38 Works

Data from: Experimental test of plant defense evolution in four species using long-term rabbit exclosures

Teresa J. Didiano, Nash E. Turley, Georg Everwand, Hanno Schaefer, Michael J. Crawley & Marc T. J. Johnson
Plant defense traits have evolved over macro- and microevolutionary timescales in response to herbivores. Although a number of studies have investigated the evolutionary impacts of herbivores over short timescales, few studies have experimentally examined what defense traits most commonly evolve and whether multiple coexisting species exhibit similar evolutionary responses to herbivores. We addressed these questions using a long-term experiment at Silwood Park, England, United Kingdom, where we excluded rabbits from 38 grassland plots for <1...

Data from: Genome skimming by shotgun sequencing helps resolve the phylogeny of a pantropical tree family

Pierre-Jean G. Malé, Léa Bardon, Guillaume Besnard, Eric Coissac, Frédéric Delsuc, Julien Engel, Emeline Lhuillier, Caroline Scotti-Saintagne, Alexandra Tinaut & Jérôme Chave
Whole genome sequencing is helping generate robust phylogenetic hypotheses for a range of taxonomic groups that were previously recalcitrant to classical molecular phylogenetic approaches. As a case study, we performed a shallow shotgun sequencing of eight species in the tropical tree family Chrysobalanaceae to retrieve large fragments of high-copy number DNA regions and test the potential of these regions for phylogeny reconstruction. We were able to assemble the nuclear ribosomal cluster (nrDNA), the complete plastid...

Data from: Simultaneous pulsed flowering in a temperate legume: causes and consequences of multimodality in the shape of floral display schedules

Susana M. Wadgymar, Emily J. Austen, Matthew N. Cumming & Arthur E. Weis
1. In plants, the temporal pattern of floral displays, or display schedules, delimits an individual's mating opportunities. Thus, variation in the shape of display schedules can affect the degree of population synchrony and the strength of phenological assortative mating by flowering onset date. A good understanding of the mechanisms regulating the timing of flowering onset has been developed, but we know less about factors influencing subsequent patterns of floral display. 2. We observed unusual multimodal...

Data from: Managing anabolic steroids in pre-hibernating Arctic ground squirrels: obtaining their benefits and avoiding their costs

Rudy Boonstra, Kaiguo Mo & Douglas Ashley Monks
Androgens have benefits, such as promoting muscle growth, but also significant costs, including suppression of immune function. In many species, these trade-offs in androgen action are reflected in regulated androgen production, which is typically highest only in reproductive males. However, all non-reproductive Arctic ground squirrels, irrespective of age and sex, have high levels of androgens prior to hibernating at sub-zero temperatures. Androgens appear to be required to make muscle in summer, which, together with lipid,...

Data from: Standing genetic variation in host preference for mutualist microbial symbionts

Anna K. Simonsen & John R. Stinchcombe
Many models of mutualisms show that mutualisms are unstable if hosts lack mechanisms enabling preferential associations with mutualistic symbiotic partners over exploitative partners. Despite the theoretical importance of mutualism-stabilizing mechanisms, we have little empirical evidence to infer their evolutionary dynamics in response to exploitation by non-beneficial partners. Using a model mutualism—the interaction between legumes and nitrogen-fixing soil symbionts—we tested for quantitative genetic variation in plant responses to mutualistic and exploitative symbiotic rhizobia in controlled greenhouse...

Data from: Acute, delayed and chronic remote ischemic conditioning is associated with downregulation of mTOR and enhanced autophagy signaling

Sagar Rohailla, Nadia A. Clarizia, Michel Sourour, Wesam Sourour, Nitai Gelber, Can Wei, Jing Li, Andrew N. Redington & Nadia Clarizia
Background - Remote ischemic conditioning (RIC), induced by brief periods of limb ischemia has been shown to decrease acute myocardial injury and chronic responses after acute coronary syndromes. While several signaling pathways have been implicated, our understanding of the cardioprotection and its underlying mediators and mechanisms remains incomplete. In this study we examine the effect of RIC on pro- autophagy signaling as a possible mechanism of benefit. Methods and Results - We examined the role...

Data from: Automated identification of social interaction criteria in Drosophila melanogaster

Jonathan Schneider & Joel D. Levine
The study of social behaviour within groups has relied on fixed definitions of an ‘interaction’. Criteria used in these definitions often involve a subjectively defined cut-off value for proximity, orientation and time (e.g. courtship, aggression and social interaction networks) and the same numerical values for these criteria are applied to all of the treatment groups within an experiment. One universal definition of an interaction could misidentify interactions within groups that differ in life histories, study...

Data from: The interactive effects of competition and predation risk on dispersal in an insect.

Celina B. Baines, Shannon J. McCauley & Locke Rowe
Dispersal dynamics have significant consequences for ecological and evolutionary processes. Previous work has demonstrated that dispersal can be context-dependent. However, factors affecting dispersal are typically considered in isolation, despite the probability that individuals make dispersal decisions in response to multiple, possibly interacting factors. We examined whether two ecological factors, predation risk and intraspecific competition, have interactive effects on dispersal dynamics. We performed a factorial experiment in mesocosms using backswimmers (Notonecta undulata), flight-capable, semi-aquatic insects. Emigration...

Data from: Cross-scale interactions and the distribution-abundance relationship

Earl E. Werner, Christopher Davis, David K. Skelly, Rick A. Relyea, Michael F. Benard, Shannon J. McCauley & Christopher J. Davis
Positive interspecific relationships between local abundance and extent of regional distribution are among the most ubiquitous patterns in ecology. Although multiple hypotheses have been proposed, the mechanisms underlying distribution-abundance (d-a) relationships remain poorly understood. We examined the intra- and interspecific distribution-abundance relationships for a metacommunity of 13 amphibian species sampled for 15 consecutive years. Mean density of larvae in occupied ponds was positively related to number of ponds occupied by species; employing the fraction of...

Data from: Genomic support for a moa-tinamou clade and adaptive morphological convergence in flightless ratites

Allan J. Baker, Oliver Haddrath, John D. McPherson & Alison Cloutier
One of the most startling discoveries in avian molecular phylogenetics is that the volant tinamous are embedded in the flightless ratites, but this topology remains controversial because recent morphological phylogenies place tinamous as the closest relative of a monophyletic ratite clade. Here, we integrate new phylogenomic sequences from 1,448 nuclear DNA loci totalling almost one million base pairs from the extinct little bush moa, Chilean tinamou and emu with available sequences from ostrich, elegant crested...

Data from: A targeted next-generation sequencing toolkit for exon-based cichlid phylogenomics

Katriina L. Ilves & Hernán López-Fernández
Cichlid fishes (family Cichlidae) are models for evolutionary and ecological research. Massively parallel sequencing approaches have been successfully applied to study relatively recent diversification in groups of African and Neotropical cichlids, but such technologies have yet to be used for addressing larger scale phylogenetic questions of cichlid evolution. Here we describe a process for identifying putative single-copy exons from five African cichlid genomes and sequence the targeted exons for a range of divergent (> tens...

Data from: Experimental evidence that evolutionarily diverse assemblages result in higher productivity

Marc W. Cadotte
There is now ample experimental evidence that speciose assemblages are more productive and provide a greater amount of ecosystem services than depauperate ones. However, these experiments often conclude that there is a higher probability of including complementary species combinations in assemblages with more species, and lack a priori prediction about which species combinations maximize function. Here I report the results of the first experiment that manipulates the evolutionary relatedness of constituent plant species across a...

Data from: Sexual antagonism for resistance and tolerance to infection in Drosophila melanogaster

Crystal M. Vincent & Nathaniel P. Sharp
A critical task in evolutionary genetics is to explain the persistence of heritable variation in fitness-related traits such as immunity. Ecological factors can maintain genetic variation in immunity, but less is known about the role of other factors, such as antagonistic pleiotropy, on immunity. Sexually dimorphic immunity—with females often being more immune-competent—may maintain variation in immunity in dioecious populations. Most eco-immunological studies assess host resistance to parasites rather than the host's ability to maintain fitness...

Data from: Life-stage differences in spatial genetic structure in an irruptive forest insect: implications for dispersal and spatial synchrony

Patrick M. A. James, Barry Cooke, Bryan Brunet, Lisa Lumley, Felix Sperling, Marie-Josée Fortin, Vanessa S. Quinn, Brian R. Sturtevant, Bryan M. T. Brunet, Lisa M. Lumley & Felix A. H. Sperling
Dispersal determines the flux of individuals, energy, and information and is therefore a key determinant of ecological and evolutionary dynamics. Yet, it remains difficult to quantify its importance relative to other factors. This is particularly true in cyclic populations in which demography, drift, and dispersal contribute to spatio-temporal variability in genetic structure. Improved understanding of how dispersal influences spatial genetic structure is needed to disentangle the multiple processes that give rise to spatial synchrony in...

Data from: Demonstrating the potential for dynamic auditory stimulation to contribute to motion sickness

Behrang Keshavarz, Lawrence J. Hettinger, Robert S. Kennedy & Jennifer L. Campos
Auditory cues can create the illusion of self-motion (vection) in the absence of visual or physical stimulation. The present study aimed to determine whether auditory cues alone can also elicit motion sickness and how auditory cues contribute to motion sickness when added to visual motion stimuli. Twenty participants were seated in front of a curved projection display and were exposed to a virtual scene that constantly rotated around the participant's vertical axis. The virtual scene...

Data from: The effect of parasites on sex differences in selection

Nathaniel P. Sharp & Crystal M. Vincent
The life history strategies of males and females are often divergent, creating the potential for sex differences in selection. Deleterious mutations may be subject to stronger selection in males, owing to sexual selection, which can improve the mean fitness of females and reduce mutation load in sexual populations. However, sex differences in selection might also maintain sexually antagonistic genetic variation, creating a sexual conflict load. The overall impact of separate sexes on fitness is unclear,...

Data from: Condition dependence of female choosiness in a field cricket

Kevin A. Judge, Janice J. Ting & Darryl T. Gwynne
Females generally choose mates that produce the loudest, brightest or most elaborate sexual displays, and these costly male displays are predicted to be condition dependent. However, mate choice itself is a costly behaviour also expected to be condition dependent. Male fall field crickets, Gryllus pennsylvanicus, produce a conspicuous long-distance calling song that attracts females and is condition dependent. In this study, we tested the condition dependence of female preferences (preference function and choosiness) for male...

Data from: Ontogenetic changes in genetic variances of age-dependent plasticity along a latitudinal gradient

Viktor Nilsson-Örtman, Bjorn Rogell, Robby Stoks & Frank Johansson
The expression of phenotypic plasticity may differ among life stages of the same organism. Age-dependent plasticity can be important for adaptation to heterogeneous environments, but this has only recently been recognized. Whether age-dependent plasticity is a common outcome of local adaptation and whether populations harbor genetic variation in this respect remains largely unknown. To answer these questions, we estimated levels of additive genetic variation in age-dependent plasticity in six species of damselflies sampled from 18...

Data from: Tropical trees in a wind-exposed island ecosystem: height-diameter allometry and size at onset of maturity

Sean C. Thomas, Adam R. Martin & Erin E. Mycroft
1. Tropical tree species adapted to high wind environments might be expected to differ systematically in terms of stem allometry and life-history patterns, as compared with species found in less windy forests. We quantified height-diameter (H-D) allometries and relative size at onset of maturity (RSOM) for rainforest tree and tree fern species native to Dominica, West Indies, an island that experiences some of the highest average wind speeds pantropically. 2. H-D allometries for 17 Dominican...

Data from: Clonal genetic structure and diversity in populations of an aquatic plant with combined versus separate sexes

Sarah B. Yakimowski & Spencer C. H. Barrett
Clonality is often implicated in models of the evolution of dioecy, but few studies have explicitly compared clonal structure between plant sexual systems, or between the sexes in dioecious populations. Here, we exploit the occurrence of monoecy and dioecy in clonal Sagittaria latifola (Alismataceae) to evaluate two main hypotheses: (1) clone sizes are smaller in monoecious than dioecious populations, because of constraints imposed on clone size by costs associated with geitonogamy; (2) in dioecious populations,...

Data from: Rates of dinosaur body mass evolution indicate 170 million years of sustained ecological innovation on the avian stem lineage

Roger B. J. Benson, Nicolás E. Campione, Matthew T. Carrano, Philip D. Mannion, Corwin Sullivan, Paul Upchurch & David C. Evans
Large-scale adaptive radiations might explain the runaway success of a minority of extant vertebrate clades. This hypothesis predicts, among other things, rapid rates of morphological evolution during the early history of major groups, as lineages invade disparate ecological niches. However, few studies of adaptive radiation have included deep time data, so the links between extant diversity and major extinct radiations are unclear. The intensively studied Mesozoic dinosaur record provides a model system for such investigation,...

Data from: Sex-biased immunity is driven by relative differences in reproductive investment

Crystal M. Vincent & Darryl T. Gwynne
Sex differences in immunity are often observed, with males generally having a weaker immune system than females. However, recent data in a sex-role-reversed species in which females compete to mate with males suggest that sexually competitive females have a weaker immune response. These findings support the hypothesis that sexual dimorphism in immunity has evolved in response to sex-specific fitness returns of investment in traits such as parental investment and longevity, but the scarcity of data...

Data from: Contrasting effects of phylogenetic relatedness on plant invader success in experimental grassland communities

Shao-Peng Li, Tao Guo, Marc W. Cadotte, Yong-Jian Chen, Jia-Liang Kuang, Zheng-Shuang Hua, Yi Zeng, Ying Song, Zheng Liu, Wen-Sheng Shu & Jin-Tian Li
1. Identifying the factors determining the success of invasive species is critical for management of biological invasions. Darwin's naturalization conundrum states that exotic species closely related to natives should be successful because of a shared affinity for local environmental conditions, but at the same time close relatives often compete more intensively, limiting ‘niche’ opportunities for the invaders. Previous studies have generally considered these two ‘opposing’ hypotheses as mutually exclusive, yet evidence for both of them...

Data from: Variation in soil aluminum tolerance genes is associated with local adaptation to soils at the Park Grass Experiment

Billie Gould, Susan McCouch & Monica Geber
Studies of the wild grass Anthoxanthum odoratum at the long-term Park Grass Experiment (PGE, Harpenden, UK) document a well-known example of rapid plant evolution in response to environmental change. Repeated fertilizer applications have acidified the soil in some experimental plots over the past 150+ years, and Anthoxanthum subpopulations have quickly become locally adapted. Early reciprocal transplants showed subpopulation differentiation specifically in response to soil aluminium (Al) toxicity across the experiment, even at small (30 m)...

Data from: Mutualism between co-introduced species facilitates invasion and alters plant community structure

Kirsten M. Prior, Jennifer M. Robinson, Shannon A. Meadley Dunphy & Megan E. Frederickson
Generalized mutualisms are often predicted to be resilient to changes in partner identity. Variation in mutualism-related traits between native and invasive species however, can exacerbate the spread of invasive species (‘invasional meltdown’) if invasive partners strongly interact. Here we show how invasion by a seed-dispersing ant (Myrmica rubra) promotes recruitment of a co-introduced invasive over native ant-dispersed (myrmecochorous) plants. We created experimental communities of invasive (M. rubra) or native ants (Aphaenogaster rudis) and invasive and...

Registration Year

  • 2014

Resource Types

  • Dataset


  • University of Toronto
  • Royal Ontario Museum
  • Imperial College London
  • Northwestern University
  • Uppsala University
  • Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology
  • Columbus State University
  • Sun Yat-sen University
  • Columbia University
  • University of Michigan-Ann Arbor