45 Works

Data from: Partial support for the central–marginal hypothesis within a population: reduced genetic diversity but not increased differentiation at the range edge of an island endemic bird

Kathryn M. Langin, T. Scott Sillett, W. Chris Funk, Scott A. Morrison & Cameron K. Ghalambor
Large-scale population comparisons have contributed to our understanding of the evolution of geographic range limits and species boundaries, as well as the conservation value of populations at range margins. The central–marginal hypothesis (CMH) predicts a decline in genetic diversity and an increase in genetic differentiation toward the periphery of species’ ranges due to spatial variation in genetic drift and gene flow. Empirical studies on a diverse array of taxa have demonstrated support for the CMH....

Data from: Nonselective bottlenecks control the divergence and diversification of phase-variable bacterial populations

Jack Aidley, Shweta Rajopadhye, Nwanekka M. Akinyemi, Lea Lango-Scholey & Christopher D. Bayliss
Phase variation occurs in many pathogenic and commensal bacteria and is a major generator of genetic variability. A putative advantage of phase variation is to counter reductions in variability imposed by nonselective bottlenecks during transmission. Genomes of Campylobacter jejuni, a widespread food-borne pathogen, contain multiple phase-variable loci whose rapid, stochastic variation is generated by hypermutable simple sequence repeat tracts. These loci can occupy a vast number of combinatorial expression states (phasotypes) enabling populations to rapidly...

Data from: Precipitation and environmental constraints on three aspects of flowering in three dominant tallgrass species

Nathan P. Lemoine, John D. Dietrich & Melinda D. Smith
Flower production can comprise up to 70% of aboveground primary production in grasslands. Yet we know relatively little about how the environment and timing of rainfall determine flower productivity. Evidence suggests that deficits or additions of rainfall during phenlologically relevant periods (i.e. growth, storage, initiation of flowering, and reproduction) can determine flower production in grasslands. We used long-term data from the Konza Prairie LTER to test how fire, soil topography, and precipitation amounts during four...

Data from: Factors influencing ocelot occupancy in Brazilian Atlantic Forest reserves

Rodrigo Lima Massara, Ana Maria De Oliveira Paschoal, Larissa Lynn Bailey, , André Hirsch, Adriano Garcia Chiarello & Paul F. Doherty
Over 80% of Atlantic Forest remnants are <50 ha and protected areas are embedded in a matrix dominated by human activities, undermining the long-term persistence of carnivores. The ocelot (Leopardus pardalis) is an opportunistic species, but little is known about its tolerance to habitat alterations and the influence of other species on its occupancy in Atlantic Forest remnants. We used camera traps to assess ocelot occupancy in protected areas of Atlantic Forest in southeastern Brazil....

Data from: Balancing selection maintains sex determining alleles in multiple-locus complementary sex determination

Jerome J. Weis, Paul J. Ode & George E. Heimpel
Hymenopteran species in which sex is determined through a haplo-diploid mechanism known as complementary sex determination (CSD) are vulnerable to a unique form of inbreeding depression. Diploids heterozygous at one or more CSD loci develop into females but diploids homozygous at all loci develop into diploid males, which are generally sterile or inviable. Species with multiple polymorphic CSD loci (ml-CSD) may have lower rates of diploid male production than species with a single CSD locus...

Data from: Gene expression differs in codominant prairie grasses under drought

Ava M. Hoffman & Melinda D. Smith
Grasslands of the Central US are expected to experience severe droughts and other climate extremes in the future, yet we know little about how these grasses will respond in terms of gene expression. We compared gene expression in Andropogon gerardii and Sorghastrum nutans, two closely related co-dominant C4 grasses responsible for the majority of ecosystem function, using RNA-seq. We compared Trinity assemblies within each species to determine annotated functions of transcripts responding to drought. Subsequently,...

Data from: Exposure to dairy manure leads to greater antibiotic resistance and increased mass-specific respiration in soil microbial communities

Carl Wepking, Bethany Avera, Brian Badgley, John E. Barrett, Josh Franklin, Katharine F. Knowlton, Partha P. Ray, Crystal Smitherman & Michael S. Strickland
Intensifying livestock production to meet the demands of a growing global population coincides with increases in both the administration of veterinary antibiotics and manure inputs to soils. These trends have the potential to increase antibiotic resistance in soil microbial communities. The effect of maintaining increased antibiotic resistance on soil microbial communities and the ecosystem processes they regulate is unknown. We compare soil microbial communities from paired reference and dairy manure-exposed sites across the USA. Given...

Data from: The power of evolutionary rescue is constrained by genetic load

Gavin S. Stewart, Madeline R. Morris, Allison B. Genis, Marianna Szűcs, Brett A. Melbourne, Simon J. Tavener & Ruth A. Hufbauer
Extinction risk of small isolated populations in changing environments can be reduced by rapid adaptation and subsequent growth to larger, less vulnerable sizes. Whether this process, called evolutionary rescue, is able to reduce extinction risk and sustain population growth over multiple generations is largely unknown. To understand the consequences of adaptive evolution as well as maladaptive processes in small isolated populations, we subjected experimental Tribolium castaneum populations founded with 10 or 40 individuals to novel...

Data from: Robust extraction of quantitative structural information from high-variance histological images of livers from necropsied Soay sheep

Quentin Caudron, Romain Garnier, Jill G. Pilkington, Kathryn A. Watt, Christina Hansen, Bryan T. Grenfell, Tawfik Aboellail & Andrea L. Graham
Quantitative information is essential to the empirical analysis of biological systems. In many such systems, spatial relations between anatomical structures is of interest, making imaging a valuable data acquisition tool. However, image data can be difficult to analyse quantitatively. Many image processing algorithms are highly sensitive to variations in the image, limiting their current application to fields where sample and image quality may be very high. Here, we develop robust image processing algorithms for extracting...

Data from: Rapid adaptive evolution in novel environments acts as an architect of population range expansion

Marianna Szűcs, Megan L. Vahsen, Brett A. Melbourne, Charlotte Hoover, Christopher Weiss-Lehman & Ruth A. Hufbauer
Colonization and expansion into novel landscapes determine the distribution and abundance of species in our rapidly changing ecosystems worldwide. Colonization events are crucibles for rapid evolution, but it is not known whether evolutionary changes arise mainly after successful colonization has occurred, or if evolution plays an immediate role, governing the growth and expansion speed of colonizing populations. There is evidence that spatial evolutionary processes can speed range expansion within a few generations because dispersal tendencies...

Data from: Design- and model-based strategies for detecting and quantifying an amphibian pathogen in environmental samples

Brittany A. Mosher, Kathryn P. Huyvaert, Tara Chestnut, Jacob L. Kerby, Joseph D. Madison, Larissa L. Bailey & Brittany Mosher
Accurate pathogen detection is essential for developing management strategies to address emerging infectious diseases, an increasingly prominent threat to wildlife. Sampling for free-living pathogens outside of their hosts has benefits for inference and study efficiency, but is still uncommon. We used a laboratory experiment to evaluate the influences of pathogen concentration, water type, and qPCR inhibitors on the detection and quantification of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) using water filtration. We compared results pre- and post-inhibitor removal,...

Data from: Spatial dynamics of habitat use informs reintroduction efforts in the presence of an invasive predator

Evan M. Rehm, Mallory B. Balsat, Nathan P. Lemoine & Julie A. Savidge
1. Islands experience major impacts from introduced species, especially nocturnal predators. The Brown Treesnake (Boiga irregularis) extirpated almost the entire native avifauna on Guam shortly after introduction. Reintroductions from neighboring islands can restore bird communities but will take place in heavily managed units where snake populations can be controlled. Yet reintroductions often proceed without relevant biological information such as nocturnal habitat and space use when nocturnal predators are present. To guide efforts, we studied diurnal...

Data from: Exploring the effects of salinization on trophic diversity in freshwater ecosystems: a quantitative review

Luis Fernando De León, Cameron K. Ghalambor, Diana M. T. Sharpe & Anakena M. Castillo
Salinization of freshwater ecosystems represents a potential threat to biodiversity, but the distribution of salinity tolerance among freshwater organisms and its functional consequences are understudied. In this study, we reviewed global patterns of salinity tolerance across a broad range of freshwater organisms. Specifically, we compared published data on LC50 (a metric of salinity tolerance) across climatic regions, taxa, and functional feeding groups (FFGs). We found that microinvertebrates were more sensitive to salinity than vertebrates and...

Data from: Prevalence, diversity, and host associations of Bartonella strains in bats from Georgia (Caucasus)

Lela Urushadze, Ying Bai, Lynn Osikowicz, Clifton McKee, Ketevan Sidamonidze, Davit Putkaradze, Paata Imnadze, Andrei Kandaurov, Ivan Kuzmin & Michael Kosoy
Bartonella infections were investigated in seven species of bats from four regions of the Republic of Georgia. Of the 236 bats that were captured, 212 (90%) specimens were tested for Bartonella infection. Colonies identified as Bartonella were isolated from 105 (49.5%) of 212 bats Phylogenetic analysis based on sequence variation of the gltA gene differentiated 22 unique Bartonella genogroups. Genetic distances between these diverse genogroups were at the level of those observed between different Bartonella...

Data from: Climate and competition effects on tree growth in Rocky Mountain forests

Arne Buechling, Patrick H. Martin & Charles D. Canham
1. Climate is widely assumed to influence physiological and demographic processes in trees, and hence forest composition, biomass and range limits. Growth in trees is an important barometer of climate change impacts on forests as growth is highly correlated with other demographic processes including tree mortality and fecundity. 2. We investigated the main drivers of diameter growth for five common tree species occurring in the Rocky Mountains of the western United States using non-linear regression...

Data from: Bias correction of bounded location errors in presence-only data

Trevor J. Hefley, Brian M. Brost & Mevin B. Hooten
1. Location error occurs when the true location is different than the reported location. Because habitat characteristics at the true location may be different than those at the reported location, ignoring location error may lead to unreliable inference concerning species-habitat relationships. 2. We explain how a transformation known in the spatial statistics literature as a change of support (COS) can be used to correct for location errors when the true locations are points with unknown...

Data from: Microbial richness and composition independently drive soil multifunctionality

Manuel Delgado-Baquerizo, Pankaj Trivedi, Chanda Trivedi, David J. Eldridge, Peter B. Reich, Thomas C. Jeffries & Brajesh K. Singh
Soil microbes provide multiple ecosystem functions such as nutrient cycling, decomposition and climate regulation. However, we lack a quantitative understanding of the relative importance of microbial richness and composition in controlling multifunctionality. This knowledge gap limits our capacity to understand the influence of biotic attributes in the provision of services and functions on which humans depend. We used two independent approaches (i.e. experimental and observational), and applied statistical modeling to identify the role and relative...

Data from: Breakdown of a geographic cline explains high performance of introduced populations of a weedy invader

Stacy B. Endriss, Christina Alba, Andrew P. Norton, Petr Pyšek & Ruth A. Hufbauer
1. What drives the evolution of increased growth and fecundity in plants introduced to a novel range is not well understood. 2. We investigate between-range differences in performance for Verbascum thapsus, a weedy invader known to grow larger in its introduced than native range. Specifically, we question whether adaptation to herbivory or climate best explains increased performance of introduced populations. 3. We grew 14 native and 22 introduced populations of V. thapsus in two common...

Data from: Facilitation by leguminous shrubs increases along a precipitation gradient

Hai-Yang Zhang, Xiao-Tao Lü, Alan K. Knapp, Henrik Hartmann, Edith Bai, Xiao-Bo Wang, Zheng-Wen Wang, Xiao-Guang Wang, Qiang Yu & Xing-Guo Han
Combining nutrient dynamics (plant nutrient uptake and soil fertility) can help uncover mechanisms of shrub-grass interactions and assess the validity of the stress-gradient hypothesis, which predicts that facilitation between plants increases in stressful environments. However, how facilitation via shrub-mediated nutrient increases varies with precipitation is poorly resolved. We first synthesized a global dataset from 66 studies and evaluated how shrubs affected soil organic carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) in grasslands along a precipitation gradient. We...

Data from: Internet blogs, polar bears, and climate-change denial by proxy

Jeffrey A. Harvey, Daphne Van Den Berg, Jacintha Ellers, Remko Kampen, Thomas W. Crowther, Peter Roessingh, Bart Verheggen, Rascha J. M. Nuijten, Eric Post, Stephan Lewandowsky, Ian Stirling, Meena Balgopal, Steven C. Amstrup & Michael E. Mann
Increasing surface temperatures, Arctic sea-ice loss, and other evidence of anthropogenic global warming (AGW) are acknowledged by every major scientific organization in the world. However, there is a wide gap between this broad scientific consensus and public opinion. Internet blogs have strongly contributed to this consensus gap by fomenting misunderstandings of AGW causes and consequences. Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) have become a “poster species” for AGW, making them a target of those denying AGW evidence....

Data from: Different clades and traits yield similar grassland functional responses

Elisabeth J. Forrestel, Michael J. Donoghue, Erika J. Edwards, Walter Jetz, Justin C. O. Du Toit & Melinda D. Smith
Plant functional traits are viewed as key to predicting important ecosystem and community properties across resource gradients within and among biogeographic regions. Vegetation dynamics and ecosystem processes, such as aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP), are increasingly being modeled as a function of the quantitative traits of species, which are used as proxies for photosynthetic rates, and nutrient and water-use efficiency. These approaches rely on an assumption that a certain trait value consistently confers a specific...

Data from: Safari science: assessing the reliability of citizen science data for wildlife surveys

Cara Steger, Bilal Butt & Mevin B. Hooten
1. Protected areas are the cornerstone of global conservation, yet financial support for basic monitoring infrastructure is lacking in 60% of them. Citizen science holds potential to address these shortcomings in wildlife monitoring, particularly for resource-limited conservation initiatives in developing countries - if we can account for the reliability of data produced by volunteer citizen scientists (VCS) . 2. This study tests the reliability of VCS data vs. data produced by trained ecologists, presenting a...

Data from: Field-based high throughput phenotyping rapidly identifies genomic regions controlling yield components in rice

Paul Tanger, Stephen Klassen, Julius P. Mojica, John T. Lovell, Brook T. Moyers, Marietta Baraoidan, Maria Elizabeth B. Naredo, Kenneth L. McNally, Jesse Poland, Daniel R. Bush, Hei Leung, Jan E. Leach & John K. McKay
To ensure food security in the face of population growth, decreasing water and land for agriculture, and increasing climate variability, crop yields must increase faster than the current rates. Increased yields will require implementing novel approaches in genetic discovery and breeding. Here we demonstrate the potential of field-based high throughput phenotyping (HTP) on a large recombinant population of rice to identify genetic variation underlying important traits. We find that detecting quantitative trait loci (QTL) with...

Data from: Variation in leaf anatomical traits from tropical to cold-temperate forests and linkage to ecosystem functions

Nianpeng He, Congcong Liu, Miao Tian, Meiling Li, Hao Yang, Guirui Yu, Dali Guo, Melinda D. Smith, Qiang Yu & Jihua Hou
1. Leaf anatomical traits may reflect plant's adaption to environmental changes and influence ecosystem functions, as they regulate light absorption and gas exchange to some extent. Here, we hypothesized that leaf anatomical traits were closely related to gross primary productivity (GPP) because photosynthesis commonly occurs in the chloroplasts of palisade and spongy tissues in leaf. 2. Eight leaf anatomical traits were measured in 916 plant species inhabiting from tropical to cold-temperate forests in eastern China:...

Data from: Endemic chronic wasting disease causes mule deer population decline in Wyoming

Melia T. DeVivo, David R. Edmunds, Matthew J. Kauffman, Brant A. Schumaker, Justin Binfet, Terry J. Kreeger, Bryan J. Richards, Hermann M. Schätzl & Todd E. Cornish
Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a fatal transmissible spongiform encephalopathy affecting white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni), and moose (Alces alces shirasi) in North America. In southeastern Wyoming average annual CWD prevalence in mule deer exceeds 20% and appears to contribute to regional population declines. We determined the effect of CWD on mule deer demography using age-specific, female-only, CWD transition matrix models to estimate the population growth...

Registration Year

  • 2017
    45

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    45

Affiliations

  • Colorado State University
    45
  • University of Colorado Boulder
    4
  • University of Wyoming
    3
  • University of Minnesota
    3
  • McGill University
    2
  • Universidad San Francisco de Quito
    2
  • Chinese Academy of Sciences
    2
  • University of Denver
    2
  • Nature Conservancy
    2
  • Cornell University
    2