61 Works

Data from: The influence of range-wide plant genetic variation on soil invertebrate communities

Connor R. Fitzpatrick, Anna V. Mikhailitchenko, Daniel N. Anstett & Marc T. J. Johnson
Plant genetic variation can have far-reaching effects on associated communities and ecosystems. Heritable variation in ecologically relevant plant traits is often non-randomly distributed across a species’ range and can exhibit geographic clines. In the event of range expansions and migration, previously unfamiliar genotypes may have large impacts on resident communities and ecosystems due to the introduction of novel and heritable phenotypic variation. Here we test the hypothesis that geographic origin of a focal plant genotype...

Data from: An ant–plant mutualism through the lens of cGMP-dependent kinase genes

Pierre-Jean G. Malé, Kyle M. Turner, Manjima Doha, Ina Anreiter, Aaron M. Allen, Marla B. Sokolowski & Megan E. Frederickson
In plant–animal mutualisms, how an animal forages often determines how much benefit its plant partner receives. In many animals, foraging behaviour changes in response to foraging gene expression or activation of the cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) that foraging encodes. Here, we show that this highly conserved molecular mechanism affects the outcome of a plant–animal mutualism. We studied the two PKG genes of Allomerus octoarticulatus, an Amazonian ant that defends the ant–plant Cordia nodosa against herbivores....

Data from: Nod factors potentiate auxin signaling for transcriptional regulation and lateral root formation in Medicago truncatula

Violaine Herrbach, Ximena Chirinos, David Rengel, Kokoévi Agbevenou, Rémy Vincent, Stephanie Pateyron, Stéphanie Huguet, Sandrine Balzergue, Asher Pasha, Nicholas Provart, Clare Gough & Sandra Bensmihen
Nodulation (Nod) factors (NFs) are symbiotic molecules produced by rhizobia that are essential for establishment of the rhizobium–legume endosymbiosis. Purified NFs can stimulate lateral root formation (LRF) in Medicago truncatula, but little is known about the molecular mechanisms involved. Using a combination of reporter constructs, pharmacological and genetic approaches, we show that NFs act on early steps of LRF in M. truncatula, independently of the ethylene signaling pathway and of the cytokinin receptor MtCRE1, but...

Data from: Fitness consequences of occasional outcrossing in a functionally asexual plant (Oenothera biennis)

John L. Maron, Marc T. J. Johnson, Amy P. Hastings & Anurag A. Agrawal
Many clonal organisms occasionally outcross, but the long-term consequences of such infrequent events are often unknown. During five years, representing three to five plant generations, we followed 16 experimental field populations of the forb, Oenothera biennis, originally planted with the same 18 original genotypes. Oenothera biennis usually self-fertilizes, which due to its genetic system (Permanent Translocation Heterozygosity), results in seeds that are clones of the maternal plant. However, rare outcrossing produces genetically novel offspring (but...

Data from: Widespread generalist clones are associated with range and niche expansion in allopolyploids of Pacific Northwest Hawthorns (Crataegus L.)

Jennifer M. Coughlan, S. Han, Saša Stefanović & Timothy A. Dickinson
Range and niche expansion are commonly associated with transitions to asexuality, polyploidy, and hybridity (allopolyploidy) in plants. The ability of asexual polyploids to colonize novel habitats may be due to widespread generalist clones, multiple ecologically specialized clones, or may be a neutral byproduct of multiple, independent origins of asexual polyploids throughout the range. We have quantified niche size and divergence for hawthorns of the Pacific Northwest using data from herbarium vouchers with known cytotypes. We...

Data from: Fear and lethality in snowshoe hares: the deadly effects of non-consumptive predation risk

Kirsty J. MacLeod, Charles J. Krebs, Rudy Boonstra & Michael J. Sheriff
Predators play a critical, top-down role in shaping ecosystems, driving prey population and community dynamics. Traditionally, studies of predator-prey interactions have focused on direct effects of predators, namely the killing of prey. More recently, the non-consumptive effects of predation risk are being appreciated; e.g., the Ecology of Fear. Prey responses to predation risk can be morphological, behavioural, and physiological, and are assumed to come at a cost to prey fitness. However, few studies have examined...

Data from: Herbivores safeguard plant diversity by reducing variability in dominance

Brent Mortensen, Brent Danielson, Stan W. Harpole, Juan Alberti, Carlos Alberto Arnillas, Lori Biederman, Elizabeth T. Borer, Marc W. Cadotte, John M. Dwyer, Nicole Hagenah, Yann Hautier, Pablo Luis Peri, Eric W. Seabloom & W. Stanley Harpole
1. Reductions in community evenness can lead to local extinctions as dominant species exclude subordinate species; however, herbivores can prevent competitive exclusion by consuming otherwise dominant plant species, thus increasing evenness. While these predictions logically result from chronic, gradual reductions in evenness, rapid, temporary pulses of dominance may also reduce species richness. Short pulses of dominance can occur as biotic or abiotic conditions temporarily favor one or a few species, manifested as increased temporal variability...

Data from: Trait-mediated community assembly: distinguishing the signatures of biotic and abiotic filters

Deirdre Loughnan & Benjamin Gilbert
Conflicting hypotheses predict how traits mediate species establishment and community assembly. Traits of newly establishing individuals are predicted to converge, or be more similar to the resident, preexisting community, when the biotic or abiotic environment favors a single best phenotype, but are predicted to diverge when trait differences reduce competitive interactions. We tested these competing hypotheses using transplant seedlings in an old-field environment, and assessed the contribution of inter- and intra-specific transplant trait variation to...

Data from: Epistatic interactions influence terrestrial-marine functional shifts in cetacean rhodopsin

Sarah Z. Dungan & Belinda S. W. Chang
Like many aquatic vertebrates, whales have blue-shifting spectral tuning substitutions in the dim-light visual pigment, rhodopsin, that are thought to increase photosensitivity in underwater environments. We have discovered that known spectral tuning substitutions also have surprising epistatic effects on another function of rhodopsin, the kinetic rates associated with light-activated intermediates. By using absorbance spectroscopy and fluorescence-based retinal release assays on heterologously expressed rhodopsin, we assessed both spectral and kinetic differences between cetaceans (killer whale) and...

Data from: Plant sex alters Allee effects in aggregating plant parasites

Denon Start & Benjamin Gilbert
Species interactions are central to our understanding of population dynamics. While density typically strengthens competition, reducing absolute fitness, Allee effects can reverse this pattern, increasing fitness with density. Allee effects emerge in host-parasite systems when higher parasite densities dilute immune responses or increase resource-mobilization. The optimal density of individuals in these systems should be influenced by how host quality alters the rates at which facilitative and competitive effects change across densities. We tested these ideas...

Data from: Functional traits explain ecosystem function through opposing mechanisms

Marc W. Cadotte
The ability to explain why multispecies assemblages produce greater biomass compared to monocultures, has been a central goal in the quest to understand biodiversity effects on ecosystem function. Species contributions to ecosystem function can be driven by two processes: niche complementarity and a selection effect that is influenced by fitness (competitive) differences, and both can be approximated with measures of species’ traits. It has been hypothesised that fitness differences are associated with few, singular traits...

Data from: Subtle individual variation in indeterminate growth leads to major variation in survival and lifetime reproductive output in a long-lived reptile

Doug P. Armstrong, Matthew G. Keevil, Njal Rollinson & Ronald J. Brooks
1. The consequences of individual variation in life-history traits have been well studied due to their importance in evolutionary ecology. However, a trait that has received little empirical attention is the rate of indeterminate growth. In long-lived ectotherms, subtle variation in growth after maturity could have major effects over the animals’ lifetimes. 2. These effects are difficult to measure due to the challenges involved in reliably estimating individual variation in the face of environmental stochasticity,...

Data from: Predator personality structures prey communities and trophic cascades

Denon Start & Benjamin Gilbert
Intraspecific variation is central to our understanding of evolution and population ecology, yet its consequences for community ecology are poorly understood. Animal personality—consistent individual differences in suites of behaviors – may be particularly important for trophic dynamics, where predator personality can determine activity rates and patterns of attack. We used mesocosms with aquatic food webs in which the top predator (dragonfly nymphs) varied in activity and subsequent attack rates on zooplankton, and tested the effects...

Data from: The effect of sex on the repeatability of evolution in different environments

Josianne Lachapelle & Nick Colegrave
The adaptive function of sex has been extensively studied, while less consideration has been given to the potential downstream consequences of sex on evolution. Here, we investigate one such potential consequence, the effect of sex on the repeatability of evolution. By affecting the repeatability of evolution, sex could have important implications for biodiversity, and for our ability to make predictions about the outcome of environmental change. We allowed asexual and sexual populations of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii...

Data from: Oilbirds produce echolocation signals beyond their best hearing range and adjust signal design to natural light conditions

Signe Brinkløv, Coen P. H. Elemans & John M. Ratcliffe
Oilbirds are active at night, foraging for fruits using keen olfaction and extremely light-sensitive eyes, and echolocate as they leave and return to their cavernous roosts. We recorded the echolocation behaviour of wild oilbirds using a multi-microphone array as they entered and exited their roosts under different natural light conditions. During echolocation, the birds produced click bursts (CBs) lasting less than 10 ms and consisting of a variable number (2–8) of clicks at 2–3 ms...

Data from: Modelling the evolution of HIV-1 virulence in response to imperfect therapy and prophylaxis

David R. M. Smith & Nicole Mideo
Average HIV-1 virulence appears to have evolved in different directions in different host populations since antiretro- viral therapy first became available, and models predict that HIV drugs can select for either higher or lower virulence, depending on how treatment is administered. However, HIV virulence evolution in response to ‘leaky’ therapy (treat- ment that imperfectly suppresses viral replication) and the use of preventive drugs (pre-exposure prophylaxis) has not been explored. Using adaptive dynamics, we show that...

Data from: Plantings accelerate restoration of tropical forest but assembly mechanisms appear insensitive to initial composition

Lanping Li, Marc W. Cadotte, Cristina Martínez-Garza, Marinés De La Peña-Domene & Guozhen Du
1. Phylogenetic and trait-based approaches to community ecology are increasingly being used to test for nonrandom community assembly and are now being applied to assessments of habitat restoration. A critical question for the restoration of tropical forests is how plantings influence the recruitment of new species, and specifically the phylogenetic and functional diversity of restored habitats. 2. We examined 8 years (2006-2014) of tropical forest recruitment in two restoration planting compositions (12 animal-dispersed and 12...

Data from: How do organisational characteristics influence teamwork and service delivery in lung cancer diagnostic assessment programmes? A mixed-methods study

Gladys N. Honein-AbouHaidar, Terri Stuart-McEwan, Tom Waddell, Alexandra Salvarrey, Jennifer Smylie, Mark J. Dobrow, Melissa C. Brouwers & Anna R. Gagliardi
Objectives: Diagnostic assessment programs (DAPs) can reduce wait times for cancer diagnosis but optimal DAP design is unknown. This study explored how organizational characteristics influenced multidisciplinary teamwork and diagnostic service delivery in lung cancer DAPs. Design: A mixed methods approach integrated data from descriptive qualitative interviews and medical record abstraction at four lung cancer DAPs. Findings were analyzed with the Integrated Team Effectiveness Model. Setting: Four DAPs at two teaching and two community hospitals in...

Data from: Geographic signatures in species turnover: decoupling colonization and extinction across a latitudinal gradient

Natalie T. Jones & Benjamin Gilbert
High latitude communities have low species richness and are rapidly warming with climate change. Thus, temporal changes in community composition are expected to be greatest at high latitudes. However, at the same time traits such as body size can also change with latitude, potentially offsetting or increasing changes to community composition over time. We tested how zooplankton communities (copepods and cladocerans) have changed over a 25-75 year time span by assessing colonization and extinction rates...

Data from: Neutral fitness outcomes contradict inferences of sexual ‘coercion’ derived from male’s damaging mating tactic in a widow spider

Luciana Baruffaldi & Maydianne C. B. Andrade
Sexual conflict over mating frequency has driven the evolution of morphological and behavioural traits across taxa. Interactions may be termed ‘coercive’ and assumed to arise from conflict when male mating behaviours cause physical injury to females and females appear to resist injurious matings.However, coercion per se occurs only if the behaviour reduces female fitness; and such outcomes are rarely measured. Here we show that a damaging mating tactic, apparently adaptive for males, is not coercive...

Data from: Ecological drift and the distribution of species diversity

Benjamin Gilbert & Jonathan M. Levine
Ecological drift causes species abundances to fluctuate randomly, lowering diversity within communities and increasing differences among otherwise equivalent communities. Despite broad interest in ecological drift, ecologists have little experimental evidence of its consequences in nature, where competitive forces modulate species abundances. We manipulated drift by imposing 40-fold variation in the size of experimentally assembled annual plant communities and holding their edge-to-interior ratios comparable. Drift over three generations was greater than predicted by neutral models, causing...

Data from: Origins of the Greenland shark (Somniosus microcephalus): impacts of ice-olation and introgression

Ryan P. Walter, Denis Roy, Nigel E. Hussey, Björn Stelbrink, Kit M. Kovacs, Christian Lydersen, Bailey C. McMeans, Jörundur Svavarsson, Steven T. Kessel, Sebastian Biton Porsmoguer, Sharon Wildes, Cindy A. Tribuzio, Steven E. Campana, Stephen D. Petersen, R. Dean Grubbs, Daniel D. Heath, Kevin J. Hedges & Aaron T. Fisk
Herein, we use genetic data from 277 sleeper sharks to perform coalescent-based modeling to test the hypothesis of early Quaternary emergence of the Greenland shark (Somniosus microcephalus) from ancestral sleeper sharks in the Canadian Arctic-Subarctic region. Our results show that morphologically cryptic somniosids S. microcephalus and Somniosus pacificus can be genetically distinguished using combined mitochondrial and nuclear DNA markers. Our data confirm the presence of genetically admixed individuals in the Canadian Arctic and sub-Arctic, and...

Data from: Geographically structured genetic variation in the Medicago lupulina – Ensifer mutualism

Tia L. Harrison, Corlett Wolfe Wood, Katy D. Heath & John R. Stinchcombe
Gene flow between genetically differentiated populations can maintain variation in species interactions, especially when population structure is congruent between interacting species. However, large-scale empirical comparisons of the population structure of interacting species are rare, particularly in positive interspecific interactions (mutualisms). One agriculturally and ecologically important mutualism is the partnership between legume plants and rhizobia. Through characterizing and comparing the population genomic structure of the legume Medicago lupulina and two rhizobial species (Ensifer medicae and E....

Data from: Environmental DNA detection of rare and invasive fish species in two Great Lakes tributaries

Katherine D. Balasingham, Ryan P. Walter, Nicholas E. Mandrak & Daniel D. Heath
The extraction and characterization of DNA from aquatic environmental samples offers an alternative, non-invasive approach for the detection of rare species. Environmental DNA, coupled with PCR and next-generation sequencing (“metabarcoding”), has proven to be very sensitive for the detection of rare aquatic species. Our study used a custom designed group-specific primer set and next-generation sequencing for the detection of three species at risk; (Eastern Sand Darter, Ammocrypta pellucida; Northern Madtom, Noturus stigmosus; and Silver Shiner,...

Data from: The physical environment mediates male harm and its effect on selection in females

Li Yun, Patrick J. Chen, Amardeep Singh, Aneil F. Agrawal & Howard D. Rundle
Recent experiments indicate that male preferential harassment of high-quality females reduces the variance in female fitness, thereby weakening natural selection through females and hampering adaptation and purging. We propose that this phenomenon, which results from a combination of male choice and male-induced harm, should be mediated by the physical environment in which intersexual interactions occur. Using Drosophila melanogaster, we examined intersexual interactions in small and simple (standard fly vials) versus slightly more realistic (small cages...

Registration Year

  • 2017
    61

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    61

Affiliations

  • University of Toronto
    61
  • University of British Columbia
    5
  • Duke University
    4
  • Sun Yat-sen University
    3
  • University of Edinburgh
    3
  • University of Montana
    2
  • Royal Ontario Museum
    2
  • University of Windsor
    2
  • McGill University
    2
  • McMaster University
    2