345 Works

Dataset associated with Long-Term Effects of Fuel Reduction Treatments on Surface Fuel Loading in the Blue Mountains of Oregon

Kat Morici
Dataset contains a 2015 partial re-measurement of the Blue Mountains Fire and Fire Surrogate study. 8 plots were measured from each of the 16 units, selected randomly from all plots in each unit. Species are recorded using USDA plant codes, "UNKN" is unknown species. For fine fuels, 3 Brown's transects were collected per plot. The length varied based on fuel size class. The "hr1/hr10/hr100" columns include the count of fuel particles within each size class...

Phylogenomic data reveal widespred introgression across the range of an alpine and arctic specialist

Erik Funk, Garth Spellman, Kevin Winker, Jack Withrow, Erika Zavaleta, Kristen Ruegg & Scott Taylor
Understanding how gene flow affects population divergence and speciation remains challenging. Differentiating one evolutionary process from another can be difficult because multiple processes can produce similar patterns, and more than one process can occur simultaneously. While simple population models produce predictable results, how these processes balance in taxa with patchy distributions and complicated natural histories is less certain. These types of populations might be highly connected through migration (gene flow), but can experience stronger effects...

Data from: The importance of functional responses among competing predators for avian nesting success

Kristen Ellis, Randy Larsen & Dave Koons
1. The relationship between the rate of predation and prey abundance is an important component of predator-prey dynamics. However, functional responses are less straightforward when multiple predators compete for shared prey. Interactions among competing predators can reduce or enhance effects of predation on prey populations. Because many avian populations experience high rates of nest predation, understanding the role of specific predators on nest mortality will lead to more informed conservation and management strategies which attempt...

Mass ratio effects underlie ecosystem responses to environmental change

Melinda Smith, Sarah Koerner, Alan K. Knapp, Meghan Avolio, Francis Chaves, Elsie Denton, John Dietrich, David Gibson, Jesse Gray, Ava Hoffman, David Hoover, Kimberly La Pierre, Andrea Silletti, Kevin Wilcox, Qiang Yu & John Blair
1. Random species loss has been shown experimentally to reduce ecosystem function, sometimes more than other anthropogenic environmental changes. Yet, controversy surrounds the importance of this finding for natural systems where species loss is non-random. 2. We compiled data from 16 multi-year experiments located at a single site in native tallgrass prairie. These experiments included responses to 11 anthropogenic environmental changes, as well as non-random biodiversity loss - either the removal of uncommon/rare plant species...

Resolving the Dust Bowl paradox of grassland responses to extreme drought

Alan Knapp
During the Dust Bowl drought, central US grasslands responded unexpectedly to a decade of hot, dry conditions. Grass species adapted to high temperatures with higher water use efficiency (C4 grasses) decreased while those preferring cooler climates (C3 grasses) increased. We reproduced this surprising response by experimentally imposing extreme drought in two native grasslands. Analysis of historical climate records revealed that during extreme drought years, the proportion of annual precipitation that occurs during cooler months increases....

Shortgrass steppe and northern mixedgrass prairie plant species traits

Dana Blumenthal, Julie Kray, Kevin Mueller & Troy Ocheltree
Despite progress in trait-based ecology, there is limited understanding of the plant traits that structure semiarid grasslands. In particular, it remains unclear how traits that enable plants to cope with water limitation are related to traits that influence other key functions such as herbivore defense and growth. The hypothesis that drought and herbivory exert convergent selection pressures is supported for morphological traits, but largely untested for struct­ural, physiological, and phenological traits. Drought and economic traits...

Phylogenomic dataset used for evolutionary rate covariation analyses in Forsythe et al.

Evan Forsythe
Nuclear and plastid (chloroplast) genomes experience different mutation rates, levels of selection, and transmission modes, yet key cellular functions depend on coordinated interactions between proteins encoded in both genomes. Functionally related proteins often show correlated changes in rates of sequence evolution across a phylogeny (evolutionary rate covariation or ERC), offering a means to detect previously unidentified suites of coevolving and cofunctional genes. We performed phylogenomic analyses across angiosperm diversity, scanning the nuclear genome for genes...

A place to land: spatiotemporal drivers of stopover habitat use by migrating birds

Emily Cohen, Jeffrey Buler, Kyle Horton, Andrew Farnsworth, Peter Marra, Hannah Clipp, Jaclyn Smolinsky & Daniel Sheldon
Migrating birds require en route habitats to rest and refuel. Yet habitat use has never been integrated with passage to understand factors that determine where and when birds stopover during spring and autumn migration. Here, we introduce the stopover-to-passage ratio (SPR), the percentage of passage migrants that stop in an area, and use eight years of data from 12 weather surveillance radars to estimate over 50% SPR during spring and autumn through the Gulf of...

Effects of social structure and management on risk of disease establishment in wild pigs

Anni Yang, Peter Schlichting, Bethany Wight, Wesley Anderson, Sarah Chinn, Mark Wilber, Ryan Miller, James Beasley, Raoul Boughton, Kurt VerCauteren, George Wittemyer & Kim Pepin
1. Contact heterogeneity among hosts determines invasion and spreading dynamics of infectious disease, thus its characterization is essential for identifying effective disease control strategies. Yet, little is known about the factors shaping contact networks in many wildlife species and how wildlife management actions might affect contact networks. 2. Wild pigs in North America are an invasive, socially-structured species that pose a health concern for domestic swine given their ability to transmit numerous devastating diseases such...

Effects of enhanced productivity of resources shared by predators in a food-web module: Comparing results of a field experiment to predictions of mathematical models of intra-guild predation

David Wise & Monica Farfan
This dataset contains data from a field experiment described in the publication “Wise, D. H. & Farfan, M.A. (2021) Effects of enhanced productivity of resources shared by predators in a food-web module: Comparing results of a field experiment to predictions of mathematical models of intra-guild predation. Ecology and Evolution, 00: 1-11. https://doi.org/10.1002/ece3.8375”. The field experiment compared the response to increased input of nutrients and energy (artificial detritus) to an empirical model of intra-guild predation (IGP)...

Directional selection shifts trait distributions of planted species in dryland restoration

Kathleen Balazs, Seth Munson, Caroline A. Havrilla & Brad Butterfield
1. The match between species trait values and local abiotic filters can restrict community membership. An often-implicit assumption of this relationship is that abiotic filters select for a single locally optimal strategy, though difficulty in isolating effects of the abiotic environment from those of dispersal limitation and biotic interactions has resulted in few empirical tests of this assumption. Similar constraints have made it difficult to assess whether the type and intensity of abiotic filters shift...

Data from \"Quantification of major particulate matter species from a single filter type using infrared spectroscopy – Application to a large-scale monitoring network\"

Ann Dillner, Bruno Debus, Andrew T. Weakley, Satoshi Takahama, Kathryn George, Bret Schichtel, Scott Copeland & Anthony Wexler
This data set contains FT-IR data obtained from spectra of PTFE filters routinely in IMPROVE network during the time period 2015-2017, as well as the corresponding routine IMPROVE data for all ( ~160) IMPROVE sites except Korea. The data include PM2.5 aerosol concentrations measurements for organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), total carbon (TC), sulfate, nitrate, silicon, aluminum, calcium, titanium, iron, mass and light absorption. The data are in ug/m3. Some samples are excluded based...

Data from: Interindividual variation in the use of social information during learning in honeybees

Catherine Tait
Slow-fast differences in cognition among individuals have been proposed to be an outcome of the speed-accuracy trade-off in decision-making. Based on the different costs associated with acquiring information via individual and social learning, we hypothesized that slow-fast cognitive differences would also be tied to the adoption of these different learning modes. Since foragers in honeybee colonies likely have both these information acquisition modes available to them, we chose to test them for inter-individual differences in...

Habitat-linked genetic variation supports microgeographic adaptive divergence in an island-endemic bird species

Rebecca Cheek, Brenna Forrester, Daryl Trumbo, Patricia Salerno, Nancy Chen, T. Scott Sillett, Scott Morrison, Cameron Ghalambor & W. Chris Funk
We present evidence for and investigate potential mechanisms driving habitat-linked genetic divergence within a bird species endemic to a single 250 km2 island. The island scrub-jay (Aphelocoma insularis) exhibits microgeographic divergence in bill morphology across pine-oak ecotones on Santa Cruz Island, California (USA) similar to adaptive differences described in mainland congeners over much larger geographic scales. To test whether individuals exhibit genetic differentiation related to habitat type and divergence in bill length, we genotyped over...

Reproductive benefits associated with dispersal in headwater populations of Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata)

Isabela Lima Borges, Jillian Dangerfield, Lisa Angeloni, Chris Funk & Sarah Fitzpatrick
Theory suggests that the evolution of dispersal is balanced by its fitness costs and benefits, yet empirical evidence is sparse due to the difficulties of measuring dispersal and fitness in natural populations. Here, we use spatially-explicit data from a multi-generational capture-mark-recapture study of two populations of Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata) along with pedigrees to test whether there are fitness benefits correlated with dispersal. Combining these ecological and molecular datasets allows us to directly measure the...

Data from: Applicability of artificial neural networks to integrate socio-technical drivers of buildings recovery following extreme wind events

Stephanie Pilkington & Hussam Mahmoud
The data provided and the associated MATLAB code were used to build an Artificial Neural Network Model to capture the reconstruction (recovery) of various buildings subjected to tornado events in the State of Missouri. The ANN model utilizes relevant tornado, societal demographic, and structural data to determine a building’s resulting damage state from an extreme wind event and the subsequent recovery time. Abstract for the publication is as follows: In a companion article, previously published...

Elephant agricultural use metrics in Mara-Serengeti ecosystem

Nathan Hahn
Agricultural use metrics were calculated for 66 elephants as part of a study to characterize crop use tactics in the Mara-Serengeti ecosystem in Kenya and Tanzania. Metrics were calculated to capture mean agricultural use, maximum use from a moving average, and the difference between mean and max use. These metrics were used to classify agricultural use tactics for each elephant using Gaussian mixture models. Tables are provided with metrics and tactic classifications for the lifetime...

Contrasting environmental drivers of genetic of genetic and phenotypic divergence in an Andean poison frog

Mónica Páez-Vacas, W. Chris Funk & Daryl Trumbo
Phenotypic and genetic divergence are shaped by the homogenizing effects of gene flow and the differentiating processes of genetic drift and local adaptation. Herein, we examined the mechanisms that underlie phenotypic (size and color) and genetic divergence in 35 populations (535 individuals) of the poison frog Epipedobates anthonyi along four elevational gradients (0–1800 m asl) in the Ecuadorian Andes. We found phenotypic divergence in size and color despite relatively low genetic divergence at neutral microsatellite...

Landscape genomics of the streamside salamander: Implications for species management in the face of environmental change

Marc Beer, Rachael Kane, Steven Micheletti, Christopher Kozakiewicz & Andrew Storfer
Understanding spatial patterns of genetic differentiation and local adaptation is critical in a period of rapid environmental change. Climate change and anthropogenic development have led to population declines and shifting geographic distributions in numerous species. The streamside salamander, Ambystoma barbouri, is an endemic amphibian with a small geographic range that predominantly inhabits small, ephemeral streams. As A. barbouri is listed as near-threatened by the IUCN, we describe range-wide patterns of genetic differentiation and adaptation to...

Invigoration or enervation? Figure data and code

Adele Igel & Susan Van Den Heever
This repository contains the figure data and code required to generate the figures that appear in Igel and van den Heever (2021) Invigoration or enervation of convective clouds by aerosols? in Geophysical Research Letters. We present new theoretical calculations which starkly contrast previous results. Prior foundational work suggested that aerosols strongly invigorate convective cloud updrafts via changes to cold-phase processes. We show that the peak magnitude of invigoration by this mechanism is substantially reduced for...

Data from: Effects of Bark Beetle Outbreaks on Forest Landscape Pattern in the Southern Rocky Mountains, U.S.A.

Kyle Rodman, Robert Andrus, Cori Butkiewicz, Teresa Chapman, Nathan Gill, Brian Harvey, Dominik Kulakowski, Niko Tutland, Thomas Veblen & Sarah Hart
Since the late 1990s, extensive outbreaks of native bark beetles (Curculionidae: Scolytinae) have affected coniferous forests throughout Europe and North America, driving changes in carbon storage, wildlife habitat, nutrient cycling, and water resource provisioning. Remote sensing is a crucial tool for quantifying the effects of these disturbances across broad landscapes. In particular, Landsat time series (LTS) are increasingly used to characterize outbreak dynamics, including the presence and severity of bark beetle-caused tree mortality, though broad-scale...

The cost of travel: how dispersal ability limits local adaptation in host-parasite interactions

Pieter Johnson, Dana Calhoun, Wynne Moss, Travis McDevitt-Galles, Tawni Riepe, Joshua Hallas, Thomas Parchman, Chris Feldman, Josh Cropanzano, Jay Bowerman, Tyler Achatz, Vasyl Tkach & Janet Koprivnikar
Classical theory suggests that parasites will exhibit higher fitness in sympatric relative to allopatric host populations (local adaptation). However, evidence for local adaptation in natural host-parasite systems is often equivocal, emphasizing the need for cross-infection experiments conducted over realistic geographic scales and comparisons among species with varied life history traits. Here, we conducted cross-infection experiments to test how two trematode (flatworm) species (Paralechriorchis syntomentera and Ribeiroia ondatrae) with differing dispersal abilities varied in the strength...

Data from: Flower consumption, ambient temperature and rainfall modulate drinking behavior in a folivorous-frugivorous arboreal mammal

Óscar M. Chaves, Vanessa B. Fortes, Gabriela P. Hass, Renata B. Azevedo, Kathryn E. Stoner & Júlio César Bicca-Marques
In these datasets we provided information on the drinking behavior in 14 wild groups of brown howler monkeys (Alouatta guariba clamitans) inhabiting small, medium, and large Atlantic Forest fragments in southern Brazil. We provided two datasets: (1) full data on the drinking behavior of the 14 study groups, and (2) the dataset used to run the GLMMs described in the main manuscript. Overall, we found a wide variation in the mean rate of drinking among...

Functional diversity response to geographic and experimental precipitation gradients varies with plant community type

Xiaoan Zuo, Shenglong Zhao, Huan Cheng, Ya Hu, Shaokun Wang, Ping Yue, Renrao Liu, Alan K. Knapp, Melinda D. Smith, Qiang Yu, Sally E. Koerner & Liu Renrao
Precipitation is a primary determinant of plant community structure in drylands. However, the empirical evidence and predictions are lacking for how plant functional diversity in desert and steppe communities respond to altered precipitation regimes. We examined how precipitation changes along the natural and experimental gradients affect different components of functional diversity in desert-shrub and steppe-grass communities. We compared the associations of precipitation changes with community-weighted means (CWM) of six traits, functional divergence (FDvar) of each...

Isotopic niche partitioning and individual specialization in an Arctic raptor guild

Devin L. Johnson, Michael T. Henderson, David L. Anderson, Travis L. Booms & Cory T. Williams
Intra- and inter-specific resource partitioning within predator communities is a fundamental component of trophic ecology, and one proposed mechanism for how populations partition resources is through individual niche variation. The Niche Variation Hypothesis (NVH) predicts that inter-individual trait variation leads to functional trade-offs in foraging efficiency, resulting in populations composed of individual dietary specialists. The degree to which niche specialization persists within a population is plastic and responsive to fluctuating resource availability. We quantified niche...

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