18 Works

Data from: Insect herbivores drive real-time ecological and evolutionary change in plant populations

Anurag A. Agrawal, Amy P. Hastings, M. T. J. Johnson, J. L. Maron & Juha-Pekka Salminen
Insect herbivores are hypothesized to be major factors affecting the ecology and evolution of plants. We tested this prediction by suppressing insects in replicated field populations of a native plant, Oenothera biennis, which reduced seed predation, altered interspecific competitive dynamics, and resulted in rapid evolutionary divergence. Comparative genotyping and phenotyping of nearly 12,000 O. biennis individuals revealed that in plots protected from insects, resistance to herbivores declined through time due to changes in flowering time...

Data from: Forward chemical genetic screens in Arabidopsis identify genes that influence sensitivity to the phytotoxic compound sulfamethoxazole

Darrell Desveaux, Karl J. Schreiber, Ryan S. Austin, Yunchen Gong, Jianfeng Zhang, Pauline Fung, Pauline W. Wang & David S. Guttman
BACKGROUND: The sulfanilamide family comprises a clinically important group of antimicrobial compounds which also display bioactivity in plants. While there is evidence that sulfanilamides inhibit folate biosynthesis in both bacteria and plants, the complete network of plant responses to these compounds remains to be characterized. As such, we initiated two forward genetic screens in Arabidopsis in order to identify mutants that exhibit altered sensitivity to sulfanilamide compounds. These screens were based on the growth phenotype...

Data from: Male-biased fitness effects of spontaneous mutations in Drosophila melanogaster

Nathaniel Philip Sharp & Aneil F. Agrawal
In populations with males and females, sexual selection may often represent a major component of overall selection. Sexual selection could act to eliminate deleterious alleles in concert with other forms of selection, thereby improving the fitness of sexual populations. Alternatively, the divergent reproductive strategies of the sexes could promote the maintenance of sexually-antagonistic variation, causing sexual populations to be less fit. The net impact of sexual selection on fitness is not well understood, due in...

Data from: Testing of the effect of missing data estimation and distribution in morphometric multivariate data analyses

Caleb Marshall Brown, Jessica H. Arbour & Donald A. Jackson
Missing data are an unavoidable problem in biological datasets and the performance of missing data deletion and estimation techniques in morphometric datasets are poorly understood. Here a novel method is used to measure the introduced error of multiple techniques on a representative sample. A large sample of extant crocodilian skulls was measured and analyzed with principal components analysis (PCA). Twenty-three different proportions of missing data were introduced into the dataset, estimated, analyzed, and compared to...

Data from: Carbon content of tree tissues: a synthesis

Sean C. Thomas & Adam R. Martin
Assessing the potential for forest carbon (C) capture and storage requires accurate assessments of C in live tree tissues. In the vast majority of local, regional, and global assessments, C content has been assumed to be 50% of tree biomass; however, recent studies indicate that this assumption is not accurate, with substantial variation in C content among tree species as well as among tissue types. Here we conduct a comprehensive literature review to present a...

Data from: A simulation–based evaluation of methods for inferring linear barriers to gene flow

Christopher Blair, Dana E. Weigel, Matthew Balazik, Annika T. H. Keeley, Faith M. Walker, Erin Landguth, Samuel Cushman, Melanie Murphy, Lisette Waits & Niko Balkenhol
Different analytical techniques used on the same data set may lead to different conclusions about the existence and strength of genetic structure. Therefore, reliable interpretation of the results from different methods depends on the efficacy and reliability of different statistical methods. In this paper we evaluate the performance of multiple analytical methods to detect the presence of a linear barrier dividing populations. We were specifically interested in determining if simulation conditions, such as dispersal ability...

Data from: Ecological limits on diversification of the Himalayan core Corvoidea

Jonathan David Kennedy, Jason T. Weir, Daniel Marc Hooper, D. Thomas Tietze, Jochen Martens & Trevor Douglas Price
Within regions, differences in the number of species among clades must be explained by clade age, net diversification rate, or immigration. We examine these alternatives by assessing historical causes of the low diversity of a bird parvorder in the Himalayas (the core Corvoidea, 57 species present) relative to its more species rich sister clade. The core Corvoidea contain ecologically diverse species spanning a large range of body sizes and elevations. Despite this diversity, on the...

Data from: The eco-evolutionary responses of a generalist consumer to resource competition

Peter A. Abrams
This article explores the combined evolutionary and ecological responses of resource uptake abilities in a generalist consumer to exploitative competition for one resource using a simple 2-resource model. It compares the sizes of ecologically and evolutionarily caused changes in population densities in cases where the original consumer has a strong or a weak trade-off in its abilities to consume the two resources. The analysis also compares the responses of the original species to competition when...

Data from: Adaptive molecular evolution of a defence gene in sexual but not functionally asexual evening primroses

Erika I. Hersch-Green, Henrietta Myburg & Marc T. J. Johnson
Theory predicts that sexual reproduction provides evolutionary advantages over asexual reproduction by reducing mutational load and increasing adaptive potential. Here, we test the latter prediction in the context of plant defences against pathogens because pathogens frequently reduce plant fitness and drive the evolution of plant defences. Specifically, we ask whether sexual evening primrose plant lineages (Onagraceae) have faster rates of adaptive molecular evolution and altered gene expression of a class I chitinase, a gene implicated...

Data from: Independence among physiological traits suggests flexibility in the face of ecological demands on phenotypes

Deborah M. Buehler, Francois Vézina, Wolfgang Goymann, Ingrid Schwabl, Maaike Versteegh, B. Irene Tieleman & Theunis Piersma
Phenotypic flexibility allows animals to adjust their physiology to diverse environmental conditions encountered over the year. Examining how these varying traits covary gives insights into potential constraints or freedoms that may shape evolutionary trajectories. In this study we examined relationships among hematocrit, baseline corticosterone concentration, constitutive immune function and basal metabolic rate in red knot Calidris canutus islandica individuals subjected to experimentally manipulated temperature treatments over an entire annual cycle. If covariation among traits is...

Data from: Contemporary evolution of plant growth rate following experimental removal of herbivores

Nash E. Turley, Walter C. Odell, Hanno Schaefer, Georg Everwand, Michael J. Crawley & Marc T. J. Johnson
Herbivores are credited with driving the evolutionary diversification of plant defensive strategies over macroevolutionary time. For this to be true, herbivores must also cause short-term evolution within plant populations, but few studies have experimentally tested this prediction. We addressed this gap using a long-term manipulative field experiment where exclosures protected 22 plant populations from natural rabbit herbivory for <1 to 26 years. We collected seeds of Rumex acetosa L. (Polygonaceae) from our plots and grew...

Data from: The effects of competition on the strength and softness of selection

Eddie K. H. Ho & Aneil F. Agrawal
Deleterious alleles are constantly introduced into populations due to mutation. In subdivided populations, the impact of these mutations depends on the strength of selection as well as the softness of selection, i.e., the extent to which fitness is governed by local rather than global competition. It is widely appreciated that the intensity and type of competition will affect selection on deleterious mutations but most empirical work has focused solely on the effects of competition on...

Data from: Chromatin is an ancient innovation conserved between Archaea and Eukarya

Ron Ammar, Dax Torti, Kyle Tsui, Marinella Gebbia, Tanja Durbic, Gary D. Bader, Guri Giaever & Corey Nislow
The eukaryotic nucleosome is the fundamental unit of chromatin, comprising a protein octamer that wraps ~147bp of DNA and has essential roles in DNA compaction, replication and gene expression. Nucleosomes and chromatin have long been considered to be unique to eukaryotes, yet studies of select archaea have identified homologs of histone proteins that assemble into tetrameric nucleosomes. Here we report the first archaeal genome-wide nucleosome occupancy map, as observed in the halophile Haloferax volcanii. Nucleosome...

Data from: Testing for ancient adaptive radiations in Neotropical cichlid fishes

Hernán López-Fernández, Jessica H. Arbour, Kirk O. Winemiller & Rodney L. Honeycutt
Most contemporary studies of adaptive radiation focus on relatively recent and geographically restricted clades. It is less clear whether diversification of ancient clades spanning entire continents is consistent with adaptive radiation. We used novel fossil calibrations to generate a chronogram of Neotropical cichlid fishes and to test whether patterns of lineage and morphological diversification are congruent with hypothesized adaptive radiations in South and Central America. We found that diversification in the Neotropical cichlid clade and...

Data from: Experimental evolution of Legionella pneumophila in mouse macrophages leads to strains with altered determinants of environmental survival

Alexander W. Ensminger, Yosuf Yassin, Alexander Miron & Ralph R. Isberg
The Gram-negative bacterium, Legionella pneumophila, is a protozoan parasite and accidental intracellular pathogen of humans. We propose a model in which host cycling through multiple protozoan hosts in the environment holds L. pneumophila in a state of evolutionary stasis as a broad host-range pathogen. Using an experimental evolution approach, we tested this hypothesis by restricting L. pneumophila to growth within mouse macrophages for hundreds of generations. Whole-genome resequencing and high-throughput genotyping identified several parallel adaptive...

Data from: Life history evolution in guppies VIII: the demographics of density regulation in guppies (Poecilia reticulata)

David N. Reznick, Ronald D. Bassar, Joseph Travis & F. Helen Rodd
In prior research, we found the way guppy life histories evolve in response to living in environments with a high or low risk of predation is consistent with life history theory that assumes no density-dependence. We later found that guppies from high predation environments experience higher mortality rates than those from low predation environments, but the increased risk was evenly distributed across all age/size classes. Life history theory that assumes density-independent population growth predicts that...

Data from: Vertical and horizontal photobiont transmission within populations of a lichen symbiosis

Francesco Dal Grande, Ivo Widmer, Helene H. Wagner & Christoph Scheidegger
Lichens are widespread symbioses and play important roles in many terrestrial ecosystems. The genetic structure of lichens is the result of the association between fungal and algal populations constituting the lichen thallus. Using eight fungus- and seven alga-specific highly variable microsatellite markers on within-population spatial genetic data from 62 replicate populations across Europe, North America, Asia and Africa, we investigated the contributions of vertical and horizontal transmission of the photobiont to the genetic structure of...

Data from: Comparative analyses of sex-ratio variation in dioecious flowering plants

David Luke Field, Melinda Pickup & Spencer C. H. Barrett
Dioecious plant species commonly exhibit deviations from the equilibrium expectation of 1:1 sex ratio, but the mechanisms governing this variation are poorly understood. Here, we use comparative analyses of 243 species, representing 123 genera and 61 families to investigate ecological and genetic correlates of variation in the operational (flowering) sex ratio. After controlling for phylogenetic non-independence, we examined the influence of growth form, clonality, fleshy fruits, pollen and seed dispersal vector, and the possession of...

Registration Year

  • 2012

Resource Types

  • Dataset


  • University of Toronto
  • University of Montana
  • Royal Ontario Museum
  • University of Göttingen
  • Max Planck Institute for Ornithology
  • Michigan Technological University
  • Howard Hughes Medical Institute
  • University of Groningen
  • University of Wyoming
  • University of California, Berkeley