The reproductive interests of females and males often diverge in terms of the number of mating partners, an individual’s phenotype, origin, genes and parental investment. This conflict may lead to a variety of sex-specific adaptations and also affect mate choice in both sexes. We conducted an experiment with the bush-cricket Pholidoptera griseoaptera (Orthoptera, Tettigoniidae), a species in which females receive direct nutritional benefits during mating. Mated individuals could be assigned due to the genotype of...
Data from: Genetic diversity in widespread species is not congruent with species richness in alpine plant communitiesPierre Taberlet, Niklaus E. Zimmermann, Thorsten Englisch, Andreas Tribsch, Rolf Holderegger, Nadir Alvarez, Harald Niklfeld, Zbigniew Mirek, Atte Moilanen, Wolfgang Ahlmer, Paolo Ajmone Marsan, Enzo Bona, Maurizio Bovio, Philippe Choler, Elżbieta Cieślak, Gheorghe Coldea, Licia Colli, Vasile Cristea, Jean-Pierre Dalmas, Božo Frajman, Luc Garraud, Myriam Gaudeul, Ludovic Gielly, Walter Gutermann, Nejc Jogan … & Karol Marhold
The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) aims at the conservation of all three levels of biodiversity, i.e. ecosystems, species and genes. Genetic diversity represents evolutionary potential and is important for ecosystem functioning. Unfortunately, genetic diversity in natural populations is hardly considered in conservation strategies because it is difficult to measure and has been hypothesized to co-vary with species richness. This means that species richness is taken as a surrogate of genetic diversity in conservation planning,...
Data from: Inner ear morphology of diadectomorphs and seymouriamorphs (Tetrapoda) uncovered by high‐resolution x‐ray microcomputed tomography, and the origin of the amniote crown groupJozef Klembara, Miroslav Hain, Marcello Ruta, David S. Berman, Stephanie E. Pierce & Amy C. Henrici
The origin of amniotes was a key event in vertebrate evolution, enabling tetrapods to break their ties with water and invade terrestrial environments. Two pivotal clades of early tetrapods, the diadectomorphs and the seymouriamorphs, have played an unsurpassed role in debates about the ancestry of amniotes for over a century, but their skeletal morphology has provided conflicting evidence for their affinities. Using high-resolution X-ray microcomputed tomography, we reveal the three-dimensional architecture of the well preserved...
Data from: Unifying latitudinal gradients in range size and richness across marine and terrestrial systemsAdam Tomasovych, Jonathan D. Kennedy, Tristan J. Betzner, Nicole Bitler Kuehnle, Stewart Edie, Sora Kim, K. Supriya, Alexander E. White, Carsten Rahbek, Shan Huang, Trevor D. Price & David Jablonski
Many marine and terrestrial clades show similar latitudinal gradients in species richness, but opposite gradients in range size—on land, ranges are the smallest in the tropics, whereas in the sea, ranges are the largest in the tropics. Therefore, richness gradients in marine and terrestrial systems do not arise from a shared latitudinal arrangement of species range sizes. Comparing terrestrial birds and marine bivalves, we find that gradients in range size are concordant at the level...
Data from: Onshore-offshore gradient in metacommunity turnover emerges only over macroevolutionary time scalesAdam Tomašových, Stefano Dominici, Martin Zuschin & Didier Merle
Invertebrate lineages tend to originate and become extinct at a higher rate in onshore than in offshore habitats over long temporal durations (more than 10 Myr), but it remains unclear whether this pattern scales down to durations of stages (less than 5 Myr) or even sequences (less than 0.5 Myr). We assess whether onshore–offshore gradients in long-term turnover between the tropical Eocene and the warm-temperate Plio-Pleistocene can be extrapolated from gradients in short-term turnover, using...
Anatomy of the neural endocranium and stapes of Diadectes absitus (Diadectomorpha) from the early Permian of Germany based on the high‐resolution X‐ray microcomputed tomographyJozef Klembara, Miroslav Hain, Andrej Čerňanský, David S Berman & Amy C. Henrici
A detailed anatomy of the braincase and stapes of the subadult specimen of Diadectes absitus from early Permian sediments of Germany based on the high-resolution X-ray microcomputed tomography are described for the first time. In contrast to previous studies of Diadectes, the bones of the braincase (opisthotic, prootic, supraoccipital, basioccipital, exoccipital, basisphenoid, sphenethmoid), and parasphenoid of D. absitus are not co-ossified, but suturally defined. This has allowed for a reconstruction of a complete braincase with...
1. The role of generalist predators in pest control has been neglected because generalists are not able to track pest populations. Generalist predators are suggested to be important in spring before specialist predators become active. 2. Here, we show that some generalist predators are important even during winter, when the majority of arthropod pests and their enemies are dormant. We quantified the role of winter-active generalist predators on the suppression of pear psylla during winter...
The soft-sediment seafloor of the open continental shelf is among the least-known biomes on Earth, despite its high diversity and importance to fisheries and biogeochemical cycling. Abundant dead shells of epifaunal suspension-feeding terebratulid brachiopods (Laqueus) and scallops on the now-muddy mainland continental shelf of southern California reveal the recent, previously unsuspected extirpation of an extensive offshore shell-gravel ecosystem, evidently driven by anthropogenic siltation. Living populations of attached epifauna, which formerly existed in a middle- and...
Scale dependence of drilling predation in the Holocene of the northern Adriatic Sea across benthic habitats and nutrient regimesMartin Zuschin, Rafal Nawrot, Markus Dengg, Ivo Gallmetzer, Alexandra Haselmair, Sandra Wurzer & Adam Tomašových
Predation has strongly shaped past and modern marine ecosystems, but the scale dependency of patterns in drilling predation, the most widely used proxy for predator-prey interactions in the fossil record, is a matter of debate. To assess the effects of spatial and taxonomic scale on temporal trends in the drilling frequencies (DF), we analyzed Holocene molluscan assemblages of different benthic habitats and nutrient regimes from the northern Adriatic shelf in a sequence stratigraphic context. Although...
Aim: Alpine habitats support unique biodiversity confined to high-elevation areas in the current interglacial. Plant diversity in these habitats responds to area, environment, connectivity and isolation, yet these factors have been rarely evaluated in concert. Here we investigate major determinants of regional species pools in alpine grasslands, and the responses of their constituent species groups. Location: European mountains below 50ºN. Time Period: Between 1928 and 2019. Major Taxa Studied: Vascular plants. Methods: We compiled species...
Slovak Academy of Sciences10
University of Vienna4
University of Chicago2
Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research2
Carnegie Museum of Natural History2
University of Oviedo1
Technical University of Zvolen1