14 Works

Data from: Changes in soil pH and their dependence on the species of cereals and strategies for sustainable agriculture

Paweł Sobczak & Wioletta Żukiewicz-Sobczak
The acidity of the environment is one of the key elements determining proper conditions for crop cultivation. Inappropriate environmental conditions may contribute to numerous changes in plant raw materials. New strategies introduced in agriculture bring with them some uncertainties associated with the adaptation of plants to the soil. Currently, in the EU market, a gradual replacement of conventional strategies in favour of organic ones is observed. The change in fertilization strategy may lead to the...

Data from: Structural and compositional dynamics of strictly protected woodland communities with silvicultural implications, using Białowieża Forest as an example

Bogdan Brzeziecki, Kamil Bielak, Leszek Bolibok, Stanisław Drozdowski, Jacek Zajączkowski & Henryk Żybura
• Key message: Long-term strict protection of woodland communities may lead to their compositional simplification and homogenisation. • Context: In the past, it has often been postulated that structures and processes typical for natural forests should be mimicked by silvicultural activities in the case of managed tree stands. • Aims: To determine which features and traits of natural woodland communities (alongside typical old-growth attributes) should be imitated in managed forests, as well as which should...

Data from: An avian equivalent of selective abortion: post-laying clutch reduction under resource limitation

Janusz Kloskowski
Selective elimination of excess offspring with poor fitness prospects may occur prenatally (selective abortion) or postnatally (brood reduction). Postnatal reduction is the dominant strategy, presumably because surplus progeny serves as a hedge against environmental and developmental uncertainty. In birds, its main proximate mechanism is asynchronous hatching, generating within-brood competitive asymmetry. Here, clutch-size reduction via last-egg abandonment was investigated in the asynchronously hatching red-necked grebe in a study area comprising two human-managed poorly predictable habitats with...

Data from: Establishing a community-wide DNA barcode library as a new tool for arctic research

H. Wirta, G. Várkonyi, C. Rasmussen, R. Kaartinen, N. M. Schmidt, P. D. N. Hebert, M. Barták, G. Blagoev, H. Disney, S. Ertl, P. Gjelstrup, D. J. Gwiazdowicz, L. Huldén, J. Ilmonen, J. Jakovlev, M. Jaschhof, J. Kahanpää, T. Kankaanpää, P. H. Krogh, R. Labbee, C. Lettner, V. Michelsen, S. A. Nielsen, T. R. Nielsen, L. Paasivirta … & T. Roslin
DNA sequences offer powerful tools for describing the members and interactions of natural communities. In this study, we establish the to-date most comprehensive library of DNA barcodes for a terrestrial site, including all known macroscopic animals and vascular plants of an intensively studied area of the High Arctic, the Zackenberg Valley in Northeast Greenland. To demonstrate its utility, we apply the library to identify nearly 20 000 arthropod individuals from two Malaise traps, each operated...

The expansion wave of an invasive predator leaves declining waterbird populations behind

Marcin Brzeziński, Michał Żmihorski, Marek Nieoczym, Piotr Wilniewczyc & Andrzej Zalewski
Aim: Theory predicts that the evolutionary adaptations of prey to reduce predator pressure often fail in confrontation with non-native predators; thus, their predation usually leads to sharp declines of prey populations. However, over time, prey can develop anti-predator adaptations, reduce predator impact and recover its population. We analyse the numerical response of multiple prey species to the impact of a non-native predator on a large spatiotemporal scale. Location: Poland Methods: Long-term population dynamics of 13...

Data from: Emissions and char quality of flame-curtain \"Kon Tiki\" kilns for farmer-scale charcoal/biochar production

Gerard Cornelissen, Naba Raj Pandit, Paul Taylor, Bishnu Pandit, Magnus Sparrevik & Hans Peter Schmidt
Pyrolysis of organic waste or woody materials yields charcoal, a stable carbonaceous product that can be used for cooking or mixed into soil, in the latter case often termed "biochar". Traditional kiln technologies often used for charcoal production are slow and without treatment of the pyrolysis gases, . This resultings in emissions of gases (mainly methane and carbon monoxide) and aerosols that are both toxic and contributes to greenhouse gas emissions, the most important being...

Data from: Deep sequencing of a candidate region harboring the SOX9 gene for the canine XX disorder of sex development

Joanna Nowacka-Woszuk, Izabela Szczerbal, Hubert Pausch, Sruthi Hundi, Marjo K. Hytönen, Adrian Grzemski, Krzysztof Flisikowski, Hannes Lohi, Marek Switonski & Maciej Szydlowski
A disorder of sex development (DSD) in dogs with female sex chromosomes (78, XX), a lack of the SRY gene and the presence of testes or ovotestes is commonly diagnosed in numerous breeds. The molecular background of DSD is not fully recognized but has been linked to the copy number variation in the region harboring the SOX9 gene. We applied a genome-wide association study and targeted next-generation sequencing techniques to compare DSD and normal female...

Data from: Metabolic rate associates with, but does not generate covariation between, behaviours in western stutter-trilling crickets, Gryllus integer

Indrikis A. Krams, Petri T. Niemelä, Giedrius Trakimas, Ronalds Krams, Gordon M. Burghardt, Tatjana Krama, Aare Kuusik, Marika Mand, Markus J. Rantala, Raivo Mand, Jukka Kekäläinen, Ilkka Sirkka, Severi Luoto, Raine Kortet & Indrikis Krams
The causes and consequences of among-individual variation and covariation in behaviours are of substantial interest to behavioural ecology, but the proximate mechanisms underpinning this (co)variation are still unclear. Previous research suggests metabolic rate as a potential proximate mechanism to explain behavioural covariation. We measured the resting metabolic rate (RMR), boldness and exploration in western stutter-trilling crickets, Gryllus integer, selected differentially for short and fast development over two generations. After applying mixed-effects models to reveal the...

Data from: EuMIXFOR empirical forest mensuration and ring width data from pure and mixed stands of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) through Europe

Michael Heym, Ricardo Ruíz-Peinado, Miren Del Río, Kamil Bielak, David I. Forrester, Gerald Dirnberger, Ignacio Barbeito, Gediminas Brazaitis, Indrė Ruškytė, Lluís Coll, Marek Fabrika, Lars Drössler, Magnus Löf, Hubert Sterba, Václav Hurt, Viktor Kurylak, Fabio Lombardi, Dejan Stojanović, Jan Den Ouden, Renzo Motta, Maciej Pach, Jerzy Skrzyszewski, Quentin Ponette, Géraud De Streel, Vit Sramek … & Hans Pretzsch
This data set provides unique empirical data from triplets of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) across Europe. Dendrometric variables are provided for 32 triplets, 96 plots, 7555 trees and 4695 core samples. These data contribute to our understanding of mixed stand dynamics.

Data from: Villages and their old farmsteads are hot spots of bird diversity in agricultural landscapes

Zuzanna M. Rosin, Piotr Skórka, Tomas Pärt, Michał Żmihorski, Anna Ekner-Grzyb, Zbigniew Kwieciński & Piotr Tryjanowski
To counteract the decline of farmland biodiversity in Europe, it is crucial to recognize habitats that are hot spots. Old rural settlements (e.g. villages) may be such important habitats, although these presumably biodiversity-rich habitats have received little attention. Socio-economic changes in central-eastern Europe since 1989 mean that old homesteads and farmsteads are being replaced by new ones. We investigated bird species composition, richness and abundance at three spatial scales (single rural property, village and landscape)...

Data from: Natural and anthropogenic influences on the population structure of white-tailed eagles in the Carpathian Basin and Central Europe

Edina Nemesházi, Szilvia Kövér, Frank E. Zachos, Zoltán Horváth, Gábor Tihanyi, Attila Mórocz, Tibor Mikuska, István Hám, Ivan Literák, Suvi Ponnikas, Tadeusz Mizera & Krisztián Szabó
European populations of the white-tailed eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) suffered a drastic decline during the 20th century. In many countries, only a few dozen breeding pairs survived or the species disappeared completely. By today, the populations have recovered, naturally or through restocking (e.g. in Scotland or the Czech Republic). In the Carpathian Basin, which is now a stronghold in southern Europe for the species in the southern part of the distribution range with more than 500...

Data from: Thermal tolerance and the importance of microhabitats for Andean frogs in the context of land-use and climate change

Pamela González-Del-Pliego, Brett Scheffers, Robert Freckleton, Edmund Basham, Miguel Araújo, Andrés Acosta-Galvis, Claudia Medina Uribe, Torbjørn Haugaasen & David Edwards
1. Global warming is having impacts across the Tree of Life. Understanding species’ physiological sensitivity to temperature change and how they relate to local temperature variation in their habitats is crucial to determining vulnerability to global warming. 2. We ask how species’ vulnerability varies across habitats and elevations, and how climatically-buffered microhabitats can contribute to reduce their vulnerability. 3. We measured thermal sensitivity (critical thermal maximum – CTmax) of 14 species of Pristimantis frogs inhabiting...

Data from: Contagious fear: escape behaviour increases with flock size in European gregarious birds

Federico Morelli, Yanina Benedetti, Mario Diaz, Tomas Grim, Juan Ibáñez-Álamo, Jukka Jokimäki, Marja-Liisa Kaisanlahti-Jokimäki, Kunter Tätte, Gábor Markó, Yiting Jiang, Piotr Tryjanowski & Anders P. Møller
Flight initiation distance (FID), the distance at which individuals take flight when approached by a potential (human) predator, is a tool for understanding predator-prey interactions. Among the factors affecting FID, tests of effects of group size (i.e. number of potential prey) on FID have yielded contrasting results. Group size or flock size could either affect FID negatively (i.e. the dilution effect caused by the presence of many individuals) or positively (i.e. increased vigilance due to...

Data from: Multispecies invasion reduces the negative impact of single alien plant species on native flora

Magdalena Lenda, Piotr Skórka, Johannes Knops, Michał Żmihorski, Renata Gaj, Dawid Moroń, Michal Woyciechowski & Piotr Tryjanowski
Aim: In the current Anthropocene, many ecosystems are being simultaneously invaded by multiple alien species. Some of these invasive species become more dominant and have greater environmental impacts than others. If two potentially dominant species invade the same area, the combined impact has been reported to be either (1) domination by one species, i.e., the competitive dominance of one invader, or (2) invasion meltdown, where the combined impact is much greater, i.e., a synergistic effect....

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