272 Works

Data from: Invasion of two tick-borne diseases across New England: harnessing human surveillance data to capture underlying ecological invasion processes

Katharine S. Walter, Kim M. Pepin, Colleen T. Webb, Holly D. Gaff, Peter J. Krause, Virginia E. Pitzer & Maria A. Diuk-Wasser
Modelling the spatial spread of vector-borne zoonotic pathogens maintained in enzootic transmission cycles remains a major challenge. The best available spatio-temporal data on pathogen spread often take the form of human disease surveillance data. By applying a classic ecological approach—occupancy modelling—to an epidemiological question of disease spread, we used surveillance data to examine the latent ecological invasion of tick-borne pathogens. Over the last half-century, previously undescribed tick-borne pathogens including the agents of Lyme disease and...

Data from: Comparing entire colour patterns as birds see them

John A. Endler & Paul W. Mielke
Colour patterns and their visual backgrounds consist of a mosaic of patches that vary in colour, brightness, size, shape and position. Most studies of crypsis, aposematism, sexual selection, or other forms of signalling concentrate on one or two patch classes (colours), either ignoring the rest of the colour pattern, or analysing the patches separately. We summarize methods of comparing colour patterns making use of known properties of bird eyes. The methods are easily modifiable for...

Data from: Spatial modeling improves understanding patterns of invasive species defoliation by a biocontrol herbivore

Annie L. Henry, Eduardo González, W. Wright Robinson, Bérenger Bourgeois & Anna A. Sher
Spatial modeling has proven to be useful in understanding the drivers of plant populations in the field of ecology, but has yet to be applied to understanding variation in biocontrol impact. In this study, we employ multi-scale analysis (Moran’s Eigenvector Maps) to better understand the variation in tree canopy exposed to defoliation by a biocontrol beetle (Diorhabda spp.). The control of the exotic tree Tamarix in riparian areas has long been a priority for land...

Data from: Natural variation in stomata size contributes to the local adaptation of water-use efficiency in Arabidopsis thaliana

Hannes Dittberner, Arthur Korte, Tabea Mettler-Altmann, Andreas P.M. Weber, Grey Monroe & Juliette De Meaux
Stomata control gas exchanges between the plant and the atmosphere. How natural variation in stomata size and density contributes to resolve trade‐offs between carbon uptake and water‐loss in response to local climatic variation is not yet understood. We developed an automated confocal microscopy approach to characterize natural genetic variation in stomatal patterning in 330 fully‐sequenced Arabidopsis thaliana accessions collected throughout the European range of the species. We compared this to variation in water‐use efficiency, measured...

Data from: Habitat selection predicts genetic relatedness in an alpine ungulate

Aaron B. A. Shafer, Joseph M. Northrup, Kevin S. White, Mark S. Boyce, Steeve D. Côté & David W. Coltman
Landscape heterogeneity plays an integral role in shaping ecological and evolutionary processes. Despite links between the two disciplines, ecologists and population geneticists have taken different approaches to evaluating habitat selection, animal movement, and gene flow across the landscape. Ecologists commonly use statistical models such as resource selection functions (RSFs) to identify habitat features disproportionately selected by animals, while population genetic approaches model genetic differentiation according to the distribution of habitat variables. We combined ecological and...

Data from: Miocene dispersal drives island radiations in the palm tribe Trachycarpeae (Arecaceae)

Christine D. Bacon, William J. Baker & Mark P. Simmons
The study of three island groups of the palm tribe Trachycarpeae (Arecaceae/Palmae) permits both the analysis of each independent radiation and comparisons across the tribe to address general processes that drive island diversification. Phylogenetic relationships of Trachycarpeae were inferred from three plastid and three low-copy nuclear genes. The incongruent topological position of Brahea in CISP5 was hypothesized to be caused by duplication event and was addressed using uninode coding. The resulting phylogenetic trees were well-resolved...

Data from: Worldwide patterns of genetic differentiation imply multiple \"domestications\" of Aedes aegypti, a major vector of human diseases

Julia E. Brown, Carolyn S. McBride, Petrina Johnson, Scott Ritchie, Christophe Paupy, Hervé Bossin, Joel Lutomiah, Ildefonso Fernandez-Salas, Alongkot Ponlawat, Anthony J. Cornel, William C. Black, Norma Gorrochotegui-Escalante, Ludmel Urdaneta-Marquez, Massamba Sylla, Michel Slotman, Kristy O. Murray, Christopher Walker, Jeffrey R. Powell & W. C. Black
Understanding the processes by which species colonize and adapt to human habitats is particularly important in the case of disease-vectoring arthropods. The mosquito species Aedes aegypti, a major vector of dengue and yellow fever viruses, probably originated as a wild, zoophilic species in sub-Saharan Africa, where some populations still breed in tree holes in forested habitats. Many populations of the species, however, have evolved to thrive in human habitats and to bite humans. This includes...

Data from: Stream hierarchy defines riverscape genetics of a North American desert fish

Matthew W. Hopken, Marlis R. Douglas & Michael E. Douglas
Global climate change is apparent within the Arctic and the south-western deserts of North America, with record drought in the latter reflected within 640 000 km2 of the Colorado River Basin. To discern the manner by which natural and anthropogenic drivers have compressed Basin-wide fish biodiversity, and to establish a baseline for future climate effects, the Stream Hierarchy Model (SHM) was employed to juxtapose fluvial topography against molecular diversities of 1092 Bluehead Sucker (Catostomus discobolus)....

Data from: Post-fire changes in forest carbon storage over a 300-year chronosequence of Pinus contorta-dominated forests

Daniel M. Kashian, William H. Romme, Daniel Tinker, Monica G. Turner, Michael G. Ryan & Daniel B. Tinker
A warming climate may increase the frequency and severity of stand-replacing wildfires, reducing carbon (C) storage in forest ecosystems. Understanding the variability of post-fire C cycling on heterogeneous landscapes is critical for predicting changes in C storage with more frequent disturbance. We measured C pools and fluxes for 77 lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud var. latifolia Engelm.) stands in and around Yellowstone National Park (YNP) along a 300-year chronosequence to examine how quickly...

Data from: Forest restoration and parasitoid wasp communities in montane Hawai'i

Rachelle K. Gould, Liba Pejchar, Sara G. Bothwell, Berry Brosi, Stacie Wolny, Chase D. Mendenhall & Gretchen Daily
Globally, most restoration efforts focus on re-creating the physical structure (flora or physical features) of a target ecosystem with the assumption that other ecosystem components will follow. Here we investigate that assumption by documenting biogeographical patterns in an important invertebrate taxon, the parasitoid wasp family Ichneumonidae, in a recently reforested Hawaiian landscape. Specifically, we test the influence of (1) planting configurations (corridors versus patches), (2) vegetation age, (3) distance from mature native forest, (4) surrounding...

Pronghorn population genomics show connectivity at the core of their range

Melanie E.F. LaCava, Roderick B. Gagne, Sierra M. Love Stowell, Kyle D. Gustafson, C. Alex Buerkle, Lee Knox & Holly B. Ernest
Preserving connectivity in the core of a species’ range is crucial for long-term persistence. However, a combination of ecological characteristics, social behavior, and landscape features can reduce connectivity among wildlife populations and lead to genetic structure. Pronghorn (Antilocapra americana), for example, exhibit fluctuating herd dynamics and variable seasonal migration strategies, but GPS-tracking studies show that landscape features such as highways impede their movements, leading to conflicting hypotheses about expected levels of genetic structure. Given that...

Data from: Seasonal shifts in the importance of bottom-up and top-down factors on stream periphyton community structure

Whitney S. Beck, David W. Markman, Isabella A. Oleksy, M. Holliday Lafferty & N. Leroy Poff
We examined the importance of temporal variability in top-down and bottom-up effects on the accumulation of stream periphyton, which are complex associations of autotrophic and heterotrophic microorganisms. Periphyton contributes to primary production and nutrient cycling and serves as a food resource for herbivores (grazers). Periphyton growth is often limited by the availability of nitrogen and phosphorus, and biomass can be controlled by grazers. In this study we experimentally manipulated nutrients and grazers simultaneously to determine...

Data from: A hierarchical Bayesian approach for handling missing classification data

Alison C. Ketz, Therese L. Johnson, Mevin B. Hooten & M. Thompson Hobbs
Ecologists use classifications of individuals in categories to understand composition of populations and communities. These categories might be defined by demographics, functional traits, or species. Assignment of categories is often imperfect, but frequently treated as observations without error. When individuals are observed but not classified, these “partial” observations must be modified to include the missing data mechanism to avoid spurious inference. We developed two hierarchical Bayesian models to overcome the assumption of perfect assignment to...

Data from: Plasticity and evolution in correlated suites of traits

Eva K. Fischer, Cameron K. Ghalambor & Kim L. Hoke
When organisms are faced with new or changing environments, a central challenge is the coordination of adaptive shifts in many different phenotypic traits. The actual relationships among traits may facilitate or constrain evolutionary responses to selection, depending on whether the direction of selection is aligned or opposed to the pattern of trait correlations. Attempts to predict evolutionary potential in correlated traits generally assume that correlations are stable across time and space; however, increasing evidence suggests...

Metabolic rate shapes phenotypic covariance among physiological, behavioral, and life history traits in honeybees

Stephen Mugel & Dhruba Naug
Metabolic rate is often cited as the fundamental rate that determines the rate of all biological processes by shaping energetic availability for the various behavioral and life history traits that contribute to performance. It has therefore been suggested that metabolic rate drives the widely observed covariance among these different levels of phenotypic traits. However, much of the work on this topic has relied on pairwise correlational analysis, thereby leaving an important gap in our understanding...

Ensemble model output of North American atmospheric CO2 simulations for summer 2016, including transport, CASA and CT2017, and boundary condition ensembles

S. Feng, T. Lauvaux, C. Williams, K.J. Davis, Y. Zhou, I. Baker, Z.R. Barkley & D. Wesloh

A worldwide assessment of soil macroinvertebrate communities

Patrick Lavelle, Jerome Mathieu, Alister Spain, George Brown, Carlos Fragoso, Emmanuel Lapied, Adriana De Aquino, Isabelle Barois, Edmundo Barrios, Eleusa Barros, Juan Camilo Bedano, Eric Blanchart, Mark Caulfield, Yamileth Chagueza, Jun Dai, Thibaud Decaens, Anahi Domninquez, Yamileth Dominquez, Alex Feijoo, Patricia Folgaraiti, Steven Fonte, Norma Gorosito, Esperanza Huerta, Juan Jose Jimenez, Courtland Kelly … & Chi Zhang
Soil macroinvertebrate communities have been assessed worldwide using the standard ISO/TSBF sampling procedure. The Macrofauna database currently comprises 3694 sites distributed throughout 41 countries, from 55º S latitude to 57ºN, sea level to over 4000m in elevation, in total annual total rainfall regimes between 500 and >3000mm and 5 to 32ºC mean temperature. These communities are significantly influenced by climatic parameters, soil texture and vegetation cover. Abundance and diversity were highest in tropical rain forests...

Functional connectivity in a continuously distributed, migratory species as revealed by landscape genomics

Melanie E. F. LaCava, Roderick B. Gagne, Kyle D. Gustafson, Sara J. Oyler-McCance, Kevin L. Monteith, Hall Sawyer, Matthew J. Kauffman, Daniel J. Thiele & Holly B. Ernest
Maintaining functional connectivity is critical for the long-term conservation of wildlife populations. Landscape genomics provides an opportunity to assess long-term functional connectivity by relating environmental variables to spatial patterns of genomic variation resulting from generations of movement, dispersal, and mating behaviors. Identifying landscape features associated with gene flow at large geographic scales for highly mobile species is becoming increasingly possible due to more accessible genomic approaches, improved analytical methods, and enhanced computational power. We characterized...

Magnitude and direction of stream-forest community interactions change with time scale

Amy Marcarelli, Colden Baxter, Joseph Benjamin, Yo Miyake, Masashi Murakami, Kurt Fausch & Shigeru Nakano
Networks of direct and indirect biotic interactions underpin the complex dynamics and stability of ecological systems, yet experimental and theoretical studies often yield conflicting evidence regarding the direction (positive or negative) or magnitude of these interactions. We revisited pioneering datasets collected at the deciduous forested Horonai Stream and conducted ecosystem-level syntheses to demonstrate that the direction of direct and indirect interactions can change depending on the timescale of observation. Prior experimental studies showed that terrestrial...

Plant traits and soil fertility mediate productivity losses under extreme drought in C3 grasslands

Wentao Luo, Robert Griffin-Nolan, Wang Ma, Bo Liu, Xiaoan Zuo, Chong Xu, Qiang Yu, Yahuang Luo, Pierre Mariotte, Melinda Smith, Scott Collins, Alan Knapp, Zhengwen Wang & Xingguo Han
Extreme drought decreases aboveground net primary production (ANPP) in most grasslands, but the magnitude of ANPP reductions varies especially in C3-dominated grasslands. Because the mechanisms underlying such differential ecosystem responses to drought are not well-resolved, we experimentally imposed an extreme 4-year drought (2015-2018) in two C3 grasslands that differed in aridity. These sites had similar annual precipitation and dominant grass species (Leymus chinensis) but different annual temperatures and thus water availability. Drought treatments differentially affected...

Precipitation manipulation and terrestrial carbon cycling: the roles of treatment magnitude, experimental duration, and local climate

Jinsong Wang, Dashuan Tian, Alan K. Knapp, Han Y. H. Chen, Yiqi Luo, Zhaolei Li, Enqing Hou, Xinzhao Huang, Lifen Jiang & Shuli Niu
Aim: Precipitation manipulation experiments have shown diverse terrestrial carbon (C) cycling responses when the ecosystem is subjected to different magnitudes of altered precipitation, various experimental durations, or heterogeneity in local climate. However, how these factors combine to affect C cycle responses to changes in precipitation remains unclear. Location: Global. Time period: 1990–2019. Major taxa studied: Terrestrial ecosystems. Methods: Using observations from 230 published studies in which precipitation was manipulated and terrestrial C cycling variables were...

Cameron Pass NASA SnowEx - Meadow TLS U-077 PS01 SV06

DANIEL MCGRATH & Keith Williams

Cameron Pass NASA SnowEx - Meadow TLS U-077 PS01 SV04

DANIEL MCGRATH & Keith Williams

Body size is associated with yearling breeding and extra-pair mating in the Island Scrub-Jay

Michelle A. Desrosiers, Kathryn M. Langin, W. Chris Funk, T. Scott Sillett, Scott A. Morrison, Cameron K. Ghalambor & Lisa M. Angeloni
Large body size is an important determinant of individual fitness in many animal species, especially in island systems where habitat saturation may result in strong intraspecific competition for mates and breeding territories. Here we show that large body size is associated with benefits to yearling breeding and extra-pair mating in the Island Scrub-Jay (Aphelocoma insularis), endemic to Santa Cruz Island, California. This species is approximately 20% larger than its mainland congener, consistent with the island...

Data from: Ecological factors influence balancing selection on leaf chemical profiles of a wildflower

Lauren Carley, Julius Mojica, Baosheng Wang, Chia-Yu Chen, Ya-Ping Lin, Kasavajhala Prasad, Emily Chan, Che-Wei Hsu, Rose Keith, Chase Nuñez, Carrie Olson-Manning, Catherine Rushworth, Maggie Wagner, Jing Wang, Pei-Min Yeh, Michael Reichelt, Kathryn Ghattas, Jonathan Gershenzon, Cheng-Ruei Lee & Thomas Mitchell-Olds
Balancing selection is frequently invoked as a mechanism to maintain variation within and across populations. However, rigorous tests demonstrating balancing selection operating in nature are scarce, particularly on complex traits, which frequently display high levels of variation. Leveraging a focal polymorphism, leaf chemical profile in a perennial wildflower (Boechera stricta, Brassicaceae), we investigated the ecological and genetic mechanisms that may influence the maintenance of variation in this trait. A suite of common garden and greenhouse...

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