38 Works

Data from: Prepupal building behavior in Drosophila melanogaster and its evolution under resource and time constraints

Sunitha Narasimha, Sylvain Kolly, Marla B. Sokolowski, Kawecki Tadeusz J., Roshan K. Vijendravarma & Tadeusz J. Kawecki
Structures built by animals are a widespread and ecologically important ‘extended phenotype’. While its taxonomic diversity has been well described, factors affecting short-term evolution of building behavior within a species have received little experimental attention. Here we describe how, given the opportunity, wandering Drosophila melanogaster larvae often build long tunnels in agar substrates and embed their pupae within them. These embedded larvae are characterized by a longer egg-to-pupariation developmental time than larvae that pupate on...

Data from: Implicit racial attitudes influence perceived emotional intensity on other-race faces

Qiandong Wang, Guowei Chen, Zhaoquan Wang, Chao S. Hu, Xiaoqing Hu & Genyue Fu
An ability to accurately perceive and evaluate out-group members' emotions plays a critical role in intergroup interactions. Here we showed that Chinese participants' implicit attitudes toward White people bias their perception and judgment of emotional intensity of White people's facial expressions such as anger, fear and sadness. We found that Chinese participants held pro-Chinese/anti-White implicit biases that were assessed in an evaluative implicit association test (IAT). Moreover, their implicit biases positively predicted the perceived intensity...

Data from: Heterostyly promotes disassortative pollination and reduces sexual interference in Darwin’s primroses: evidence from experimental studies

Barbara Keller, James D. Thomson & Elena Conti
Different strategies to reduce selfing and promote outcrossing have evolved in hermaphroditic flowers. Heterostyly, a complex floral polymorphism that occurs in at least 27 families of angiosperms, is hypothesized to achieve both goals by optimizing cross-pollination (via disassortative pollen transfer) and restricting gamete wastage to autogamy (via the reduction of sexual interference between male and female organs). In heterostylous flowers, the reciprocal positioning of sexual organs in different morphs and the pollen incompatibility-system within flower...

Data from: Alate susceptibility in ants

Eddie K. H. Ho & Megan E. Frederickson
Pathogens are predicted to pose a particular threat to eusocial insects because infections can spread rapidly in colonies with high densities of closely related individuals. In ants, there are two major castes: workers and reproductives. Sterile workers receive no direct benefit from investing in immunity, but can gain indirect fitness benefits if their immunity aids the survival of their fertile siblings. Virgin reproductives (alates), on the other hand, may be able to increase their investment...

Data from: Clonal genetic structure and diversity in populations of an aquatic plant with combined versus separate sexes

Sarah B. Yakimowski & Spencer C. H. Barrett
Clonality is often implicated in models of the evolution of dioecy, but few studies have explicitly compared clonal structure between plant sexual systems, or between the sexes in dioecious populations. Here, we exploit the occurrence of monoecy and dioecy in clonal Sagittaria latifola (Alismataceae) to evaluate two main hypotheses: (1) clone sizes are smaller in monoecious than dioecious populations, because of constraints imposed on clone size by costs associated with geitonogamy; (2) in dioecious populations,...

Data from: Rates of dinosaur body mass evolution indicate 170 million years of sustained ecological innovation on the avian stem lineage

Roger B. J. Benson, Nicolás E. Campione, Matthew T. Carrano, Philip D. Mannion, Corwin Sullivan, Paul Upchurch & David C. Evans
Large-scale adaptive radiations might explain the runaway success of a minority of extant vertebrate clades. This hypothesis predicts, among other things, rapid rates of morphological evolution during the early history of major groups, as lineages invade disparate ecological niches. However, few studies of adaptive radiation have included deep time data, so the links between extant diversity and major extinct radiations are unclear. The intensively studied Mesozoic dinosaur record provides a model system for such investigation,...

Data from: Sex-biased immunity is driven by relative differences in reproductive investment

Crystal M. Vincent & Darryl T. Gwynne
Sex differences in immunity are often observed, with males generally having a weaker immune system than females. However, recent data in a sex-role-reversed species in which females compete to mate with males suggest that sexually competitive females have a weaker immune response. These findings support the hypothesis that sexual dimorphism in immunity has evolved in response to sex-specific fitness returns of investment in traits such as parental investment and longevity, but the scarcity of data...

Data from: Contrasting effects of phylogenetic relatedness on plant invader success in experimental grassland communities

Shao-Peng Li, Tao Guo, Marc W. Cadotte, Yong-Jian Chen, Jia-Liang Kuang, Zheng-Shuang Hua, Yi Zeng, Ying Song, Zheng Liu, Wen-Sheng Shu & Jin-Tian Li
1. Identifying the factors determining the success of invasive species is critical for management of biological invasions. Darwin's naturalization conundrum states that exotic species closely related to natives should be successful because of a shared affinity for local environmental conditions, but at the same time close relatives often compete more intensively, limiting ‘niche’ opportunities for the invaders. Previous studies have generally considered these two ‘opposing’ hypotheses as mutually exclusive, yet evidence for both of them...

Data from: Variation in soil aluminum tolerance genes is associated with local adaptation to soils at the Park Grass Experiment

Billie Gould, Susan McCouch & Monica Geber
Studies of the wild grass Anthoxanthum odoratum at the long-term Park Grass Experiment (PGE, Harpenden, UK) document a well-known example of rapid plant evolution in response to environmental change. Repeated fertilizer applications have acidified the soil in some experimental plots over the past 150+ years, and Anthoxanthum subpopulations have quickly become locally adapted. Early reciprocal transplants showed subpopulation differentiation specifically in response to soil aluminium (Al) toxicity across the experiment, even at small (30 m)...

Data from: Mutualism between co-introduced species facilitates invasion and alters plant community structure

Kirsten M. Prior, Jennifer M. Robinson, Shannon A. Meadley Dunphy & Megan E. Frederickson
Generalized mutualisms are often predicted to be resilient to changes in partner identity. Variation in mutualism-related traits between native and invasive species however, can exacerbate the spread of invasive species (‘invasional meltdown’) if invasive partners strongly interact. Here we show how invasion by a seed-dispersing ant (Myrmica rubra) promotes recruitment of a co-introduced invasive over native ant-dispersed (myrmecochorous) plants. We created experimental communities of invasive (M. rubra) or native ants (Aphaenogaster rudis) and invasive and...

Data from: Invasion genetics of the Bermuda buttercup (Oxalis pes-caprae): complex intercontinental patterns of genetic diversity, polyploidy and heterostyly characterize both native and introduced populations.

Victoria Ferrero, Spencer C. H. Barrett, Sílvia Castro, Patrícia Caldeirinha, Luis Navarro, João Loureiro & Susana Rodríguez-Echeverría
Genetic diversity in populations of invasive species is influenced by a variety of factors including reproductive systems, ploidy level, stochastic forces associated with colonization and multiple introductions followed by admixture. Here, we compare genetic variation in native and introduced populations of the clonal plant Oxalis pes-caprae to investigate the influence of reproductive mode and ploidy on levels of diversity. This species is a tristylous geophyte native to South Africa. Invasive populations throughout much of the...

Data from: Variation in the strength of inbreeding depression across environments: effects of stress and density dependence

Li Yun & Aneil F. Agrawal
In what types of environments should we expect to find strong inbreeding depression? Previous studies indicate that inbreeding depression, δ, is positively correlated with the stressfulness of the environment in which it is measured. However, it remains unclear why stress, per se, should increase δ. To our knowledge, only “competitive stress” has a logical connection to δ. Through competition for resources, better quality (outbred) individuals make the environment worse for lower quality (inbred) individuals, accentuating...

Data from: Remating and sperm competition in replicate populations of Drosophila melanogaster adapted to alternative environments

Devin Arbuthnott, Aneil F. Agrawal & Howard D. Rundle
The prevalence of sexual conflict in nature, as well as the supposedly arbitrary direction of the resulting coevolutionary trajectories, suggests that it may be an important driver of phenotypic divergence even in a constant environment. However, natural selection has long been central to the operation of sexual conflict within populations and may therefore constrain or otherwise direct divergence among populations. Ecological context may therefore matter with respect to the diversification of traits involved in sexual...

Registration Year

  • 2014

Resource Types

  • Dataset


  • University of Toronto
  • Royal Ontario Museum
  • Imperial College London
  • Northwestern University
  • Uppsala University
  • Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology
  • Columbus State University
  • Sun Yat-sen University
  • Columbia University
  • University of Michigan-Ann Arbor