76 Works

Data from: Phenological responses to multiple environmental drivers under climate change: insights from a long-term observational study and a manipulative field experiment

Susana M. Wadgymar, Jane E. Ogilvie, David W. Inouye, Arthur E. Weis & Jill T. Anderson
• Climate change has induced pronounced shifts in the reproductive phenology of plants, yet we know little about which environmental factors contribute to interspecific variation in responses and their effects on fitness. • We integrate data from a 43-year record of first flowering for six species in subalpine Colorado meadows with a 3-year snow manipulation experiment on the perennial forb Boechera stricta (Brassicaceae) from the same site. We analyze shifts in the onset of flowering...

Data from: When to monitor and when to act: value of information theory for multiple management units and limited budgets

Joseph R. Bennett, Sean L. Maxwell, Amanda E. Martin, Iadine Chadès, Lenore Fahrig & Benjamin Gilbert
1.The question of when to monitor and when to act is fundamental to applied ecology, and notoriously difficult to answer. Value of information (VOI) theory holds great promise to help answer this question for many management problems. However, VOI theory in applied ecology has only been demonstrated in single-decision problems, and has lacked explicit links between monitoring and management costs. 2.Here, we present an extension of VOI theory for solving multi-unit decisions of whether to...

Data from: Biodiversity explain maximum variation in productivity under experimental warming, nitrogen addition and grazing in mountain grasslands

Jiajia Liu, Detuan Liu, Kun Xu, Lian-Ming Gao, Xuejun Ge, Kevin S. Burgess, Marc W. Cadotte & Xue-Jun Ge
Anthropogenic global warming, nitrogen addition and over-grazing alter plant communities and threaten plant biodiversity, potentially impacting community productivity, especially in sensitive mountain grassland ecosystems. However, it still remains unknown whether the relationship between plant biodiversity and community productivity varies across different anthropogenic influences, and especially how changes in multiple biodiversity facets drive these impacts on productivity. Here we measured different facets of biodiversity including functional and phylogenetic richness and evenness in mountain grasslands along an...

Data from: Putatively adaptive genetic variation in the giant California sea cucumber (Parastichopus californicus) as revealed by environmental association analysis of restriction‐site associated DNA sequencing data

Amanda Xuereb, Christopher M. Kimber, Janelle M.R. Curtis, Louis Bernatchez, Marie-Josée Fortin & Janelle M. R. Curtis
Understanding the spatial scale of local adaptation and the factors associated with adaptive diversity are important objectives for ecology and evolutionary biology, and have significant implications for effective conservation and management of wild populations and natural resources. In this study, we used an environmental association analysis (EAA) to identify important bioclimatic variables correlated with putatively adaptive genetic variation in a benthic marine invertebrate – the giant California sea cucumber (Parastichopus californicus) – spanning coastal British...

Data from: Spatially structured statistical network models for landscape genetics

Erin E. Peterson, Ephraim M. Hanks, Mevin B. Hooten, Jay M. Ver Hoef & Marie-Josée Fortin
A basic understanding of how the landscape impedes, or creates resistance to, the dispersal of organisms and hence gene flow is paramount for successful conservation science and management. Spatially structured ecological networks are often used to represent spatial landscape-genetic relationships, where nodes represent individuals or populations and resistance to movement is represented using non-binary edge weights. Weights are typically assigned or estimated by the user, rather than observed, and validating such weights is challenging. We...

Data from: Life at the top: lake ecotype influences the foraging patterns, metabolic costs and life history of an apex fish predator

Liset Cruz Font, Brian J. Shuter, Paul J. Blanchfield, C. Ken Minns & Michael D. Rennie
1.We used acoustic telemetry and acceleration sensors to compare population-specific measures of the metabolic costs of an apex fish predator living in four separate lakes. We chose our study species and populations to provide a strong test of recent theoretical predictions that optimal foraging by an apex fish predator in a typical aquatic environment would be consistent with feeding to satiation rather than continuous feeding. We chose four populations where the primary prey type differed...

Data from: Shifts in selective pressures on snake phototransduction genes associated with photoreceptor transmutation and dim-light ancestry

Ryan K. Schott, Alexander Van Nynatten, Daren C. Card, Todd A. Castoe, Belinda S.W. Chang & Belinda S W Chang
The visual systems of snakes are heavily modified relative to other squamates, a condition often thought to reflect their fossorial origins. Further modifications are seen in caenophidian snakes, where evolutionary transitions between rod and cone photoreceptors, termed photoreceptor transmutations, have occurred in many lineages. Little previous work, however, has focused on the molecular evolutionary underpinnings of these morphological changes. To address this, we sequenced seven snake eye transcriptomes and utilized new whole genome and targeted...

Data from: Temperature-dependent oxygen limitation and the rise of Bergmann’s Rule in species with aquatic respiration

Njal Rollinson & Locke Rowe
Bergmann’s Rule is the propensity for species-mean body size to decrease with increasing temperature. Temperature-dependent oxygen limitation has been hypothesized to help drive temperature–size relationships among ectotherms, including Bergmann’s Rule, where organisms reduce body size under warm oxygen-limited conditions, thereby maintaining aerobic scope. Temperature-dependent oxygen limitation should be most pronounced among aquatic ectotherms that cannot breathe aerially, as oxygen solubility in water decreases with increasing temperature. We use phylogenetically-explicit analyses to show that species-mean adult...

Data from: The strength of sex-specific selection in the wild

Amardeep Singh & David Punzalan
Anisogamy predisposes the sexes to very different patterns of selection on shared traits. Selective differences between the sexes may manifest as changes in the direction or strength of selection acting on shared phenotypes. Although previous studies have found evidence for widespread differences in the direction of selection between the sexes, surprisingly little is known regarding potential differences in the magnitude of selection and whether such differences might be confined to specific components of fitness. We...

Data from: In that vein: inflated wing veins contribute to butterfly hearing

Penghui Sun, Natasha Mhatre, Andrew C. Mason & Jayne E. Yack
Insects have evolved a diversity of hearing organs specialized to detect sounds critical for survival. We report on a unique structure on butterfly wings that enhances hearing. The Satyrini are a diverse group of butterflies occurring throughout the world. One of their distinguishing features is a conspicuous swelling of their forewing vein, but the functional significance of this structure is unknown. Here we show that wing vein inflations function in hearing. Using the Common Wood-Nymph,...

Data from: Do correlated responses to multiple environmental changes exacerbate or mitigate species loss?

Luke O. Frishkoff, Alejandra Echeverri, Kai M.A. Chan, Daniel S. Karp & Kai M. A. Chan
Biological communities face multiple global changes simultaneously, and predicting how they will respond remains a key challenge. Co-tolerance theory offers a framework for understanding how species-level responses to multiple stressors affect community properties. Co-tolerance theory predicts that positive correlations in species responses (i.e., species that are susceptible to one stressor are more likely to be highly susceptible to a second) lessen total species loss, essentially because species cannot be eliminated from a community twice. However,...

Data from: Adaptive radiation along a deeply conserved genetic line of least resistance in Anolis lizards

Joel W. McGlothlin, Megan E. Kobiela, Helen V. Wright, D. Luke Mahler, Jason J. Kolbe, Jonathan B. Losos, & Edmund D. Brodie
On microevolutionary timescales, adaptive evolution depends upon both natural selection and the underlying genetic architecture of traits under selection, which may constrain evolutionary outcomes. Whether such genetic constraints shape phenotypic diversity over macroevolutionary timescales is more controversial, however. One key prediction is that genetic constraints should bias the early stages of species divergence along “genetic lines of least resistance” defined by the genetic (co)variance matrix, G. This bias is expected to erode over time as...

Data from: Self-reported functional status predicts post-operative outcomes in non-cardiac surgery patients with pulmonary hypertension

Aalap C. Shah, Kevin Ma, David Faraoni, Daniel C.S. Oh, G. Alec Rooke, Gail A. Van Norman & Daniel C. S. Oh
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary hypertension (PHTN) is associated with increased post-procedure morbidity and mortality. Pre-procedure echocardiography (ECHO) is a widely used tool for evaluation of these patients, but its accuracy in predicting post-procedure outcomes is unproven. Self-reported exercise tolerance has not been evaluated for operative risk stratification of PHTN patients. OBJECTIVE: We analyzed whether self-reported exercise tolerance predicts outcomes (hospi-tal length-of-stay [LOS], mortality and morbidity) in PHTN patients (WHO Class I - V) under-going anesthesia and surgery....

Data from: Clonal evolution and genome stability in a 2,500-year-old fungal individual

James B. Anderson, Johann N. Bruhn, Dahlia Kasimer, Hao Wang, Nicolas Rodrigue & Myron L. Smith
Individuals of the basidiomycete fungus Armillaria are well-known for their ability to spread from woody substrate to substrate on the forest floor through the growth of rhizomoprhs. Here we made 248 collections of A. gallica in one locality in Michigan’s Upper Peninsula. To identify individuals, we genotyped collections with molecular markers and somatic compatibility testing. We found several different individuals in proximity to one another, but one genetic individual stood out as exceptionally large, covering...

Data from: Leaf nutrients, not specific leaf area, are consistent indicators of elevated nutrient inputs

Jennifer Firn, James M. McGree, Eric Harvey, Habacuc Flores-Moreno, Martin Schütz, Yvonne M. Buckley, Elizabeth T. Borer, Eric W. Seabloom, Kimberly J. La Pierre, Andrew M. MacDougall, Suzanne M. Prober, Carly J. Stevens, Lauren L. Sullivan, Erica Porter, Emma Ladouceur, Charlotte Allen, Karine H. Moromizato, John W. Morgan, W. Stanley Harpole, Yann Hautier, Nico Eisenhauer, Justin P. Wright, Peter B. Adler, Carlos Alberto Arnillas, Jonathan D. Bakker … & Anita C. Risch
Leaf traits are frequently measured in ecology to provide a ‘common currency’ for predicting how anthropogenic pressures impact ecosystem function. Here, we test whether leaf traits consistently respond to experimental treatments across 27 globally distributed grassland sites across 4 continents. We find that specific leaf area (leaf area per unit mass)—a commonly measured morphological trait inferring shifts between plant growth strategies—did not respond to up to four years of soil nutrient additions. Leaf nitrogen, phosphorus...

Data from: Revisiting protein aggregation as pathogenic in sporadic Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s diseases

Alberto J. Espay, Joaquin A. Vizcarra, Luca Marsili, Anthony E. Lang, David K. Simon, Aristide Merola, Keith A. Josephs, Alfonso Fasano, Francesca Morgante, Rodolfo Savica, J. Timothy Greenamyre, Franca Cambi, Tritia R. Yamasaki, Caroline M. Tanner, Ziv Gan-Or, Irene Litvan, Ignacio F. Mata, Cyrus P. Zabetian, Patrik Brundin, Hubert H. Fernandez, David G. Standaert, Marcelo A. Kauffman, Michael A. Schwarzschild, S. Pablo Sardi, Todd Sherer … & James B. Leverenz
The gold standard for a definitive diagnosis of Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the pathologic finding of aggregated alpha-synuclein into Lewy bodies and for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) aggregated amyloid into plaques and hyperphosphorylated tau into tangles. Implicit in this clinico-pathologic-based nosology is the assumption that pathological protein aggregation at autopsy reflect pathogenesis at disease onset. While these aggregates may in exceptional cases be on a causal pathway in humans (e.g., aggregated alpha-synuclein in SNCA gene multiplication...

Data from: Maternal provisioning is structured by species’ competitive neighborhoods

Rachel M. Germain, Tess N. Grainger, Natalie T. Jones & Benjamin Gilbert
Differential maternal provisioning of offspring in response to environmental conditions has been argued as ‘the missing link’ in plant life histories. Although empirical evidence suggests that maternal provisioning responses to abiotic conditions are common, there is little understanding of how differences in maternal provisioning manifest in response to competition. Frequency manipulations are commonly employed in ecological studies to assess the strength of interspecific competition, relative to intraspecific competition, and we used frequency manipulations to test...

Data from: Assembly and ecological function of the root microbiome across angiosperm plant species

Connor R. Fitzpatrick, Julia Copeland, Pauline W. Wang, David S. Guttman, Peter M. Kotanen & Marc T. J. Johnson
Across plants and animals, host-associated microbial communities play fundamental roles in host nutrition, development, and immunity. The factors that shape host–microbiome interactions are poorly understood, yet essential for understanding the evolution and ecology of these symbioses. Plant roots assemble two distinct microbial compartments from surrounding soil: the rhizosphere (microbes surrounding roots) and the endosphere (microbes within roots). Root-associated microbes were key for the evolution of land plants and underlie fundamental ecosystem processes. However, it is...

Data from: Genetic basis to hybrid inviability is more complex than hybrid male sterility in Caenorhabditis nematodes

Joanna D. Bundus, Donglin Wang & Asher D. Cutter
Hybrid male sterility often evolves before female sterility or inviability of hybrids, implying that the accumulation of divergence between separated lineages should lead hybrid male sterility to have a more polygenic basis. However, experimental evidence is mixed. Here, we use the nematodes Caenorhabditis remanei and C. latens to characterize the underlying genetic basis of asymmetric hybrid male sterility and hybrid inviability. We demonstrate that hybrid male sterility is consistent with a simple genetic basis, involving...

Data from: A new small captorhinid reptile from the lower Permian of Oklahoma and resource partitioning among small captorhinids in the Richards Spur fauna

Sean P. Modesto, Diane Scott & Robert R. Reisz
Two partial reptile skulls and six dentigerous fragments from the lower Permian Richards Spur locality of Oklahoma represent a new genus and species of small captorhinid reptile. Labidosauriscus richardi gen. et sp. nov. is distinguished from other captorhinids in the reduction of the height of the ridges forming the characteristic net-like, ridge-and-pit cranial sculpturing of captorhinids, and the superimposition of a system of finer pits and furrows over the primary ridge-and-pit cranial ornamentation. Labidosauriscus richardi...

Data from: Faunal overview of the Mud Hill locality from the early Permian Vale Formation of Taylor County, Texas

Bryan M. Gee, Steve J. Rosscoe, Diane Scott, Judie Ostlien & Robert R. Reisz
The Texas red beds represent one of the richest series of early Permian deposits in the world. In particular, the Clear Fork Group has produced a diverse assemblage of temnospondyls, early reptiles, and synapsids. However, most of this material has been sourced from the oldest member, the Arroyo Formation, and the understanding of the paleoecosystem of the younger Vale and Choza Formations is less well-resolved. Here we present a new Vale locality, the first vertebrate-bearing...

Data from: Cooperation and coexpression: how coexpression networks shift in response to multiple mutualists

Sathvik X. Palakurty, John R. Stinchcombe & Michelle E. Afkhami
A mechanistic understanding of community ecology requires tackling the nonadditive effects of multispecies interactions, a challenge that necessitates integration of ecological and molecular complexity-- namely moving beyond pairwise ecological interaction studies and the ‘gene at a time’ approach to mechanism. Here, we investigate the consequences of multispecies mutualisms for the structure and function of genome-wide coexpression networks for the first time, using the tractable and ecologically-important interaction between legume Medicago truncatula, rhizobia, and mycorrhizal fungi....

Data from: Thermal niche evolution across replicated Anolis lizard adaptive radiations

Alex R. Gunderson, D. Luke Mahler & Manuel Leal
Elucidating how ecological and evolutionary mechanisms interact to produce and maintain biodiversity is a fundamental problem in evolutionary ecology. We investigate this issue by focusing on how physiological evolution affects performance and species coexistence along the thermal niche axis in replicated radiations of Anolis lizards, groups best known for resource partitioning based on morphological divergence. We find repeated divergence in thermal physiology within these radiations, and that this divergence significantly affects performance within natural thermal...

Data from: Competition for mates and the improvement of nonsexual fitness

Li Yun, Patrick J. Chen, Kevin E. Kwok, Christopher S. Angell, Howard D. Rundle & Aneil F. Agrawal
Competition for mates can be a major source of selection, not just on secondary sexual traits but across the genome. Mate competition strengthens selection on males via sexual selection, which typically favours healthy, vigorous individuals and, thus, all genetic variants that increase overall quality. However, recent studies suggest another major effect of mate competition that could influence genome-wide selection: sexual harassment by males can drastically weaken selection on quality in females. Because of these conflicting...

Data from: An experimental test of the mutation-selection balance model for the maintenance of genetic variance in fitness components

Nathaniel P. Sharp & Aneil F. Agrawal
Despite decades of research, the factors that maintain genetic variation for fitness are poorly understood. It is unclear what fraction of the variance in a typical fitness component can be explained by mutation-selection balance and whether fitness components differ in this respect. In theory, the level of standing variance in fitness due to mutation-selection balance can be predicted using the rate of fitness decline under mutation accumulation, and this prediction can be directly compared to...

Registration Year

  • 2018
    76

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    76

Affiliations

  • University of Toronto
    76
  • University of British Columbia
    8
  • University of Washington
    5
  • University of Minnesota
    5
  • Fisheries and Oceans Canada
    4
  • Duke University
    3
  • University of Queensland
    3
  • University of California, San Diego
    3
  • Carleton University
    3
  • Colorado State University
    3