283 Works

Data from: Intransitive competition is common across five major taxonomic groups and is driven by productivity, competitive rank and functional traits.

Santiago Soliveres, Anika Lehmann, Steffen Boch, Florian Altermatt, Francesco Carrara, Thomas W. Crowther, Manuel Delgado-Baquerizo, Anne Kempel, Daniel S. Maynard, Matthias C. Rillig, Brajesh K. Singh, Pankaj Trivedi & Eric Allan
1. Competition can be fully hierarchical or intransitive, and this degree of hierarchy is driven by multiple factors, including environmental conditions, the functional traits of the species involved or the topology of competition networks. Studies simultaneously analyzing these drivers of competition hierarchy are rare. Additionally, organisms compete either directly or via interference competition for resources or space, within a local neighbourhood or across the habitat. Therefore, the drivers of competition could change accordingly and depend...

Data from: Blood mercury levels of zebra finches are heritable: implications for the evolution of mercury resistance

Kenton A. Buck, Claire W. Varian-Ramos, Daniel A. Cristol & John P. Swaddle
Mercury is a ubiquitous metal contaminant that negatively impacts reproduction of wildlife and has many other sub-lethal effects. Songbirds are sensitive bioindicators of mercury toxicity and may suffer population declines as a result of mercury pollution. Current predictions of mercury accumulation and biomagnification often overlook possible genetic variation in mercury uptake and elimination within species and the potential for evolution in affected populations. We conducted a study of dietary mercury exposure in a model songbird...

Data from: Partial support for the central–marginal hypothesis within a population: reduced genetic diversity but not increased differentiation at the range edge of an island endemic bird

Kathryn M. Langin, T. Scott Sillett, W. Chris Funk, Scott A. Morrison & Cameron K. Ghalambor
Large-scale population comparisons have contributed to our understanding of the evolution of geographic range limits and species boundaries, as well as the conservation value of populations at range margins. The central–marginal hypothesis (CMH) predicts a decline in genetic diversity and an increase in genetic differentiation toward the periphery of species’ ranges due to spatial variation in genetic drift and gene flow. Empirical studies on a diverse array of taxa have demonstrated support for the CMH....

Data from: Interactions among herbivory, climate, topography, and plant age shape riparian willow dynamics in northern Yellowstone National Park, USA

Kristin N. Marshall, David J. Cooper & N. Thompson Hobbs
Understanding how the environmental context modifies the strength of trophic interactions within food webs forms a central challenge in community ecology. Here, we demonstrate the necessity of considering the influence of climate, landscape heterogeneity and demographics for understanding trophic interactions in a well-studied food web in Yellowstone National Park, USA. We studied riparian willow (Salix spp.) establishment and stem growth reconstructed from tree rings on the northern range of Yellowstone over a 30-year period that...

Data from: Female preference for novel males constrains contemporary evolution of assortative mating in guppies

Felipe Dargent, Lisa Chen, Gregor F. Fussmann, Cameron K. Ghalambor & Andrew P. Hendry
Progress toward local adaptation is expected to be enhanced when divergent selection is multi-dimensional, because many simultaneous sources of selection can increase the total strength of selection and enhance the number of independent traits under selection. Yet, whether local adaptation ensues from multi-dimensional selection also depends on its potential to cause the build-up of reproductive barriers such as sexual signals and preference for these signals. We used replicate experimental introductions of guppies (Poecilia reticulata) in...

Data from: Nonselective bottlenecks control the divergence and diversification of phase-variable bacterial populations

Jack Aidley, Shweta Rajopadhye, Nwanekka M. Akinyemi, Lea Lango-Scholey & Christopher D. Bayliss
Phase variation occurs in many pathogenic and commensal bacteria and is a major generator of genetic variability. A putative advantage of phase variation is to counter reductions in variability imposed by nonselective bottlenecks during transmission. Genomes of Campylobacter jejuni, a widespread food-borne pathogen, contain multiple phase-variable loci whose rapid, stochastic variation is generated by hypermutable simple sequence repeat tracts. These loci can occupy a vast number of combinatorial expression states (phasotypes) enabling populations to rapidly...

Data from: Precipitation and environmental constraints on three aspects of flowering in three dominant tallgrass species

Nathan P. Lemoine, John D. Dietrich & Melinda D. Smith
Flower production can comprise up to 70% of aboveground primary production in grasslands. Yet we know relatively little about how the environment and timing of rainfall determine flower productivity. Evidence suggests that deficits or additions of rainfall during phenlologically relevant periods (i.e. growth, storage, initiation of flowering, and reproduction) can determine flower production in grasslands. We used long-term data from the Konza Prairie LTER to test how fire, soil topography, and precipitation amounts during four...

Data from: Factors influencing ocelot occupancy in Brazilian Atlantic Forest reserves

Rodrigo Lima Massara, Ana Maria De Oliveira Paschoal, Larissa Lynn Bailey, , André Hirsch, Adriano Garcia Chiarello & Paul F. Doherty
Over 80% of Atlantic Forest remnants are <50 ha and protected areas are embedded in a matrix dominated by human activities, undermining the long-term persistence of carnivores. The ocelot (Leopardus pardalis) is an opportunistic species, but little is known about its tolerance to habitat alterations and the influence of other species on its occupancy in Atlantic Forest remnants. We used camera traps to assess ocelot occupancy in protected areas of Atlantic Forest in southeastern Brazil....

Data from: Simulating the distribution of individual livestock farms and their populations in the united states: an example using domestic swine (Sus scrofa domesticus) farms

Christopher L. Burdett, Brian R. Kraus, Sarah J. Garza, Ryan S. Miller & Kathe E. Bjork
Livestock distribution in the United States (U.S.) can only be mapped at a county-level or worse resolution. We developed a spatial microsimulation model called the Farm Location and Agricultural Production Simulator (FLAPS) that simulated the distribution and populations of individual livestock farms throughout the conterminous U.S. Using domestic pigs (Sus scrofa domesticus) as an example species, we customized iterative proportional-fitting algorithms for the hierarchical structure of the U.S. Census of Agriculture and imputed unpublished state-...

Data from: Deterministic and stochastic processes lead to divergence in plant communities 25 years after the 1988 Yellowstone fires

William H. Romme, Timothy G. Whitby, Daniel B. Tinker & Monica G. Turner
Young, recently burned forests are increasingly widespread throughout western North America, but forest development after large wildfires is not fully understood, especially regarding effects of variable burn severity, environmental heterogeneity, and changes in drivers over time. We followed development of subalpine forests after the 1988 Yellowstone fires by periodically re-sampling permanent plots established soon after the fires. We asked two questions about patterns and processes over the past 25 years: (1) Are plant species richness...

Data from: De novo genome assembly of Geosmithia morbida, the causal agent of thousand cankers disease

Taruna A. Schuelke, Anthony Westbrook, Kirk Broders, Keith Woeste & Matthew D. MacManes
Geosmithia morbida is a filamentous ascomycete that causes thousand cankers disease in the eastern black walnut tree. This pathogen is commonly found in the western U.S.; however, recently the disease was also detected in several eastern states where the black walnut lumber industry is concentrated. G. morbida is one of two known phytopathogens within the genus Geosmithia, and it is vectored into the host tree via the walnut twig beetle. We present the first de...

Data from: Modeling multi-species and multi-mode contact networks: implications for persistence of bovine tuberculosis at the wildlife-livestock interface

Mark Q. Wilber, Kim M. Pepin, , Scott E. Hygnstrom, Michael J. Lavelle, Tatiana Xifara, Kurt C. Vercauteren & Coleen T. Webb
1. Individual- and species-level heterogeneity in contact rates can alter the ability of a pathogen to invade a host community. Many pathogens have multiple modes of transmission -- by direct or indirect contact. It is important to identify the role of heterogeneity in different types of transmission when managing the risk of disease spillover at the interface among different host species. 2. We developed a network-based analysis to explore how individual- and species-level heterogeneity shape...

Data from: The importance of growing up: juvenile environment influences dispersal of individuals and their neighbours

Stacy B. Endriss, Megan L. Vahsen, Ellyn V. Bitume, J. Grey Monroe, Kathryn G. Turner, Andrew P. Norton & Ruth A. Hufbauer
Dispersal is a key ecological process that is strongly influenced by both phenotype and environment. Here, we show that juvenile environment influences dispersal not only by shaping individual phenotypes, but also by changing the phenotypes of neighbouring conspecifics, which influence how individuals disperse. We used a model system (Tribolium castaneum, red flour beetles) to test how the past environment of dispersing individuals and their neighbours influences how they disperse in their current environment. We found...

Data from: Current approaches using genetic distances produce poor estimates of landscape resistance to interindividual dispersal

Tabitha A. Graves, Paul Beier & Jeffrey Andrew Royle
Landscape resistance reflects how difficult it is for genes to move across an area with particular attributes (e.g., land cover, slope). An increasingly popular approach to estimate resistance uses Mantel and partial Mantel tests or causal modeling to relate observed genetic distances to effective distances under alternative sets of resistance parameters. Relatively few alternative sets of resistance parameters are tested, leading to relatively poor coverage of the parameter space. Although this approach does not explicitly...

Data from: A hybrid phylogenetic–phylogenomic approach for species tree estimation in African Agama lizards with applications to biogeography, character evolution, and diversification

Adam D. Leaché, Philipp Wagner, Charles W. Linkem, Wolfgang Böhme, Theodore J. Papenfuss, Rebecca A. Chong, Brian R. Lavin, Aaron M. Bauer, Stuart V. Nielsen, Eli Greenbaum, Mark-Oliver Rödel, Andreas Schmitz, Matthew LeBreton, Ivan Ineich, Laurent Chirio, Caleb Ofori-Boateng, Edem A. Eniang, Sherif Baha El Din, Alan R. Lemmon & Frank T. Burbrink
Africa is renowned for its biodiversity and endemicity, yet little is known about the factors shaping them across the continent. African Agama lizards (45 species) have a pan-continental distribution, making them an ideal model for investigating biogeography. Many species have evolved conspicuous sexually dimorphic traits, including extravagant breeding coloration in adult males, large adult male body sizes, and variability in social systems among colorful versus drab species. We present a comprehensive time-calibrated species tree for...

Data from: Balancing selection maintains sex determining alleles in multiple-locus complementary sex determination

Jerome J. Weis, Paul J. Ode & George E. Heimpel
Hymenopteran species in which sex is determined through a haplo-diploid mechanism known as complementary sex determination (CSD) are vulnerable to a unique form of inbreeding depression. Diploids heterozygous at one or more CSD loci develop into females but diploids homozygous at all loci develop into diploid males, which are generally sterile or inviable. Species with multiple polymorphic CSD loci (ml-CSD) may have lower rates of diploid male production than species with a single CSD locus...

Data from: Gene expression differs in codominant prairie grasses under drought

Ava M. Hoffman & Melinda D. Smith
Grasslands of the Central US are expected to experience severe droughts and other climate extremes in the future, yet we know little about how these grasses will respond in terms of gene expression. We compared gene expression in Andropogon gerardii and Sorghastrum nutans, two closely related co-dominant C4 grasses responsible for the majority of ecosystem function, using RNA-seq. We compared Trinity assemblies within each species to determine annotated functions of transcripts responding to drought. Subsequently,...

Data from: Cryptic species diversity reveals biogeographic support for the ‘mountain passes are higher in the tropics’ hypothesis

Brian A. Gill, B. C. Kondratieff, K. L. Casner, A. C. Encalada, A. S. Flecker, D. G. Gannon, C. K. Ghalambor, J. M. Guayasamin, N. L. Poff, M. P. Simmons, S. A. Thomas, K. R. Zamudio & W. C. Funk
The ‘mountain passes are higher in the tropics’ (MPHT) hypothesis posits that reduced climate variability at low latitudes should select for narrower thermal tolerances, lower dispersal and smaller elevational ranges compared with higher latitudes. These latitudinal differences could increase species richness at low latitudes, but that increase may be largely cryptic, because physiological and dispersal traits isolating populations might not correspond to morphological differences. Yet previous tests of the MPHT hypothesis have not addressed cryptic...

Data from: Geosmithia associated with bark beetles and woodborers in the western USA: taxonomic diversity and vector specificity

Miroslav Kolařík, Steven J. Seybold, Ned Tisserat, Wilhelm De Beer, David M. Rizzo, Jiri Hulcr & Martin Kostovčík
Fungi in the genus Geosmithia (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) are frequent associates of bark beetles and woodborers that colonize hardwood and coniferous trees. One species, Geosmithia morbida, is an economically damaging invasive species. The authors surveyed the Geosmithia species of California and Colorado, USA, to (i) provide baseline data on taxonomy of Geosmithia and beetle vector specificity across the western USA; (ii) investigate the subcortical beetle fauna for alternative vectors of the invasive G. morbida; and (iii)...

Data from: Cross-biome metagenomic analyses of soil microbial communities and their functional attributes

Noah Fierer, Jonathan W. Leff, Byron J. Adams, Uffe N. Nielsen, Scott Thomas Bates, Christian L. Lauber, Sarah Owens, Jack A. Gilbert, Diana H. Wall & J. Gregory Caporaso
For centuries ecologists have studied how the diversity and functional traits of plant and animal communities vary across biomes. In contrast, we have only just begun exploring similar questions for soil microbial communities despite soil microbes being the dominant engines of biogeochemical cycles and a major pool of living biomass in terrestrial ecosystems. We used metagenomic sequencing to compare the composition and functional attributes of 16 soil microbial communities collected from cold deserts, hot deserts,...

Data from: Gene expression and drought response in an invasive thistle

Kathryn G. Turner, Kristin A. Nurkowski & Loren H. Rieseberg
Though rapid phenotypic evolution has been observed in many invasive plant species, less is known about the associated genetic mechanisms. Some hypotheses invoke the evolution of trade-offs in resource allocation to explain phenotypic differences between the native and invaded ranges of a species. Alternately, invasive species may benefit from a generalist strategy and perform well in many environments. Identification of the molecular changes associated with successful invasions can offer clues regarding the mechanistic basis of...

Data from: Fine scale genetic correlates to condition and migration in a wild Cervid

Joseph M. Northrup, Aaron B. A. Shafer, , David W. Coltman, George Wittemyer & Charles R. Anderson
The relationship between genetic variation and phenotypic traits is fundamental to the study and management of natural populations. Such relationships often are investigated by assessing correlations between phenotypic traits and heterozygosity or genetic differentiation. Using an extensive data set compiled from free-ranging mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), we combined genetic and ecological data to (i) examine correlations between genetic differentiation and migration timing, (ii) screen for mitochondrial haplotypes associated with migration timing, and (iii) test whether...

Data from: Exposure to dairy manure leads to greater antibiotic resistance and increased mass-specific respiration in soil microbial communities

Carl Wepking, Bethany Avera, Brian Badgley, John E. Barrett, Josh Franklin, Katharine F. Knowlton, Partha P. Ray, Crystal Smitherman & Michael S. Strickland
Intensifying livestock production to meet the demands of a growing global population coincides with increases in both the administration of veterinary antibiotics and manure inputs to soils. These trends have the potential to increase antibiotic resistance in soil microbial communities. The effect of maintaining increased antibiotic resistance on soil microbial communities and the ecosystem processes they regulate is unknown. We compare soil microbial communities from paired reference and dairy manure-exposed sites across the USA. Given...

Data from: The relationship between female brooding and male nestling provisioning: does climate underlie geographic variation in sex roles?

Jongmin Yoon, Helen R. Sofaer, T. Scott Sillett, Scott A. Morrison & Cameron K. Ghalambor
Comparative studies of populations occupying different environments can provide insights into the ecological conditions affecting differences in parental strategies, including the relative contributions of males and females. Male and female parental strategies reflect the interplay between ecological conditions, the contributions of the social mate, and the needs of offspring. Climate is expected to underlie geographic variation in incubation and brooding behavior, and can thereby affect both the absolute and relative contributions of each sex to...

Data from: Hybridization of an invasive shrub affects tolerance and resistance to defoliation by a biological control agent

Wyatt I. Williams, Jonathan M. Friedman, John F. Gaskin & Andrew P. Norton
Evolution has contributed to the successful invasion of exotic plant species in their introduced ranges, but how evolution affects particular control strategies is still under evaluation. For instance, classical biological control, a common strategy involving the utilization of highly specific natural enemies to control exotic pests, may be negatively affected by host hybridization because of shifts in plant traits, such as root allocation or chemical constituents. We investigated introgression between two parent species of the...

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