283 Works

Data from: Rapid evolution and plasticity of genitalia

E. Dale Broder, Cameron K. Ghalambor, Corey A. Handelsman, Emily W. Ruell, David N. Reznick & Lisa M. Angeloni
Genital morphology exhibits tremendous variation and is intimately linked with fitness. Sexual selection, nonmating natural selection, and neutral forces have been explored as potential drivers of genital divergence. Though less explored, genitalia may also be plastic in response to the developmental environment. In poeciliid fishes, the length of the male intromittent organ, the gonopodium, may be driven by sexual selection if longer gonopodia attract females or aid in forced copulation attempts, or by nonmating natural...

Demographic responses to climate change in a threatened Arctic species

Kylee D. Dunham, Anna M. Tucker, David N. Koons, Asheber Abebe, F. Stephen Dobson & James B. Grand
The Arctic is undergoing rapid and accelerating change in response to global warming, altering biodiversity patterns and ecosystem function across the region. For Arctic endemic species, our understanding of the consequences of such change remains limited. Spectacled eiders (Somateria fischeri), a large Arctic sea duck, use remote regions in the Bering Sea, Arctic Russia, and Alaska throughout the annual cycle making it difficult to conduct comprehensive surveys or demographic studies. Listed as Threatened under the...

Channel Islands song sparrow (Melospiza melodia) landscape genomics and adaptation to climate with gene flow dataset

Maybellene Gamboa
Disentangling the effects of neutral and adaptive processes in maintaining phenotypic variation across environmental gradients is challenging in natural populations. Song sparrows (Melospiza melodia) on the California Channel Islands occupy a pronounced east-west climate gradient within a small spatial extent, providing a unique opportunity to examine the interaction of genetic isolation (gene flow) and the environment (selection) in driving variation. We used reduced representation genomic libraries to infer the role of neutral processes (drift and...

Adaptation and correlated fitness responses over two time scales in Drosophila suzukii populations evolving in different environments

Laure Olazcuaga, Julien Foucaud, Mathieu Gautier, Candice Deschamps, Anne Loiseau, Nicolas Leménager, Benoit Facon, Virginie Ravigné, Ruth A. Hufbauer, Arnaud Estoup & Nicolas O. Rode
The process of local adaptation involves differential changes in fitness over time across different environments. While experimental evolution studies have extensively tested for patterns of local adaptation at a single time point, there is relatively little research that examines fitness more than once during the time course of adaptation. We allowed replicate populations of the fruit pest Drosophila suzukii to evolve in one of eight different fruit media. After five generations, populations with the highest...

Genotyping-by-sequencing data for a Haitian sorghum breeding program

Geoffrey Morris, Terry Felderhoff, Noah Winans, Rachel Walstead, Jean Rigaud Charles, Gael Pressoir & Kebede Muleta
Rapid environmental change can lead to extinction of populations or evolutionary rescue via genetic adaptation. In the past several years, smallholder and commercial cultivation of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), a global cereal and forage crop, has been threatened by a global outbreak of an aggressive new biotype of sugarcane aphid (SCA; Melanaphis sacchari). Here we characterized genomic signatures of adaptation in a Haitian sorghum breeding population, which had been recently founded from admixed global germplasm, extensively...

A unifying framework for analyzing temporal changes in functional and taxonomic diversity along disturbance gradients

Erin Larson, N. Leroy Poff, W. Chris Funk, Rachel Harrington, Boris Kondratieff, Scott Morton & Alexander Flecker
Frameworks exclusively considering functional diversity are gaining popularity, as they complement and extend the information provided by taxonomic diversity metrics, particularly in response to disturbance. Taxonomic diversity should be included in functional diversity frameworks to uncover the functional mechanisms causing species loss following disturbance events. We present and test a predictive framework that considers temporal functional and taxonomic diversity responses along disturbance gradients. Our proposed framework allows us to test different multidimensional metrics of taxonomic...

Landscape-scale conservation mitigates the biodiversity loss of grassland birds

David Pavlacky, Adam Green, T. Luke George, Rich Iovanna, Anne Bartuszevige, Maureen Correll, Arvind Panjabi & T. Brandt Ryder
The decline of biodiversity from anthropogenic landscape modification is among the most pressing conservation problems world-wide. In North America, long-term population declines have elevated the recovery of the grassland avifauna to among the highest conservation priorities. Because the vast majority of grasslands of the Great Plains are privately owned, the recovery of these ecosystems and bird populations within them depend on landscape-scale conservation strategies that integrate social, economic, and biodiversity objectives. The Conservation Reserve Program...

Data from: Infection prevalence and density of a pathogenic trematode parasite decrease with stream order along a river continuum

Landon Falke & Daniel Preston
In lotic ecosystems, the River Continuum Concept (RCC) provides a framework for understanding changes in environmental factors and free-living communities, yet how parasite populations shift along river continua remains less clear. We quantified infections by a pathogenic trematode parasite (Nanophyetus salmincola) in >14,000 host snails across 130 stream reaches spanning 165 km in the Willamette River Basin in western Oregon, USA. Environmental factors – including flow volume, temperature, benthic algae, canopy cover, woody debris, and...

An island-hopping bird reveals how founder events shape genome-wide divergence

Ashley Sendell-Price, Kristen Ruegg, Bruce Robertson & Sonya Clegg
When populations colonise new areas, both strong selection and strong drift can be experienced due to novel environments and small founding populations, respectively. Empirical studies have predominantly focused on the phenotype when assessing the role of selection, and limited neutral-loci when assessing founder-induced loss of diversity. Consequently, the extent to which processes interact to influence evolutionary trajectories is difficult to assess. Genomic-level approaches provide the opportunity to simultaneously consider these processes. Here, we examine the...

Mast seeding records in North American Pinaceae and summer temperature data (1960-2014)

Jalene LaMontagne, Miranda Redmond, Andreas Wion & David Greene
Mast seeding database compilation for conifer tree reproduction in North America (belonging to genus: Abies, Picea, Pinus, Tsuga). All data included in analyses met the criteria that they: i) had at least 6 years of mast seeding data for a species of coniferous tree in North America, ii) data were collected on a continuous scale (e.g., based on seed traps, visual cone counts, or cone scars), iii) occurred between 1960-2014, and iv) for a taxon...

Predator-prey interactions of terrestrial invertebrates are determined by predator body size and species identity

Ana Miller-Ter Kuile, Austen Apigo, An Bui, Bartholomew DiFiore, Elizabeth Forbes, Michelle Lee, Devyn Orr, Daniel Preston, Rachel Behm, Taylor Bogar, Jasmine Childress, Rodolfo Dirzo, Maggie Klope, Kevin Lafferty, John McLaughlin, Marisa Morse, Carina Motta, Kevin Park, Katherine Plummer, David Weber, Ronald Young & Hillary Young
Predator-prey interactions shape ecosystem and can help maintain biodiversity. However, for many of the earth’s most biodiverse and abundant organisms, including terrestrial arthropods, these interactions are difficult or impossible to observe directly with traditional approaches. Based on previous theory, it is likely that predator-prey interactions for these organisms are shaped by a combination of predator traits, including body size and species-specific hunting strategies. In this study, we combined diet DNA metabarcoding data of 173 individual...

Data from: Belowground community responses to fire: meta-analysis reveals contrasting responses of soil microorganisms and mesofauna

Yamina Pressler, John C. Moore & M. Francesca Cotrufo
Global fire regimes are shifting due to climate and land use changes. Understanding the responses of belowground communities to fire is key to predicting changes in the ecosystem processes they regulate. We conducted a comprehensive meta-analysis of 1634 observations from 131 empirical studies to investigate the effect of fire on soil microorganisms and mesofauna. Fire had a strong negative effect on soil biota biomass, abundance, richness, evenness, and diversity. Fire reduced microorganism biomass and abundance...

Data from: Field-based high throughput phenotyping rapidly identifies genomic regions controlling yield components in rice

Paul Tanger, Stephen Klassen, Julius P. Mojica, John T. Lovell, Brook T. Moyers, Marietta Baraoidan, Maria Elizabeth B. Naredo, Kenneth L. McNally, Jesse Poland, Daniel R. Bush, Hei Leung, Jan E. Leach & John K. McKay
To ensure food security in the face of population growth, decreasing water and land for agriculture, and increasing climate variability, crop yields must increase faster than the current rates. Increased yields will require implementing novel approaches in genetic discovery and breeding. Here we demonstrate the potential of field-based high throughput phenotyping (HTP) on a large recombinant population of rice to identify genetic variation underlying important traits. We find that detecting quantitative trait loci (QTL) with...

Data from: Landscape variation in tree regeneration and snag fall drive fuel loads in 25-yr old post-fire lodgepole pine forests

Kellen N. Nelson, Monica G. Turner, William H. Romme & Daniel B. Tinker
Escalating wildfire in subalpine forests with stand-replacing fire regimes is increasing the extent of early-seral forests throughout the western US. Post-fire succession generates the fuel for future fires, but little is known about fuel loads and their variability in young post-fire stands. We sampled fuel profiles in 24-year-old post-fire lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) stands (n=82) that regenerated from the 1988 Yellowstone Fires to answer three questions. (1) How do canopy and surface fuel...

Data from: Safari science: assessing the reliability of citizen science data for wildlife surveys

Cara Steger, Bilal Butt & Mevin B. Hooten
1. Protected areas are the cornerstone of global conservation, yet financial support for basic monitoring infrastructure is lacking in 60% of them. Citizen science holds potential to address these shortcomings in wildlife monitoring, particularly for resource-limited conservation initiatives in developing countries - if we can account for the reliability of data produced by volunteer citizen scientists (VCS) . 2. This study tests the reliability of VCS data vs. data produced by trained ecologists, presenting a...

Data from: Trait independence primes convergent trait loss

Molly C. Womack, Tyler S. Fiero & Kim L. Hoke
The repeated, independent evolution of traits (convergent evolution) is often attributed to shared environmental selection pressures. However, developmental dependencies among traits can limit the phenotypic variation available to selection and bias evolutionary outcomes. Here we determine how changes in developmentally correlated traits may impact convergent loss of the tympanic middle ear, a highly labile trait within toads that currently lack adaptive explanation. The middle ear’s lability could reflect evolutionary trade-offs with other skull features under...

Data from: Gene amplification of 5-enol-pyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase in glyphosate-resistant Kochia scoparia

Andrew T. Wiersma, Todd A. Gaines, Christopher Preston, John P. Hamilton, Darci Giacomini, C. Robin Buell, Jan E. Leach & Philip Westra
The widely used herbicide glyphosate inhibits the shikimate pathway enzyme 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS). Globally, the intensive use of glyphosate for weed control has selected for glyphosate resistance in 31 weed species. Populations of suspected glyphosate-resistant Kochia scoparia were collected from fields located in the US central Great Plains. Glyphosate dose response verified glyphosate resistance in nine populations. The mechanism of resistance to glyphosate was investigated using targeted sequencing, quantitative PCR, immunoblotting, and whole transcriptome de...

Data from: Botfly infections impair the aerobic performance and survival of montane populations of deer mice, Peromyscus maniculatus rufinus

Luke R. Wilde, Cole J. Wolf, Stephanie M. Poerter, Maria Stager, Zachary A. Cheviron, Nathan R. Senner & Stephanie M. Porter
1. Elevations >2000 m represent consistently harsh environments for small endotherms because of abiotic stressors such as cold temperatures and hypoxia. 2. These environmental stressors may limit the ability of populations living at these elevations to respond to biotic selection pressures — such as parasites or pathogens — that in other environmental contexts would impose only minimal energetic- and fitness-related costs. 3. We studied deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus rufinus) living along two elevational transects (2300...

Data from: Estimating abundance of an open population with an N-mixture model using auxiliary data on animal movements

Alison C. Ketz, Therese L. Johnson, Ryan J. Monello, John A. Mack, Janet L. George, Benjamin R. Kraft, Margaret A. Wild, Mevin B. Hooten & N. Thompson Hobbs
Accurate assessment of abundance forms a central challenge in population ecology and wildlife management. Many statistical techniques have been developed to estimate population sizes because populations change over time and space, and to correct for the bias resulting from animals that are present in a study area but not observed. The mobility of individuals makes it difficult to design sampling procedures that account for movement into and out of areas with fixed jurisdictional boundaries. Aerial...

Data from: Variation in leaf anatomical traits from tropical to cold-temperate forests and linkage to ecosystem functions

Nianpeng He, Congcong Liu, Miao Tian, Meiling Li, Hao Yang, Guirui Yu, Dali Guo, Melinda D. Smith, Qiang Yu & Jihua Hou
1. Leaf anatomical traits may reflect plant's adaption to environmental changes and influence ecosystem functions, as they regulate light absorption and gas exchange to some extent. Here, we hypothesized that leaf anatomical traits were closely related to gross primary productivity (GPP) because photosynthesis commonly occurs in the chloroplasts of palisade and spongy tissues in leaf. 2. Eight leaf anatomical traits were measured in 916 plant species inhabiting from tropical to cold-temperate forests in eastern China:...

Data from: Bias in tree searches and its consequences for measuring group supports

Pablo A. Goloboff & Mark P. Simmons
When doing a bootstrap analysis with a single tree saved per pseudoreplicate, biased search algorithms may influence support values more than actual properties of the data set. Two methods commonly used for finding phylogenetic trees consist of randomizing the input order of species in multiple addition sequences followed by branch swapping, or using random trees as the starting point for branch swapping. The randomness inherent to such methods is assumed to eliminate any consistent preferences...

Data from: Comparative analyses of effective population size within and among species: ranid frogs as a case study

Ivan C Phillipsen, W. Chris Funk, Eric A. Hoffman, Kirsten J. Monsen & Michael S. Blouin
It has recently become practicable to estimate the effective sizes (Ne) of multiple populations within species. Such efforts are valuable for estimating Ne in evolutionary modeling and conservation planning. We used microsatellite loci to estimate Ne of 90 populations of four ranid frogs (20 to 26 populations per species, mean n per population = 29). Our objectives were to determine typical values of Ne for populations of each species, compare Ne estimates among the species,...

Data from: Transmission pathways and spillover of an erythrocytic bacterial pathogen from domestic cats to wild felids

Annie Kellner, Scott Carver, Valeria Scorza, Clifton D. McKee, Michael Lappin, Kevin R. Crooks, Sue VandeWoude & Michael F. Antolin
Many pathogens infect multiple hosts, and spillover from domestic to wild species poses a significant risk for spread of diseases that threaten wildlife and humans. Documentation of cross-species transmission, and unravelling the mechanisms that drive it, remains a challenge. Focusing on co-occurring domestic and wild felids, we evaluate possible transmission mechanisms and evidence of spillover of ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum’ (CMhm), an erythrocytic bacterial parasite of cats. We examine transmission and possibility of spillover by analysing...

Data from: Feline immunodeficiency virus in puma: estimation of force of infection reveals insights into transmission

Jennifer Reynolds, Scott Carver, Mark Cunningham, Ken Logan, Winston Vickers, Kevin Crooks, Sue VandeWoude & Meggan Craft
Determining parameters that govern pathogen transmission (such as the force of infection, FOI), and pathogen impacts on morbidity and mortality, is exceptionally challenging for wildlife. Vital parameters can vary, for example across host populations, between sexes and within an individual's lifetime. Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a lentivirus affecting domestic and wild cat species, forming species-specific viral--host associations. FIV infection is common in populations of puma (Puma concolor), yet uncertainty remains over transmission parameters and...

Data from: Herbivore size matters for productivity-richness relationships in African savannas

Deron E. Burkepile, Richard W. S. Fynn, Dave I. Thompson, Nathan P. Lemoine, Sally E. Koerner, Stephanie Eby, Nicole Hagenah, Kevin R. Wilcox, Scott L. Collins, Kevin P. Kirkman, Alan K. Knapp & Melinda D. Smith
1.Productivity and herbivory often interact to shape plant community composition and species richness with levels of production mediating the impact of herbivory. Yet, differences in herbivore traits such as size, feeding guild, and dietary requirements may result in different impacts of diverse herbivore guilds across productivity gradients. 2.We used size-selective herbivore exclosures to separate the effects of herbivory by larger herbivores, such as elephant, Burchell's zebra, and blue wildebeest from those of medium/smaller herbivores, such...

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