19 Works

Data from: Ups and downs of belemnite diversity in the Early Jurassic of Western Tethys

Pascal Neige, Pascal Neige, Robert Weis & Emmanuel Fara
Although belemnites form a major clade of extinct cephalopods, the early stage of their diversification remains poorly known in time and space. Here we investigate the first diversification episodes of belemnites (order Belemnitida) using a new species-level database encompassing the Hettangian-Aalenian interval (Early Jurassic-earliest Middle Jurassic) and covering the Western Tethys. Rarefied richness shows a four-fold increase from the Planorbis chronozone to the Ibex chronozone, a strong decrease between the Margaritatus and Spinatum chronozones, followed...

Data from: Trepostomate bryozoans from the upper Katian (Upper Ordovician) of Morocco: gigantism in high latitude Gondwana platforms

Andrea Jiménez-Sánchez, Enmanuelle Vennin & Enrique Villas
A study of the Upper Ordovician trepostomate bryozoans belonging to the families Amplexoporidae and Monticuliporidae, from the eastern Anti-Atlas of Morocco, is presented here. They occur in the marly to fine-grained limestone, intermediate unit of the Khabt-el-Hajar Formation, late Katian in age, representing outer-ramp depositional environments. They inhabited the highest paleolatitude known for a bryozoan fauna during the Ordovician, estimated at more than 65–70ºS. A total of 11 species of the genera Anaphragma, Atactoporella, Homotrypa,...

Enforced monoandry and female investment into reproduction

Gabriele Sorci, Loïc Lesobre, Pauline Vuarin, Gwènaëlle Levêque, Michel Saint Jalme & Frédéric Lacroix
While uncovering the costs and benefits of polyandry has attracted considerable attention, assessing the net effect of sexual selection on population fitness requires the experimental manipulation of female mating over generations, which is usually only achievable in laboratory populations of arthropods. However, knowing if sexual selection improves or impairs the expression of life history traits is key for the management of captive populations of endangered species, which are mostly long-lived birds and mammals. It might...

Immunological indices and parasites in blackbirds

Jérôme Moreau
1. Despite the intensive use of immune indices in immunoecology, whether to interpret the results of immune indices in terms of actual immune competence (i.e., ability to control and clear parasite infections as indicated by high values of immune indices associated with low parasite loads) or current immune activation (pathogenic infection being associated with high parasite load and high values of immune indices) is still an open question. Most studies to date have produced contrasting...

Data from: Recovery of benthic marine communities from the end-Permian mass extinction at the low-latitudes of Eastern Panthalassa

Richard Hofmann, Michael Hautmann, Arnaud Brayard, Alexander Nützel, Kevin Bylund, James Jenks, Emmanuelle Vennin, Nicolas Olivier & Hugo Bucher
Based on the quantitative community analysis using species-level identifications, we track the restoration of benthic ecosystems after the end-Permian mass extinction throughout the Lower Triassic of the western USA. New data on the palaeoecology of the Thaynes Group and Sinbad Formation are provided, which fill a gap between the recently studied palaeoecology of the Griesbachian–Dienerian Dinwoody Formation and the Spathian Virgin Formation. In the Sinbad Formation and Thaynes Group, 17 species (12 genera) of bivalves,...

Data from: Pairing context determines condition-dependence of song rate in a monogamous passerine bird

Morgan David, Yannick Auclair, Sasha R. X. Dall & Frank Cézilly
Condition-dependence of male ornaments is thought to provide honest signals on which females can base their sexual choice for genetic quality. Recent studies show that condition-dependence patterns can vary within populations. Although long-term association is thought to promote honest signalling, no study has explored the influence of pairing context on the condition-dependence of male ornaments. In this study, we assessed the influence of natural variation in body condition on song rate in zebra finches (Taeniopygia...

Data from: The legacy of a vanished sea: a high level of diversification within a European freshwater amphipod species complex driven by 15 My of Paratethys regression

Tomasz Mamos, Remi Wattier, Artur Burzyński & Michał Grabowski
The formation of continental Europe in the Neogene was due to the regression of the Tethys Ocean and of the Paratethys Sea. The dynamic geology of the area and repetitious transitions between marine and freshwater conditions presented opportunities for the colonization of newly emerging hydrological networks and diversification of aquatic biota. Implementing mitochondrial and nuclear markers in conjunction with a large-scale sampling strategy, we investigated the impact of this spatiotemporal framework on the evolutionary history...

Data on paternal age and sperm production of the progeny

Gabriele Sorci, Pauline Vuarin, Loïc Lesobre, Gwènaëlle Levêque, Michel Saint Jalme, Frédéric Lacroix & Yves Hingrat
Parental age has profound consequences for offspring’s phenotype. However, whether patrilineal age affects offspring sperm production is unknown, despite the importance of sperm production for male reproductive success in species facing post-copulatory sexual selection. Using a longitudinal dataset on ejaculate attributes of the houbara bustard, we showed that offspring sired by old fathers had different age-dependent trajectories of sperm production compared to offspring sired by young fathers. Specifically, they produced less sperm (-48%) in their...

Data from: The cranium of Proviverra typica (Mammalia, Hyaenodonta) and its impact on hyaenodont phylogeny and endocranial evolution

Morgane Dubied, Floréal Solé & Bastien Mennecart
We describe the first endocast reconstruction of a hyaenodont mammal based on X‐ray microtomography. The endocast belongs to the type material of the European hyaenodont Proviverra typica. We performed phylogenetic analysis to contextualize the evolution of endocranial size and complexity in Hyaenodonta. We added several European hyaenodonts and modified several codings of the most recent character–taxon matrix established to question the relationships within Hyaenodonta. Including these new species in a phylogenetic analysis reveals a new...

Data from: Trans-generational immune priming protects the eggs only against gram-positive bacteria in the mealworm beetle

Aurore Dubuffet, Caroline Zanchi, Gwendoline Boutet, Jérôme Moreau, Yannick Moret & Maria Teixeira
In many vertebrates and invertebrates, offspring whose mothers have been exposed to pathogens can exhibit increased levels of immune activity and/or increased survival to infection. Such phenomena, called “Trans-generational immune priming” (TGIP) are expected to provide immune protection to the offspring. As the offspring and their mother may share the same environment, and consequently similar microbial threats, we expect the immune molecules present in the progeny to be specific to the microbes that immune challenged...

Terrestrial palaeo-environmental proxy data of the Upper Pliensbachian, Mochras Borehole sediments, deposited in the Cardigan Bay Basin, Wales

Teuntje Hollaar
Terrestrial palaeo-environmental proxy data has been collected to examine orbital changes in wildfire activity in the Early Jurassic of the Mochras Borehole, Cardigan Bay Basin, Wales. To do this a high resolution charcoal abundance dataset was created and quantified in two size fractions, microscopic charcoal (10-125 µ) and macroscopic charcoal (>125 µ). To take potential changes in riverine influx and/or organic preservation in account on the charcoal abundance, palynofacies were analysed to document all terrestrial...

Searching for genetic evidence of demographic decline in an arctic seabird: beware of overlapping generations

Emeline Charbonnel, Claire Daguin, Lucille Caradec, Eléonore Moittié, Olivier Gilg, Maria Gavrilo, Hallvard Strom, Mark L Mallory, Grant Gilchrist, R. I. Guy Morrisson, Raphael Leblois, Camille Roux, Jonathan M Yearsley, Glenn Yannic & Thomas Broquet
Genetic data are useful for detecting sudden population declines in species that are difficult to study in the field. Yet this indirect approach has its own drawbacks, including population structure, mutation patterns, and generation overlap. The ivory gull (Pagophila eburnea), a long-lived Arctic seabird, is currently suffering from rapid alteration of its primary habitat (i.e., sea ice), and dramatic climatic events affecting reproduction and recruitment. However, ivory gulls live in remote areas, and it is...

Agroecological farming, flowering phenology and the pollinator-herbivore-parasitoid nexus regulate non-crop plant reproduction

Lucie Monticelli, Audrey Labonté, Mélinda Turpin, Luc Biju-Duval, Emeline Felten, Emilien Laurent, Annick Matejicek, Eric Vieren, Violaine Deytieux, Stéphane Cordeau & Adam Vanbergen
Agroecological farming uses crop and non-crop plant biodiversity to promote beneficial insects supplying pollination and biocontrol services to crops. Non-crop plants (sown or weeds) are integral to supporting these beneficial insect species interactions. How the uplift of biotic complexity by agroecological management (crop diversification, ecological infrastructure) influences mutualistic and antagonistic insect interactions regulating the reproduction of non-crop plants remains less understood. Using a pesticide-free farm-scale (125 ha) agroecological experiment, we tested how the individual reproduction...

Data from: Evidence for an association between post-fledging dispersal and microsatellite multilocus heterozygosity in a large population of greater flamingos

Mark A. F. Gillingham, Frank Cézilly, Rémi Wattier & Arnaud Béchet
Dispersal can be divided into three stages: departure, transience and settlement. Despite the fact that theoretical studies have emphasized the importance of heterozygosity on dispersal strategies, empirical evidence of its effect on different stages of dispersal is lacking. Here, using multi-event capture-mark-recapture models, we show a negative association between microsatellite multilocus heterozygosity (MLH; 10 loci; n = 1023) and post-fledging dispersal propensity for greater flamingos, Phoenicopterus roseus, born in southern France. We propose that the...

Data from: New Trepostomate bryozoans from the upper Ordovician of Morocco and the temperature influence on zooid size

Andrea Jiménez-Sánchez, Enrique Villas & Enmanuelle Vennin
New Upper Ordovician trepostomate bryozoans from the eastern Anti-Atlas of Morocco have been identified. They have been collected from the lower and intermediate units of the Khabt-el-Hajar Formation, late Katian in age, representing, respectively, bryozoan-pelmatozoan meadows with siliciclastic input, degraded by wave activity in a mid-ramp setting, and outer-ramp environments with marly substrates. Ten species of the genera Cyphotrypa, Calloporella, Diplotrypa, Parvohallopora, Dekayia, and Aostipora are described. Of them, three species are new: Cyphotrypa regularis...

Data from: Social learning in a high-risk environment: incomplete disregard for the ‘minnow that cried pike’ results in culturally transmitted neophobia

Adam L. Crane, Anthony G. E. Mathiron & Maud C. O. Ferrari
Many prey species rely on conspecifics to gather information about unknown predation threats, but little is known about the role of varying environmental conditions on the efficacy of social learning. We examined predator-naive minnows that had the opportunity to learn about predators from experienced models that were raised in either a low- or high-risk environment. There were striking differences in behaviour among models; high-risk models showed a weaker response to the predator cue and became...

Data from: Factors associated with leucism in the common blackbird (Turdus merula)

Lucía Izquierdo, Robert L. Thomson, José I. Aguirre, Alazne Díez-Fernández, Bruno Faivre, Jordi Figuerola & Juan Diego Ibáñez-Álamo
Leucism is the total or partial lack of melanins in the skin and associate structures (i.e. hair or feathers). Little is known about the factors influencing this chromatic aberration although some local studies suggest that there is an effect of habitat, age and sex. To test these hypotheses and expand our knowledge on leucism, we carried out a large‐scale study using common blackbirds (Turdus merula) as our model species. Given the poor information available on...

The shellome of the crocus clam Tridacna crocea emphasizes essential components of mollusc shell biomineralization

Takeshi Takeuchi, Manabu Fujie, Ryo Koyanagi, Laurent Plasseraud, Isabelle Ziegler-Devin, Nicolas Brosse, Cédric Broussard, Noriyuki Satoh & Frédéric Marin
Molluscan shells are among the most fascinating research objects because of their diverse morphologies and textures. The formation of these delicate biomineralized structures is a matrix-mediated process. A question that arises is what are the essential components required to build these exoskeletons. In order to understand the molecular mechanisms of molluscan shell formation, it is crucial to identify organic macromolecules in different shells from diverse taxa. In the case of bivalves, however, taxon sampling in...

Eco-evolutionary outsiders: establishing in a distantly related neighbourhood delays and reorganizes nutrient recycling

Xu Pan, Mathieu Santonja, Pierre-Emmanuel Courty, Olaf Butenschön, Matty Berg, Phil Murray, Benjamin Yguel, Daphnée Brulé & Andreas Prinzing
Rapid environmental change forces long-lived plants like trees to immigrate into zones still occupied by phylogenetically distantly related species. Does such phylogenetic isolation (PI) change the trees’ ecosystem functioning such as litter decomposition? We studied oaks (Quercus petraea) of low and high PI, reciprocally transplanting their litters to identify effect of aboveground litter quality and belowground decomposer biota. Across 8 and 14 months we quantified decomposition (mass loss, C-loss and N-loss), decomposer biota (Acari, Collembola,...

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