76 Works

Data from: Faunal overview of the Mud Hill locality from the early Permian Vale Formation of Taylor County, Texas

Bryan M. Gee, Steve J. Rosscoe, Diane Scott, Judie Ostlien & Robert R. Reisz
The Texas red beds represent one of the richest series of early Permian deposits in the world. In particular, the Clear Fork Group has produced a diverse assemblage of temnospondyls, early reptiles, and synapsids. However, most of this material has been sourced from the oldest member, the Arroyo Formation, and the understanding of the paleoecosystem of the younger Vale and Choza Formations is less well-resolved. Here we present a new Vale locality, the first vertebrate-bearing...

Data from: A new small captorhinid reptile from the lower Permian of Oklahoma and resource partitioning among small captorhinids in the Richards Spur fauna

Sean P. Modesto, Diane Scott & Robert R. Reisz
Two partial reptile skulls and six dentigerous fragments from the lower Permian Richards Spur locality of Oklahoma represent a new genus and species of small captorhinid reptile. Labidosauriscus richardi gen. et sp. nov. is distinguished from other captorhinids in the reduction of the height of the ridges forming the characteristic net-like, ridge-and-pit cranial sculpturing of captorhinids, and the superimposition of a system of finer pits and furrows over the primary ridge-and-pit cranial ornamentation. Labidosauriscus richardi...

Data from: Thermal niche evolution across replicated Anolis lizard adaptive radiations

Alex R. Gunderson, D. Luke Mahler & Manuel Leal
Elucidating how ecological and evolutionary mechanisms interact to produce and maintain biodiversity is a fundamental problem in evolutionary ecology. We investigate this issue by focusing on how physiological evolution affects performance and species coexistence along the thermal niche axis in replicated radiations of Anolis lizards, groups best known for resource partitioning based on morphological divergence. We find repeated divergence in thermal physiology within these radiations, and that this divergence significantly affects performance within natural thermal...

Data from: Habitat connectivity is determined by the scale of habitat loss and dispersal strategy

Allan H. Edelsparre, Ashif Shahid & Mark J. Fitzpatrick
Understanding factors that ameliorate the impact of habitat loss is a major focus of conservation research. One key factor influencing species persistence and evolution is the ability to disperse across increasingly patchy landscapes. Here we ask whether interpatch distance (a proxy for habitat loss) and dispersal strategy can interact to form thresholds where connectivity breaks down. We assayed dispersal across a range of interpatch distances in fruit flies carrying allelic variants of a gene known...

Data from: The UBR-1 ubiquitin ligase regulates glutamate metabolism to generate coordinated motor pattern in Caenorhabditis elegans

Jysothna Chitturi, Wesley Hung, Anas M. Abdel Rahman, Min Wu, Maria A. Lim, John Calarco, Rene Baran, Xun Huang, James W. Dennis, Mei Zhen & Jyothsna Chitturi
UBR1 is an E3 ubiquitin ligase best known for its ability to target protein degradation by the N-end rule. The physiological functions of UBR family proteins, however, remain not fully understood. We found that the functional loss of C. elegans UBR-1 leads to synchronized motor neuron activation, preventing body bending when animals generate reversal movements. This motor deficit is rescued by removing GOT-1, a transaminase that converts aspartate to glutamate. Both UBR-1 and GOT-1 are...

Data from: The global geography of human subsistence

Michael C. Gavin, Patrick H. Kavanagh, Hannah J. Haynie, Claire Bowern, Carol R. Ember, Russell D. Gray, Fiona M. Jordan, Kathryn R. Kirby, Geoff Kushnick, Bobbi S. Low, Bruno Vilela & Carlos A. Botero
How humans obtain food has dramatically reshaped ecosystems and altered both the trajectory of human history and the characteristics of human societies. Our species’ subsistence varies widely, from predominantly foraging strategies, to plant-based agriculture and animal husbandry. The extent to which environmental, social, and historical factors have driven such variation is currently unclear. Prior attempts to resolve long-standing debates on this topic have been hampered by an over-reliance on narrative arguments, small and geographically-narrow samples,...

Data from: Microglia responses to pro-inflammatory stimuli (LPS, IFNγ+TNFα) and reprogramming by resolving cytokines (IL-4, IL-10)

Starlee Lively & Lyanne C. Schlichter
Microglia respond to CNS injuries and diseases with complex reactions, often called “activation.” A pro-inflammatory phenotype (also called classical or M1 activation) lies at one extreme of the reactivity spectrum. There were several motivations for this study. First, bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, LPS) is the most commonly used pro-inflammatory stimulus for microglia, both in vitro and in vivo; however, pro-inflammatory cytokines (e.g., IFNγ, TNFα) rather than LPS will be encountered with sterile CNS damage and disease....

Data from: Persistence of resident and transplanted genotypes of the undomesticated yeast, Saccharomyces paradoxus in forest soil

James B. Anderson, Dahlia Kasimer, Wenjing Xia, Nicolas C. H. Schröder, Patrick Cichowicz, Silvio Lioniello, Rudrakshi Chakrabarti, Eashwar Mohan & Linda M. Kohn
One might expect yeasts in soil to be highly dispersed via water or insects, forming ephemeral, genetically heterogeneous populations subject to competition and environmental stochasticity. Here, we report persistence of genotypes of the yeast Saccharomyces paradoxus in space and time. Within 1 km2 in a mixed hardwood forest on scales from centimeters to tens of meters, we detect persistence over 3 years of native genotypes, identified by SNPs genome-wide, of the wild yeast, Saccharomyces paradoxus...

Data from: Seascape genomics of eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) along the Atlantic coast of Canada.

Simon Bernatchez, Amanda Xuereb, Martin Laporte, Laura Benestan, Royce Steeves, Mark Laflamme, Louis Bernatchez & Martin Mallet
Interactions between environmental factors and complex life-history characteristics of marine organisms produce the genetic diversity and structure observed within species. Our main goal was to test for genetic differentiation among eastern oyster populations from the coastal region of Canadian Maritimes against expected genetic homogeneity caused by historical events, taking into account spatial and environmental (temperature, salinity, turbidity) variation. This was achieved by genotyping 486 individuals originating from 13 locations using RADSeq. A total of 11...

Data from: Asymmetric oceanographic processes mediate connectivity and population genetic structure as revealed by RADseq in a highly dispersive marine invertebrate (Parastichopus californicus)

Amanda Xuereb, Laura Benestan, Eric Normandeau, Rémi M. Daigle, Janelle M.R. Curtis, Louis Bernatchez, Marie-Josée Fortin & Janelle M. R. Curtis
Marine populations are typically characterized by weak genetic differentiation due to the potential for long-distance dispersal favouring high levels of gene flow. However, strong directional advection of water masses or retentive hydrodynamic forces can influence the degree of genetic exchange among marine populations. To determine the oceanographic drivers of genetic structure in a highly dispersive marine invertebrate, the giant California sea cucumber (Parastichopus californicus), we first tested for the presence of genetic discontinuities along the...

Data from: Hepatocyte-specific deletion of TIPARP, a negative regulator of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor, is sufficient to increase sensitivity to dioxin-induced wasting syndrome

David Hutin, Laura Tamblyn, Alvin Gomez, Giulia Grimaldi, Helen Soelding, Tiffany Cho, Shaimaa Ahmed, Christin Lucas, Chakravarthi Kanduri, Denis M. Grant, Jason Matthews & Helen Soedling
The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) mediates the toxic effects of dioxin (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin; TCDD), which include thymic atrophy, steatohepatitis, and a lethal wasting syndrome in laboratory rodents. Although the mechanisms of dioxin toxicity remain unknown, AHR signaling in hepatocytes is necessary for dioxin-induced liver toxicity. We previously reported that loss of TCDD-inducible poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (TIPARP/PARP7/ARTD14), an AHR target gene and mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase, increases the sensitivity of mice to dioxin-induced toxicities. To test the hypothesis that TIPARP is...

Data from: Spatial heterogeneity in species composition constrains plant community responses to herbivory and fertilization

Dorothee Hodapp, Elizabeth T. Borer, W. Stanley Harpole, Eric M. Lind, Eric W. Seabloom, Peter B. Adler, Juan Alberti, Carlos A. Arnillas, Jonathan D. Bakker, Lori Biederman, Marc Cadotte, Elsa E. Cleland, Scott Collins, Philip A. Fay, Jennifer Firn, Nicole Hagenah, Yann Hautier, Oscar Iribarne, Johannes M.H. Knops, Rebecca L. McCulley, Andrew MacDougall, Joslin L. Moore, John W. Morgan, Brent Mortensen, Kimberly J. La Pierre … & Johannes M. H. Knops
Environmental change can result in substantial shifts in community composition. The associated immigration and extinction events are likely constrained by the spatial distribution of species. Still, studies on environmental change typically quantify biotic responses at single spatial (time series within a single plot) or temporal (spatial beta-diversity at single time points) scales, ignoring their potential interdependence. Here, we use data from a global network of grassland experiments to determine how turnover responses to two major...

Data from: Asynchrony between ant seed dispersal activity and fruit dehiscence of myrmecochorous plants

Susan C. C. Gordon, Shannon A. Meadley-Dunphy, Kirsten M. Prior & Megan E. Frederickson
Phenological mismatch has received attention in plant-pollinator interactions, but less so in seed dispersal mutualisms. We investigated whether the seasonal availability of myrmecochorous seeds is well matched to the seasonal activity patterns of seed-dispersing ants. Methods We compared seasonal timing of seed removal by a keystone seed-dispersing ant, Aphaenogaster rudis, and fruit dehiscence of several species of plants whose seeds it disperses in a deciduous forest in southern Ontario, Canada. We examined the timing of...

Data from: The spatial ecology of sex ratios in a dioecious plant: relations between ramet and genet sex ratios

David Timerman, Spencer C. H. Barrett & Spencer C.H. Barrett
1. In clonal dioecious plants, the frequency and spatial distribution of flowering ramets contains information on the underlying genet sex ratio. These measures can also provide insight on potential ecological mechanisms causing variation and bias in sex ratios among populations. 2. We used a novel likelihood-based approach and spatial clustering model to estimate the genet sex ratios from flowering ramet data collected from 32 populations of dioecious Thalictrum pubescens, a clonal species from eastern N....

Data from: Genetic conflict with a parasitic nematode disrupts the legume-rhizobia mutualism

Corlett W. Wood, Bonnie L. Pilkington, Priya Vaidya, Caroline Biel & John R. Stinchcombe
Genetic variation for partner quality in mutualisms is an evolutionary paradox. One possible resolution to this puzzle is that there is a tradeoff between partner quality and other fitness-related traits. Here, we tested whether a susceptibility to parasitism is one such tradeoff in the mutualism between legumes and nitrogen-fixing bacteria (rhizobia). We performed two greenhouse experiments with the legume Medicago truncatula. In the first, we inoculated each plant with the rhizobia Ensifer meliloti and with...

Data from: A note on measuring natural selection on principal component scores

Veronica K. Chong, Hannah F. Fung & John R. Stinchcombe
Measuring natural selection through the use of multiple regression has transformed our understanding of selection, although the methods used remain sensitive to the effects of multicollinearity due to highly correlated traits. While measuring selection on principal component scores is an apparent solution to this challenge, this approach has been heavily criticized due to difficulties in interpretation and relating PC axes back to the original traits. We describe and illustrate how to transform selection gradients for...

Data from: Disturbance reverses classic biodiversity predictions in river-like landscapes

Eric Harvey, Isabelle Gounand, Emanuel A. Fronhofer & Florian Altermatt
Global analyses of biodiversity consistently reveal recurrent patterns of species distributions worldwide. However, unveiling the specific mechanisms behind those patterns remains logistically challenging, yet necessary for reliable biodiversity forecasts. Here, we combine theory and experiments to investigate the processes underlying spatial biodiversity patterns in dendritic, river-like landscapes, iconic examples of highly threatened ecosystems. We used geometric scaling properties, common to all rivers, to show that the distribution of biodiversity in these landscapes fundamentally depends on...

Data from: Putatively adaptive genetic variation in the giant California sea cucumber (Parastichopus californicus) as revealed by environmental association analysis of restriction‐site associated DNA sequencing data

Amanda Xuereb, Christopher M. Kimber, Janelle M.R. Curtis, Louis Bernatchez, Marie-Josée Fortin & Janelle M. R. Curtis
Understanding the spatial scale of local adaptation and the factors associated with adaptive diversity are important objectives for ecology and evolutionary biology, and have significant implications for effective conservation and management of wild populations and natural resources. In this study, we used an environmental association analysis (EAA) to identify important bioclimatic variables correlated with putatively adaptive genetic variation in a benthic marine invertebrate – the giant California sea cucumber (Parastichopus californicus) – spanning coastal British...

Data from: In that vein: inflated wing veins contribute to butterfly hearing

Penghui Sun, Natasha Mhatre, Andrew C. Mason & Jayne E. Yack
Insects have evolved a diversity of hearing organs specialized to detect sounds critical for survival. We report on a unique structure on butterfly wings that enhances hearing. The Satyrini are a diverse group of butterflies occurring throughout the world. One of their distinguishing features is a conspicuous swelling of their forewing vein, but the functional significance of this structure is unknown. Here we show that wing vein inflations function in hearing. Using the Common Wood-Nymph,...

Data from: The strength of sex-specific selection in the wild

Amardeep Singh & David Punzalan
Anisogamy predisposes the sexes to very different patterns of selection on shared traits. Selective differences between the sexes may manifest as changes in the direction or strength of selection acting on shared phenotypes. Although previous studies have found evidence for widespread differences in the direction of selection between the sexes, surprisingly little is known regarding potential differences in the magnitude of selection and whether such differences might be confined to specific components of fitness. We...

Data from: Revisiting protein aggregation as pathogenic in sporadic Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s diseases

Alberto J. Espay, Joaquin A. Vizcarra, Luca Marsili, Anthony E. Lang, David K. Simon, Aristide Merola, Keith A. Josephs, Alfonso Fasano, Francesca Morgante, Rodolfo Savica, J. Timothy Greenamyre, Franca Cambi, Tritia R. Yamasaki, Caroline M. Tanner, Ziv Gan-Or, Irene Litvan, Ignacio F. Mata, Cyrus P. Zabetian, Patrik Brundin, Hubert H. Fernandez, David G. Standaert, Marcelo A. Kauffman, Michael A. Schwarzschild, S. Pablo Sardi, Todd Sherer … & James B. Leverenz
The gold standard for a definitive diagnosis of Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the pathologic finding of aggregated alpha-synuclein into Lewy bodies and for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) aggregated amyloid into plaques and hyperphosphorylated tau into tangles. Implicit in this clinico-pathologic-based nosology is the assumption that pathological protein aggregation at autopsy reflect pathogenesis at disease onset. While these aggregates may in exceptional cases be on a causal pathway in humans (e.g., aggregated alpha-synuclein in SNCA gene multiplication...

Data from: Clonal evolution and genome stability in a 2,500-year-old fungal individual

James B. Anderson, Johann N. Bruhn, Dahlia Kasimer, Hao Wang, Nicolas Rodrigue & Myron L. Smith
Individuals of the basidiomycete fungus Armillaria are well-known for their ability to spread from woody substrate to substrate on the forest floor through the growth of rhizomoprhs. Here we made 248 collections of A. gallica in one locality in Michigan’s Upper Peninsula. To identify individuals, we genotyped collections with molecular markers and somatic compatibility testing. We found several different individuals in proximity to one another, but one genetic individual stood out as exceptionally large, covering...

Data from: Spatially structured statistical network models for landscape genetics

Erin E. Peterson, Ephraim M. Hanks, Mevin B. Hooten, Jay M. Ver Hoef & Marie-Josée Fortin
A basic understanding of how the landscape impedes, or creates resistance to, the dispersal of organisms and hence gene flow is paramount for successful conservation science and management. Spatially structured ecological networks are often used to represent spatial landscape-genetic relationships, where nodes represent individuals or populations and resistance to movement is represented using non-binary edge weights. Weights are typically assigned or estimated by the user, rather than observed, and validating such weights is challenging. We...

Data from: Life at the top: lake ecotype influences the foraging patterns, metabolic costs and life history of an apex fish predator

Liset Cruz Font, Brian J. Shuter, Paul J. Blanchfield, C. Ken Minns & Michael D. Rennie
1.We used acoustic telemetry and acceleration sensors to compare population-specific measures of the metabolic costs of an apex fish predator living in four separate lakes. We chose our study species and populations to provide a strong test of recent theoretical predictions that optimal foraging by an apex fish predator in a typical aquatic environment would be consistent with feeding to satiation rather than continuous feeding. We chose four populations where the primary prey type differed...

Data from: Leaf nutrients, not specific leaf area, are consistent indicators of elevated nutrient inputs

Jennifer Firn, James M. McGree, Eric Harvey, Habacuc Flores-Moreno, Martin Schütz, Yvonne M. Buckley, Elizabeth T. Borer, Eric W. Seabloom, Kimberly J. La Pierre, Andrew M. MacDougall, Suzanne M. Prober, Carly J. Stevens, Lauren L. Sullivan, Erica Porter, Emma Ladouceur, Charlotte Allen, Karine H. Moromizato, John W. Morgan, W. Stanley Harpole, Yann Hautier, Nico Eisenhauer, Justin P. Wright, Peter B. Adler, Carlos Alberto Arnillas, Jonathan D. Bakker … & Anita C. Risch
Leaf traits are frequently measured in ecology to provide a ‘common currency’ for predicting how anthropogenic pressures impact ecosystem function. Here, we test whether leaf traits consistently respond to experimental treatments across 27 globally distributed grassland sites across 4 continents. We find that specific leaf area (leaf area per unit mass)—a commonly measured morphological trait inferring shifts between plant growth strategies—did not respond to up to four years of soil nutrient additions. Leaf nitrogen, phosphorus...

Registration Year

  • 2018
    76

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    76

Affiliations

  • University of Toronto
    76
  • University of British Columbia
    8
  • University of Washington
    5
  • University of Minnesota
    5
  • Fisheries and Oceans Canada
    4
  • Duke University
    3
  • University of Queensland
    3
  • University of California, San Diego
    3
  • Carleton University
    3
  • Colorado State University
    3