76 Works

Data from: Indirect interactions shape selection in a multi-species foodweb

Denon Start, Arthur E. Weis & Benjamin Gilbert
Species do not live, interact, or evolve in isolation, but are instead members of complex ecological communities. In ecological terms, complex multi-species interactions can be understood by considering indirect effects that are mediated by changes in traits and abundances of intermediate species. Interestingly, traits and abundances are also central to our understanding of phenotypic selection, suggesting that indirect effects may be extended to understand evolution in complex communities. Here, we explore indirect ecological effects and...

Data from: Virtual endocasts of fossil Sciuroidea: brain size reduction in the evolution of fossoriality

Ornella C. Bertrand, Farrah Amador-Mughal, Madlen M. Lang & Mary T. Silcox
Aplodontia rufa (Mountain Beaver) is the only extant member of Aplodontidae. The fossil record indicates that this family displayed greater taxonomic and ecological diversity in the past, and that the burrowing adaptations of Aplodontia might be derived. We describe the first virtual endocasts of A. rufa and of three fossil aplodontids: Prosciurus relictus and Pros. aff. saskatchewaensis (Early Oligocene), and Mesogaulus paniensis (late Miocene). Our results show that the endocasts of early aplodontid rodents are...

Data from: Integrating morphology and kinematics in the scaling of hummingbird hovering metabolic rate and efficiency

Derrick J.E. Groom, M. Cecilia B. Toledo, Donald R. Powers, Bret W. Tobalske, , Derrick J. E. Groom & Kenneth C. Welch
Wing kinematics and morphology are influential upon the aerodynamics of flight. However, there is a lack of studies linking these variables to metabolic costs, particularly in the context of morphological adaptation to body size. Furthermore, the conversion efficiency from chemical energy into movement by the muscles (mechanochemical efficiency) scales with mass in terrestrial quadrupeds, but this scaling relationship has not been demonstrated within flying vertebrates. Positive scaling of efficiency with body size may reduce the...

Data from: Inter- and intraspecific variation in leaf economics traits in wheat and maize

Adam R. Martin, Christine E. Hale, Bruno E. L. Cerabolini, Johannes H. C. Cornelissen, Joseph Craine, William A. Gough, Jens Kattge & Cairan K. F. Tirona
Leaf economics spectrum (LES) trait variation underpins multiple agroecological processes and many prominent crop yield models. While there are numerous independent studies assessing trait variation in crops, to date there have been no comprehensive assessments of intraspecific trait variation (ITV) in LES traits for wheat and maize: the world’s most widespread crops. Using trait databases and peer-reviewed literature, we compiled over 700 records of specific leaf area (SLA), maximum photosynthetic rates (Amax), and leaf nitrogen...

Data from: The ‘filtering’ metaphor revisited: competition and environment jointly structure invasibility and coexistence

Rachel M. Germain, Margaret M. Mayfield & Benjamin Gilbert
‘Filtering’, or the reduction in species diversity that occurs because not all species can persist in all locations, is thought to unfold hierarchically, controlled by the environment at large scales and competition at small scales. However, the ecological effects of competition and the environment are not independent, and observational approaches preclude investigation into their interplay. We use a demographic approach with 30 plant species to experimentally test (i) the effect of competition on species persistence...

Data from: More partners, more ranges: generalist legumes spread more easily around the globe

Tia L. Harrison, Anna K. Simonsen, John R. Stinchcombe & Megan E. Frederickson
How does mutualism affect range expansion? On one hand, mutualists might thrive in new habitats thanks to the resources, stress tolerance, or defense provided by their partners. On the other, specialized mutualists might fail to find compatible partners beyond their range margins, limiting further spread. A recent global analysis of legume ranges found that non-symbiotic legumes have been successfully introduced to more ranges than legumes that form symbioses with rhizobia, but there is still abundant...

Data from: Contemporary pollen flow as a multiscale process: evidence from the insect-pollinated herb, Pulsatilla vulgaris

Michelle F. DiLeo, Rolf Holderegger & Helene H. Wagner
1. Understanding the drivers and spatial scale of gene flow is essential for the management of species living in fragmented landscapes. In plants, contemporary pollen flow is typically modeled as a single spatial process, with pollen flow declining exponentially within a short distance of mother plants. However, growing evidence suggests that many species do not conform to this patterns, often showing an excess of long-distance dispersal events or sometimes even multimodality in dispersal kernels. This...

Data from: The European Paromomyidae (Primates, Mammalia): taxonomy, phylogeny, and biogeographic implications

Sergi López-Torres & Mary T. Silcox
Plesiadapiforms represent the first radiation of Primates, appearing near the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary. Eleven families of plesiadapiforms are recognized, including the Paromomyidae. Four species of paromomyids from the early Eocene have been reported from Europe: Arcius fuscus, Arcius lapparenti, and Arcius rougieri from France, and Arcius zbyszewskii from Portugal. Other Arcius specimens from the early Eocene are known from Masia de l’Hereuet (Spain), Abbey Wood (England), and Sotteville-sur-Mer (Normandy, France). A cladistic analysis of the European...

Data from: The effects of haploid selection on Y chromosome evolution in two closely related dioecious plants

George Sandler, Felix E.G. Beaudry, Spencer C.H. Barrett, Stephen I. Wright, Felix E. G. Beaudry & Spencer C. H. Barrett
The evolution of sex chromosomes is usually considered to be driven by sexually antagonistic selection in the diploid phase. However, selection during the haploid gametic phase of the lifecycle has recently received theoretical attention as possibly playing a central role in sex chromosome evolution, especially in plants where gene expression in the haploid phase is extensive. In particular, male-specific haploid selection might favour the linkage of pollen beneficial alleles to male sex determining regions on...

Data from: The rise of health biotechnology research in Latin America: a scientometric analysis of health biotechnology production and impact in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Cuba and Mexico.

Dante Israel León-De La O, Halla Thorsteinsdóttir & José Victor Calderón-Salinas
This paper analyzes the patterns of health biotechnology publications in six Latin American countries from 2001 to 2015. The countries studied were Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Cuba and Mexico. Before our study, there were no data available on HBT development in half of the Latin-American countries we studied, i.e., Argentina, Colombia and Chile. To include these countries in a scientometric analysis of HBT provides fuller coverage of HBT development in Latin America. The scientometric study...

Data from: Dental ontogeny in extinct synapsids reveals a complex evolutionary history of the mammalian tooth attachment system

Aaron R.H. LeBlanc, Kirstin S. Brink, Megan R. Whitney, Fernando Abdala, Robert R. Reisz & Aaron R. H. LeBlanc
The mammalian dentition is uniquely characterized by a combination of precise occlusion, permanent adult teeth, and a unique tooth attachment system. Unlike the ankylosed teeth in most reptiles, mammal teeth are supported by a ligamentous tissue that suspends each tooth in its socket, providing flexible and compliant tooth attachment that prolongs the life of each tooth and maintains occlusal relationships. Here we investigate dental ontogeny through histological examination of a wide range of extinct synapsid...

Data from: Modern spandrels: the roles of genetic drift, gene flow and natural selection in the formation of parallel clines

James S. Santangelo, Marc T.J. Johnson & Rob W. Ness
Urban environments offer the opportunity to study the role of adaptive and non-adaptive evolutionary processes on an unprecedented scale. While the presence of parallel clines in heritable phenotypic traits is often considered strong evidence for the role of natural selection, non-adaptive evolutionary processes can also generate clines, and this may be more likely when traits have a non-additive genetic basis due to epistasis. In this paper, we use spatially-explicit simulations modelled according to the cyanogenesis...

Data from: The diversity of population responses to environmental change

Fernando Colchero, Owen R. Jones, Dalia A. Conde, Dave Hodgson, Felix Zajitschek, Benedikt R. Schmidt, Aurelio F. Malo, Susan C. Alberts, Peter H. Becker, Sandra Bouwhuis, Anne M. Bronikowski, Kristel M. De Vleeschouwer, Richard J. Delahay, Stefan Dummermuth, Eduardo Fernández-Duque, John Frisenvænge, Martin Hesselsøe, Sam Larson, Jean-Francois Lemaitre, Jennifer McDonald, David A.W. Miller, Colin O'Donnell, Craig Packer, Becky E. Raboy, Christopher J. Reading … & Chris J. Reading
The current extinction and climate change crises pressure us to predict population dynamics with ever-greater accuracy. Although predictions rest on the well-advanced theory of age-structured populations, two key issues remain poorly-explored. Specifically, how the age-dependency in demographic rates and the year-to-year interactions between survival and fecundity affect stochastic population growth rates. We use inference, simulations, and mathematical derivations to explore how environmental perturbations determine population growth rates for populations with different age-specific demographic rates and...

Data from: Testing for latitudinal gradients in defense at the macroevolutionary scale

Daniel N. Anstett, Jeffery R. Ahern, Marc T.J. Johnson, Juha-Pekka Salminen & Jeffrey R. Ahern
Plant defences against herbivores are predicted to evolve to be greater in warmer climates, such as lower latitudes where herbivore pressure is also thought to be higher. Instead, recent findings are often inconsistent with this expectation, suggesting alternative hypotheses are needed. We tested for latitudinal gradients in plant defence evolution at the macroevolutionary scale by characterizing plant chemical defences across 80 species of the evening primroses, spanning both North and South America. We quantified phenolics...

Data from: Habitat partitioning during character displacement between the sexes

Stephen P. De Lisle, Samuel Paiva & Locke Rowe
Ecological differences between the sexes are often interpreted as evidence of within-species ecological character displacement (ECD), a hypothesis with almost no direct tests. Here we experimentally-test two predictions, that are direct corollaries of ECD between the sexes, in a salamander. First, we find support for the prediction that each sex has a growth rate advantage in the aquatic microhabitat where it is most commonly found. Second, we test the prediction that selection for ECD in...

Data from: The global geography of human subsistence

Michael C. Gavin, Patrick H. Kavanagh, Hannah J. Haynie, Claire Bowern, Carol R. Ember, Russell D. Gray, Fiona M. Jordan, Kathryn R. Kirby, Geoff Kushnick, Bobbi S. Low, Bruno Vilela & Carlos A. Botero
How humans obtain food has dramatically reshaped ecosystems and altered both the trajectory of human history and the characteristics of human societies. Our species’ subsistence varies widely, from predominantly foraging strategies, to plant-based agriculture and animal husbandry. The extent to which environmental, social, and historical factors have driven such variation is currently unclear. Prior attempts to resolve long-standing debates on this topic have been hampered by an over-reliance on narrative arguments, small and geographically-narrow samples,...

Data from: Microglia responses to pro-inflammatory stimuli (LPS, IFNγ+TNFα) and reprogramming by resolving cytokines (IL-4, IL-10)

Starlee Lively & Lyanne C. Schlichter
Microglia respond to CNS injuries and diseases with complex reactions, often called “activation.” A pro-inflammatory phenotype (also called classical or M1 activation) lies at one extreme of the reactivity spectrum. There were several motivations for this study. First, bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, LPS) is the most commonly used pro-inflammatory stimulus for microglia, both in vitro and in vivo; however, pro-inflammatory cytokines (e.g., IFNγ, TNFα) rather than LPS will be encountered with sterile CNS damage and disease....

Data from: Persistence of resident and transplanted genotypes of the undomesticated yeast, Saccharomyces paradoxus in forest soil

James B. Anderson, Dahlia Kasimer, Wenjing Xia, Nicolas C. H. Schröder, Patrick Cichowicz, Silvio Lioniello, Rudrakshi Chakrabarti, Eashwar Mohan & Linda M. Kohn
One might expect yeasts in soil to be highly dispersed via water or insects, forming ephemeral, genetically heterogeneous populations subject to competition and environmental stochasticity. Here, we report persistence of genotypes of the yeast Saccharomyces paradoxus in space and time. Within 1 km2 in a mixed hardwood forest on scales from centimeters to tens of meters, we detect persistence over 3 years of native genotypes, identified by SNPs genome-wide, of the wild yeast, Saccharomyces paradoxus...

Data from: Seascape genomics of eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) along the Atlantic coast of Canada.

Simon Bernatchez, Amanda Xuereb, Martin Laporte, Laura Benestan, Royce Steeves, Mark Laflamme, Louis Bernatchez & Martin Mallet
Interactions between environmental factors and complex life-history characteristics of marine organisms produce the genetic diversity and structure observed within species. Our main goal was to test for genetic differentiation among eastern oyster populations from the coastal region of Canadian Maritimes against expected genetic homogeneity caused by historical events, taking into account spatial and environmental (temperature, salinity, turbidity) variation. This was achieved by genotyping 486 individuals originating from 13 locations using RADSeq. A total of 11...

Data from: Asymmetric oceanographic processes mediate connectivity and population genetic structure as revealed by RADseq in a highly dispersive marine invertebrate (Parastichopus californicus)

Amanda Xuereb, Laura Benestan, Eric Normandeau, Rémi M. Daigle, Janelle M.R. Curtis, Louis Bernatchez, Marie-Josée Fortin & Janelle M. R. Curtis
Marine populations are typically characterized by weak genetic differentiation due to the potential for long-distance dispersal favouring high levels of gene flow. However, strong directional advection of water masses or retentive hydrodynamic forces can influence the degree of genetic exchange among marine populations. To determine the oceanographic drivers of genetic structure in a highly dispersive marine invertebrate, the giant California sea cucumber (Parastichopus californicus), we first tested for the presence of genetic discontinuities along the...

Data from: Hepatocyte-specific deletion of TIPARP, a negative regulator of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor, is sufficient to increase sensitivity to dioxin-induced wasting syndrome

David Hutin, Laura Tamblyn, Alvin Gomez, Giulia Grimaldi, Helen Soelding, Tiffany Cho, Shaimaa Ahmed, Christin Lucas, Chakravarthi Kanduri, Denis M. Grant, Jason Matthews & Helen Soedling
The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) mediates the toxic effects of dioxin (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin; TCDD), which include thymic atrophy, steatohepatitis, and a lethal wasting syndrome in laboratory rodents. Although the mechanisms of dioxin toxicity remain unknown, AHR signaling in hepatocytes is necessary for dioxin-induced liver toxicity. We previously reported that loss of TCDD-inducible poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (TIPARP/PARP7/ARTD14), an AHR target gene and mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase, increases the sensitivity of mice to dioxin-induced toxicities. To test the hypothesis that TIPARP is...

Data from: Spatial heterogeneity in species composition constrains plant community responses to herbivory and fertilization

Dorothee Hodapp, Elizabeth T. Borer, W. Stanley Harpole, Eric M. Lind, Eric W. Seabloom, Peter B. Adler, Juan Alberti, Carlos A. Arnillas, Jonathan D. Bakker, Lori Biederman, Marc Cadotte, Elsa E. Cleland, Scott Collins, Philip A. Fay, Jennifer Firn, Nicole Hagenah, Yann Hautier, Oscar Iribarne, Johannes M.H. Knops, Rebecca L. McCulley, Andrew MacDougall, Joslin L. Moore, John W. Morgan, Brent Mortensen, Kimberly J. La Pierre … & Johannes M. H. Knops
Environmental change can result in substantial shifts in community composition. The associated immigration and extinction events are likely constrained by the spatial distribution of species. Still, studies on environmental change typically quantify biotic responses at single spatial (time series within a single plot) or temporal (spatial beta-diversity at single time points) scales, ignoring their potential interdependence. Here, we use data from a global network of grassland experiments to determine how turnover responses to two major...

Data from: Asynchrony between ant seed dispersal activity and fruit dehiscence of myrmecochorous plants

Susan C. C. Gordon, Shannon A. Meadley-Dunphy, Kirsten M. Prior & Megan E. Frederickson
Phenological mismatch has received attention in plant-pollinator interactions, but less so in seed dispersal mutualisms. We investigated whether the seasonal availability of myrmecochorous seeds is well matched to the seasonal activity patterns of seed-dispersing ants. Methods We compared seasonal timing of seed removal by a keystone seed-dispersing ant, Aphaenogaster rudis, and fruit dehiscence of several species of plants whose seeds it disperses in a deciduous forest in southern Ontario, Canada. We examined the timing of...

Data from: The spatial ecology of sex ratios in a dioecious plant: relations between ramet and genet sex ratios

David Timerman, Spencer C. H. Barrett & Spencer C.H. Barrett
1. In clonal dioecious plants, the frequency and spatial distribution of flowering ramets contains information on the underlying genet sex ratio. These measures can also provide insight on potential ecological mechanisms causing variation and bias in sex ratios among populations. 2. We used a novel likelihood-based approach and spatial clustering model to estimate the genet sex ratios from flowering ramet data collected from 32 populations of dioecious Thalictrum pubescens, a clonal species from eastern N....

Data from: Genetic conflict with a parasitic nematode disrupts the legume-rhizobia mutualism

Corlett W. Wood, Bonnie L. Pilkington, Priya Vaidya, Caroline Biel & John R. Stinchcombe
Genetic variation for partner quality in mutualisms is an evolutionary paradox. One possible resolution to this puzzle is that there is a tradeoff between partner quality and other fitness-related traits. Here, we tested whether a susceptibility to parasitism is one such tradeoff in the mutualism between legumes and nitrogen-fixing bacteria (rhizobia). We performed two greenhouse experiments with the legume Medicago truncatula. In the first, we inoculated each plant with the rhizobia Ensifer meliloti and with...

Registration Year

  • 2018
    76

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    76

Affiliations

  • University of Toronto
    76
  • University of British Columbia
    8
  • University of Washington
    5
  • University of Minnesota
    5
  • Fisheries and Oceans Canada
    4
  • Duke University
    3
  • University of Queensland
    3
  • University of California, San Diego
    3
  • Carleton University
    3
  • Colorado State University
    3