61 Works

Data from: Fitness change in relation to mutation number in spontaneous mutation accumulation lines of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

Susanne A. Kraemer, Katharina B. Böndel, Robert W. Ness, Peter David Keightley & Nick Colegrave
Although all genetic variation ultimately stems from mutations, their properties are difficult to study directly. Here, we used multiple mutation accumulation (MA) lines derived from five genetic backgrounds of the green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii that have been previously subjected to whole genome sequencing to investigate the relationship between the number of spontaneous mutations and change in fitness from a non-evolved ancestor. MA lines were on average less fit than their ancestors and we detected a...

Data from: Ranking and characterization of established BMI and lipid associated loci as candidates for gene-environment interactions

Dmitry Shungin, Wei Q. Deng, Tibor V. Varga, Jian'an Luan, Evelin Mihailov, Andres Metspalu, Andrew P. Morris, Nita G. Forouhi, Cecilia Lindgren, Patrik K. E. Magnusson, Nancy L. Pedersen, Göran Hallmans, Audrey Y. Chu, Anne E. Justice, Mariaelisa Graff, Thomas W. Winkler, Lynda M. Rose, Claudia Langenberg, L. Adrienne Cupples, Paul M. Ridker, Nicholas J. Wareham, Ken K. Ong, Ruth J. F. Loos, Daniel I. Chasman, Erik Ingelsson … & Paul W. Franks
Phenotypic variance heterogeneity across genotypes at a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) may reflect underlying gene-environment (G·E) or gene-gene interactions. We modeled variance heterogeneity for blood lipids and BMI in up to 44,211 participants and investigated relationships between variance effects (Pv), G·E interaction effects (with smoking and physical activity), and marginal genetic effects (Pm). Correlations between Pv and Pm were stronger for SNPs with established marginal effects (Spearman's ρ=0.401 for triglycerides, and ρ=0.236 for BMI) compared...

Data from: Ecological causes and consequences of flower color polymorphism in a self-pollinating plant (Boechera stricta)

Priya Vaidya, Ansley McDurmon, Emily Mattoon, Michaela Keefe, Lauren Carley, Cheng-Ruei Lee, Robin Bingham & Jill T. Anderson
Intraspecific variation in flower color is often attributed to pollinator-mediated selection, yet this mechanism cannot explain flower color polymorphisms in self-pollinating species. Indirect selection mediated via biotic and abiotic stresses could maintain flower color variation in these systems. The selfing forb, Boechera stricta, typically displays white flowers, but some individuals produce purple flowers. We quantified environmental correlates of flower color in natural populations. To disentangle plasticity from genotypic variation, we performed a multiyear field experiment...

Data from: 8-way randomized controlled trial of doxylamine, pyridoxine and dicyclomine for nausea and vomiting during pregnancy: restoration of unpublished information

Navindra Persaud & Rujun Zhang
Objectives: We report information about an unpublished 1970s study (“8-way” Bendectin Study) that aimed to evaluate the relative therapeutic efficacy of doxylamine, pyridoxine, and dicyclomine in the management of nausea and vomiting during pregnancy. We are publishing the trial's findings according to the restoring invisible and abandoned trials (RIAT) initiative because the trial was never published. Design: Double blinded, multi-centred, randomized placebo-controlled study. Setting: 14 clinics in the United States. Participants: 2308 patients in the...

Data from: Integrating continuous stocks and flows into state-and-transition simulation models of landscape change

Colin J. Daniel, Benjamin M. Sleeter, Leonardo Frid & Marie-Josée Fortin
1.State-and-transition simulation models (STSMs) provide a general framework for forecasting landscape dynamics, including projections of both vegetation and land-use/land-cover (LULC) change. The STSM method divides a landscape into spatially-referenced cells and then simulates the state of each cell forward in time, as a discrete-time stochastic process using a Monte Carlo approach, in response to any number of possible transitions. A current limitation of the STSM method, however, is that all of the state variables must...

Data from: How do seasonality, substrate, and management history influence macrofungal fruiting assemblages in a central Amazonian Forest?

Dirce Leimi Komura, Jean-Marc Moncalvo, Cristian S. Dambros, Larissa S. Bento, Maria A. Neves & Charles E. Zartman
Worldwide, fungal richness peaks in tropical forest biomes where they are the primary drivers of decomposition. Understanding how environmental and anthropogenic factors influence tropical macrofungal fruiting patterns should provide insight as to how, for example, climate change and deforestation may impact their long-term demographic stability and evolutionary potential. However, in Amazonia no studies have yet to disentangle the effects of substrate, seasonality and forest history on phenology. Here, we quantitate spatial and temporal variation in...

Data from: Environmental complexity and the purging of deleterious alleles

Amardeep Singh, Aneil F. Agrawal & Howard D. Rundle
Sexual interactions among adults can generate selection on both males and females with genome-wide consequences. Sexual selection through males is one component of this selection that has been argued to play an important role in purging deleterious alleles. A common technique to assess the influence of sexual selection is by a comparison of experimental evolution under enforced monogamy vs. polygamy. Mixed results from past studies may be due to the use of highly simplified lab...

Data from: Linking resource availability and heterogeneity to understorey species diversity through succession in boreal forest of Canada

Praveen Kumar, H.Y.H. Chen, S.C Thomas, Chander Shahi, Sean C. Thomas & Han Y. H. Chen
Understorey vegetation hosts the majority of species diversity and contributes greatly to ecosystem functioning in natural systems. Although patterns of understorey abundance, species diversity and composition associated with forest stand development are well researched, mechanisms driving these patterns remain largely speculative. We sampled fire origin stands of varying stand ages and overstorey compositions on mesic sites of the boreal forest of Canada and used structural equation modeling (SEM) to link time since fire (stand age),...

Data from: Spatial detection of outlier loci with Moran eigenvector maps (MEM)

Helene H. Wagner, Mariana Chávez-Pesqueira & Brenna R. Forester
The spatial signature of microevolutionary processes structuring genetic variation may play an important role in the detection of loci under selection. However, the spatial location of samples has not yet been used to quantify this. Here, we present a new two-step method of spatial outlier detection at the individual and deme levels using the power spectrum of Moran eigenvector maps (MEM). The MEM power spectrum quantifies how the variation in a variable, such as the...

Data from: Aging asexual lineages and the evolutionary maintenance of sex

Eddie Ka Ho Ho & Aneil F. Agrawal
Finite populations of asexual and highly selfing species suffer from a reduced efficacy of selection. Such populations are thought to decline in fitness over time due to accumulating slightly deleterious mutations or failing to adapt to changing conditions. These within-population processes that lead non-recombining species to extinction may help maintain sex and outcrossing through species level selection. Although inefficient selection is proposed to elevate extinction rates over time, previous models of species selection for sex...

Data from: Incorporating uncertainty into forest management planning: timber harvest, wildfire and climate change in the boreal forest

Colin J. Daniel, Michael T. Ter-Mikaelian, B. Mike Wotton, Bronwyn Rayfield & Marie-Josée Fortin
In an effort to ensure the sustainability of their forests, boreal forest managers often use forest planning models to make future projections of timber supply and other key services, such as habitat for wildlife. Projecting the fate of these services has proven to be challenging, however, as major uncertainties exist regarding the principal drivers of boreal ecosystem dynamics, including the future spatial and temporal distribution of wildfire and timber harvesting. Existing forest planning models are...

Data from: Species colonisation, not competitive exclusion, drives community overdispersion over long-term succession

Shao-Peng Li, Marc W. Cadotte, Scott J. Meiners, Zheng-Shuang Hua, Lin Jiang & Wen-Sheng Shu
Ecological communities often transition from phylogenetic and functional clustering to overdispersion over succession as judged by space-for-time substitution studies. Such a pattern has been generally attributed to the increase in competitive exclusion of closely related species with similar traits through time, although colonisation and extinction have rarely been examined. Using 44 years of uninterrupted old-field succession in New Jersey, USA, we confirmed that phylogenetic and functional clustering decreased as succession unfolded, but the transition was...

Data from: Plantings accelerate restoration of tropical forest but assembly mechanisms appear insensitive to initial composition

Lanping Li, Marc W. Cadotte, Cristina Martínez-Garza, Marinés De La Peña-Domene & Guozhen Du
1. Phylogenetic and trait-based approaches to community ecology are increasingly being used to test for nonrandom community assembly and are now being applied to assessments of habitat restoration. A critical question for the restoration of tropical forests is how plantings influence the recruitment of new species, and specifically the phylogenetic and functional diversity of restored habitats. 2. We examined 8 years (2006-2014) of tropical forest recruitment in two restoration planting compositions (12 animal-dispersed and 12...

Data from: Geographic signatures in species turnover: decoupling colonization and extinction across a latitudinal gradient

Natalie T. Jones & Benjamin Gilbert
High latitude communities have low species richness and are rapidly warming with climate change. Thus, temporal changes in community composition are expected to be greatest at high latitudes. However, at the same time traits such as body size can also change with latitude, potentially offsetting or increasing changes to community composition over time. We tested how zooplankton communities (copepods and cladocerans) have changed over a 25-75 year time span by assessing colonization and extinction rates...

Data from: Neutral fitness outcomes contradict inferences of sexual ‘coercion’ derived from male’s damaging mating tactic in a widow spider

Luciana Baruffaldi & Maydianne C. B. Andrade
Sexual conflict over mating frequency has driven the evolution of morphological and behavioural traits across taxa. Interactions may be termed ‘coercive’ and assumed to arise from conflict when male mating behaviours cause physical injury to females and females appear to resist injurious matings.However, coercion per se occurs only if the behaviour reduces female fitness; and such outcomes are rarely measured. Here we show that a damaging mating tactic, apparently adaptive for males, is not coercive...

Data from: Subtle individual variation in indeterminate growth leads to major variation in survival and lifetime reproductive output in a long-lived reptile

Doug P. Armstrong, Matthew G. Keevil, Njal Rollinson & Ronald J. Brooks
1. The consequences of individual variation in life-history traits have been well studied due to their importance in evolutionary ecology. However, a trait that has received little empirical attention is the rate of indeterminate growth. In long-lived ectotherms, subtle variation in growth after maturity could have major effects over the animals’ lifetimes. 2. These effects are difficult to measure due to the challenges involved in reliably estimating individual variation in the face of environmental stochasticity,...

Data from: Functional traits explain ecosystem function through opposing mechanisms

Marc W. Cadotte
The ability to explain why multispecies assemblages produce greater biomass compared to monocultures, has been a central goal in the quest to understand biodiversity effects on ecosystem function. Species contributions to ecosystem function can be driven by two processes: niche complementarity and a selection effect that is influenced by fitness (competitive) differences, and both can be approximated with measures of species’ traits. It has been hypothesised that fitness differences are associated with few, singular traits...

Data from: Oilbirds produce echolocation signals beyond their best hearing range and adjust signal design to natural light conditions

Signe Brinkløv, Coen P. H. Elemans & John M. Ratcliffe
Oilbirds are active at night, foraging for fruits using keen olfaction and extremely light-sensitive eyes, and echolocate as they leave and return to their cavernous roosts. We recorded the echolocation behaviour of wild oilbirds using a multi-microphone array as they entered and exited their roosts under different natural light conditions. During echolocation, the birds produced click bursts (CBs) lasting less than 10 ms and consisting of a variable number (2–8) of clicks at 2–3 ms...

Data from: Modelling the evolution of HIV-1 virulence in response to imperfect therapy and prophylaxis

David R. M. Smith & Nicole Mideo
Average HIV-1 virulence appears to have evolved in different directions in different host populations since antiretro- viral therapy first became available, and models predict that HIV drugs can select for either higher or lower virulence, depending on how treatment is administered. However, HIV virulence evolution in response to ‘leaky’ therapy (treat- ment that imperfectly suppresses viral replication) and the use of preventive drugs (pre-exposure prophylaxis) has not been explored. Using adaptive dynamics, we show that...

Data from: The effect of sex on the repeatability of evolution in different environments

Josianne Lachapelle & Nick Colegrave
The adaptive function of sex has been extensively studied, while less consideration has been given to the potential downstream consequences of sex on evolution. Here, we investigate one such potential consequence, the effect of sex on the repeatability of evolution. By affecting the repeatability of evolution, sex could have important implications for biodiversity, and for our ability to make predictions about the outcome of environmental change. We allowed asexual and sexual populations of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii...

Data from: How do organisational characteristics influence teamwork and service delivery in lung cancer diagnostic assessment programmes? A mixed-methods study

Gladys N. Honein-AbouHaidar, Terri Stuart-McEwan, Tom Waddell, Alexandra Salvarrey, Jennifer Smylie, Mark J. Dobrow, Melissa C. Brouwers & Anna R. Gagliardi
Objectives: Diagnostic assessment programs (DAPs) can reduce wait times for cancer diagnosis but optimal DAP design is unknown. This study explored how organizational characteristics influenced multidisciplinary teamwork and diagnostic service delivery in lung cancer DAPs. Design: A mixed methods approach integrated data from descriptive qualitative interviews and medical record abstraction at four lung cancer DAPs. Findings were analyzed with the Integrated Team Effectiveness Model. Setting: Four DAPs at two teaching and two community hospitals in...

Data from: Predator personality structures prey communities and trophic cascades

Denon Start & Benjamin Gilbert
Intraspecific variation is central to our understanding of evolution and population ecology, yet its consequences for community ecology are poorly understood. Animal personality—consistent individual differences in suites of behaviors – may be particularly important for trophic dynamics, where predator personality can determine activity rates and patterns of attack. We used mesocosms with aquatic food webs in which the top predator (dragonfly nymphs) varied in activity and subsequent attack rates on zooplankton, and tested the effects...

Data from: Trait-mediated community assembly: distinguishing the signatures of biotic and abiotic filters

Deirdre Loughnan & Benjamin Gilbert
Conflicting hypotheses predict how traits mediate species establishment and community assembly. Traits of newly establishing individuals are predicted to converge, or be more similar to the resident, preexisting community, when the biotic or abiotic environment favors a single best phenotype, but are predicted to diverge when trait differences reduce competitive interactions. We tested these competing hypotheses using transplant seedlings in an old-field environment, and assessed the contribution of inter- and intra-specific transplant trait variation to...

Data from: Herbivores safeguard plant diversity by reducing variability in dominance

Brent Mortensen, Brent Danielson, Stan W. Harpole, Juan Alberti, Carlos Alberto Arnillas, Lori Biederman, Elizabeth T. Borer, Marc W. Cadotte, John M. Dwyer, Nicole Hagenah, Yann Hautier, Pablo Luis Peri, Eric W. Seabloom & W. Stanley Harpole
1. Reductions in community evenness can lead to local extinctions as dominant species exclude subordinate species; however, herbivores can prevent competitive exclusion by consuming otherwise dominant plant species, thus increasing evenness. While these predictions logically result from chronic, gradual reductions in evenness, rapid, temporary pulses of dominance may also reduce species richness. Short pulses of dominance can occur as biotic or abiotic conditions temporarily favor one or a few species, manifested as increased temporal variability...

Data from: An ant–plant mutualism through the lens of cGMP-dependent kinase genes

Pierre-Jean G. Malé, Kyle M. Turner, Manjima Doha, Ina Anreiter, Aaron M. Allen, Marla B. Sokolowski & Megan E. Frederickson
In plant–animal mutualisms, how an animal forages often determines how much benefit its plant partner receives. In many animals, foraging behaviour changes in response to foraging gene expression or activation of the cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) that foraging encodes. Here, we show that this highly conserved molecular mechanism affects the outcome of a plant–animal mutualism. We studied the two PKG genes of Allomerus octoarticulatus, an Amazonian ant that defends the ant–plant Cordia nodosa against herbivores....

Registration Year

  • 2017
    61

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    61

Affiliations

  • University of Toronto
    61
  • University of British Columbia
    5
  • Duke University
    4
  • Sun Yat-sen University
    3
  • University of Edinburgh
    3
  • University of Montana
    2
  • Royal Ontario Museum
    2
  • University of Windsor
    2
  • McGill University
    2
  • McMaster University
    2