downregulation of mTOR and enhanced autophagy signaling

Sagar Rohailla, Nadia A. Clarizia, Michel Sourour, Wesam Sourour, Nitai Gelber, Can Wei, Jing Li, Andrew N. Redington & Nadia Clarizia
Background - Remote ischemic conditioning (RIC), induced by brief periods of limb ischemia has been shown to decrease acute myocardial injury and chronic responses after acute coronary syndromes. While several signaling pathways have been implicated, our understanding of the cardioprotection and its underlying mediators and mechanisms remains incomplete. In this study we examine the effect of RIC on pro- autophagy signaling as a possible mechanism of benefit. Methods and Results - We examined the role...

Data from: Automated identification of social interaction criteria in Drosophila melanogaster

Jonathan Schneider & Joel D. Levine
The study of social behaviour within groups has relied on fixed definitions of an ‘interaction’. Criteria used in these definitions often involve a subjectively defined cut-off value for proximity, orientation and time (e.g. courtship, aggression and social interaction networks) and the same numerical values for these criteria are applied to all of the treatment groups within an experiment. One universal definition of an interaction could misidentify interactions within groups that differ in life histories, study...

Data from: Quantitative genetic variance in experimental fly populations evolving with or without environmental heterogeneity

Yuheng Huang, John R. Stinchcombe & Aneil F. Agrawal
Heterogeneous environments are typically expected to maintain more genetic variation in fitness within populations than homogeneous environments. However, the accuracy of this claim depends on the form of heterogeneity as well as the genetic basis of fitness traits and how similar the assay environment is to the environment of past selection. Here we measure quantitative genetic variance for three traits important for fitness using replicated experimental populations of Drosophila melanogaster evolving under four selective regimes:...

Data from: Visual ecology of true lemurs suggests a cathemeral origin for the primate cone opsin polymorphism

Kim Valenta, Melissa Edwards, Radoniaina R. Rafaliarison, Steig E. Johnson, Sheila M. Holmes, Kevin A. Brown, Nathaniel J. Dominy, Shawn M. Lehman, Esteban J. Parra & Amanda D. Melin
In contrast to the majority of primates, which exhibit dedicated diurnality or nocturnality, all species of Eulemur are cathemeral. Color vision, in particular, is strongly affected by the spectral composition and intensity of ambient light, and the impact of activity period on the evolution of primate color vision is actively debated. We studied three groups of wild brown lemurs (Eulemur fulvus) in Ankarafantsika National Park, Madagascar over a one-year span. We also used non-invasive fecal...

Data from: Cerebral white matter lesions and affective episodes correlate in male individuals with bipolar disorder

Armin Birner, Stephan Seiler, Nina Lackner, Susanne A. Bengesser, Robert Queissner, Frederike T. Fellendorf, Martina Platzer, Stefan Ropele, Christian Enzinger, Petra Schwingenschuh, Harald Mangge, Lukas Pirpamer, Hannes Deutschmann, Roger S. McIntyre, Hans-Peter Kapfhammer, Bernd Reininghaus & Eva Z. Reininghaus
Background: Cerebral white matter lesions (WML) have been found in normal aging, vascular disease and several neuropsychiatric conditions. Correlations of WML with clinical parameters in BD have been described, but not with the number of affective episodes, illness duration, age of onset and Body Mass Index in a well characterized group of euthymic bipolar adults. Herein, we aimed to evaluate the associations between bipolar course of illness parameters and WML measured with volumetric analysis. Methods:...

Data from: The effect of leaf shape on the thermoregulation and frost tolerance of an annual vine, Ipomoea hederacea (Convolvulaceae)

Brandon E. Campitelli, Amanda J. Gorton, Katherine L. Ostevik & John R. Stinchcombe
Premise of study: Leaf shape is predicted to have important ecophysiological consequences; for example, theory predicts that lobed leaves should track air temperature more closely than their entire-margined counterparts. Hence, leaf-lobing may be advantageous during cold nights (∼0°C) when there is the risk of damage by radiation frost (a phenomenon whereby leaves fall below air temperature because of an imbalance between radiational heat loss and convective heat gain). Methods: Here, we test whether radiation frost...

Data from: Testing potential selective agents acting on leaf shape in Ipomoea hederacea: predictions based on an adaptive leaf shape cline

Brandon E. Campitelli & John R. Stinchcombe
Leaf shape is a highly variable phenotype, and is likely influenced by many sources of selection. Ipomoea hederacea exhibits an adaptive latitudinal cline in leaf shape, which is controlled by a single Mendelian locus: lobed individuals dominate the north with entire-shaped individuals mostly in the south. We test if the following candidate selective agents, suggested by the literature, are responsible for the cline: differential insect herbivory, genetic correlations with other clinal traits like flowering time...

Data from: The interactive effects of competition and predation risk on dispersal in an insect.

Celina B. Baines, Shannon J. McCauley & Locke Rowe
Dispersal dynamics have significant consequences for ecological and evolutionary processes. Previous work has demonstrated that dispersal can be context-dependent. However, factors affecting dispersal are typically considered in isolation, despite the probability that individuals make dispersal decisions in response to multiple, possibly interacting factors. We examined whether two ecological factors, predation risk and intraspecific competition, have interactive effects on dispersal dynamics. We performed a factorial experiment in mesocosms using backswimmers (Notonecta undulata), flight-capable, semi-aquatic insects. Emigration...

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