332 Works

Data from: Maintenance of genetic diversity in an introduced island population of Guanacos after seven decades and two severe demographic bottlenecks: implications for camelid conservation

Benito A. González, Pablo Orozco-TerWengel, Rainer Von Borries, Warren E. Johnson, William L. Franklin & Juan C. Marín
Fifteen Guanacos were introduced to Staats Island in Falklands/Malvinas archipelago from Patagonia in the 1930s. After introduction, the Guanaco population increased to almost 400 animals that retained a footprint of the founding effect and bottleneck reflected in the genetic status of this isolated population. The goals of this study were to (i) make a genetic assessment of this island population through comparisons with mainland populations and simulation, and (ii) assess the likely source population of...

Data from: Pyrosequencing of prey DNA in reptile faeces: analysis of earthworm consumption by slow worms

David S. Brown, Simon N. Jarman & William O.C. Symondson
Little quantitative ecological information exists on the diets of most invertebrate feeding reptiles, particularly nocturnal or elusive species that are difficult to observe. In the UK and elsewhere, reptiles are legally required to be relocated before land development can proceed, but without knowledge of their dietary requirements the suitability of receptor sites cannot be known. Here we tested the ability of non-invasive DNA-based molecular diagnostics (454 pyrosequencing) to analyse reptile diets, with the specific aims...

Data from: Hybridization masks speciation in the evolutionary history of the Galápagos marine iguana

Amy MacLeod, Ariel Rodríguez, Miguel Vences, Pablo Orozco-TerWengel, Carolina García, Fritz Trillmich, Gabriele Gentile, Adalgisa Caccone, Galo Quezada & Sebastian Steinfartz
The effects of the direct interaction between hybridization and speciation—two major contrasting evolutionary processes—are poorly understood. We present here the evolutionary history of the Galápagos marine iguana (Amblyrhynchus cristatus) and reveal a case of incipient within-island speciation, which is paralleled by between-island hybridization. In-depth genome-wide analyses suggest that Amblyrhynchus diverged from its sister group, the Galápagos land iguanas, around 4.5 million years ago (Ma), but divergence among extant populations is exceedingly young (less than 50...

Data from: Moving in groups: how density and unpredictable motion affect predation risk

Nicholas E. Scott-Samuel, Gavin Holmes, Roland Baddeley & Innes C. Cuthill
One of the most widely applicable benefits of aggregation is a per capita reduction in predation risk. Many factors can contribute to this but, for moving groups, an increased difficulty in tracking and targeting one individual amongst many has received particular attention. This “confusion effect” has been proposed to result from a bottleneck in information processing, a hypothesis supported by both modelling and experiment. If the competition for limited attention is localised to the particular...

Data from: ‘Venus trapped, Mars transits’: Cu and Fe redox chemistry, cellular topography and in situ ligand binding in terrestrial isopod hepatopancreas

Peter Kille, A. John Morgan, Kate Powell, J. Frederick W. Mosselmans, Daniel Hart, Paul Gunning, Anthony Hayes, Derek Scarborough, Iain Mcdonald & John M. Charnock
Woodlice efficiently sequester copper (Cu) in ‘cuprosomes’ within hepatopancreatic ‘S’ cells. Binuclear ‘B’ cells in the hepatopancreas form iron (Fe) deposits; these cells apparently undergo an apocrine secretory diurnal cycle linked to nocturnal feeding. Synchrotron-based m-focus X-ray spectroscopy undertaken on thin sections was used to characterize the ligands binding Cu and Fe in S and B cells of Oniscus asellus (Isopoda). Main findings were: (i) morphometry confirmed a diurnal B-cell apocrine cycle; (ii) X-ray fluorescence...

Data from: Pace of life, predators and parasites: predator-induced life history evolution in Trinidadian guppies predicts decrease in parasite tolerance

Jessica F. Stephenson, C. Van Oosterhout & Joanne Cable
A common evolutionary response to predation pressure is increased investment in reproduction, ultimately resulting in a fast life history. Theory and comparative studies suggest that short-lived organisms invest less in defence against parasites than those that are longer lived (the pace of life hypothesis). Combining these tenets of evolutionary theory leads to the specific, untested prediction that within species, populations experiencing higher predation pressure invest less in defence against parasites. The Trinidadian guppy, Poecilia reticulata,...

Data from: A comparison of clearfelling and gradual thinning of plantations for the restoration of insect herbivores and woodland plants

Beth Atkinson, Sallie Bailey, Ian P. Vaughan & Jane Memmott
1. Testing restoration methods is essential for the development of restoration ecology as a science. It is also important to monitor a range of taxa, not just plants which have been the traditional focus of restoration ecology. Here we compare the effects on ground flora and leaf-miners, of two restoration practices used when restoring conifer plantations. 2. Two methods of restoration were investigated: clearfelling of plantations and the gradual thinning of conifers over time. Unrestored...

Data from: Landscape determinants of fine-scale genetic structure of a small rodent in a heterogeneous landscape (Hluhluwe-iMfolozi Park, South Africa)

Isa-Rita M. Russo, Catherine L. Sole, Mario Barbato, Ullrich Von Bramann & Michael W. Bruford
Small mammals provide ecosystem services, acting, for example, as pollinators and seed dispersers. In addition, they are also disease reservoirs that can be detrimental to human health and they can also act as crop pests. Knowledge of their dispersal preferences is therefore useful for population management and landscape planning. Genetic data were used alongside landscape data to examine the influence of the landscape on the demographic connectedness of the Natal multimammate mouse (Mastomys natalensis) and...

Observation of Coherent Spin Waves in a Three-Dimensional Artificial Spin Ice Structure - data

Sourav Sahoo, Andrew May, Arjen Van Den Berg, Amrit Kumar Mondal, Sam Ladak & Anjan Barman
The spin wave (SW) dynamics of the 3D array were measured by using conventional Brillouin light scattering (BLS) technique. The 3D-ASI was fabricated by using a combination of TPL and thermal evaporation. BLS is a popular tool to measure SW dynamics of magnetic thin films and patterned nanostructures. It is a non-contact and thus non-invasive tool to measure thermally excited SWs at room temperature without any external excitation and under ambient conditions. This technique relies...

What you sample is what you get: ecomorphological variation in Trithemis (Odonata, Libellulidae) dragonfly wings reconsidered

Norman MacLeod, Banjamin Price & Zachary Stevens
Abstract Background The phylogenetic ecology of the Afro-Asian dragonfly genus Trithemis has been investigated previously by Damm et al. (in Mol Phylogenet Evol 54:870–882, 2010) and wing ecomorphology by Outomuro et al. (in J Evol Biol 26:1866–1874, 2013). However, the latter investigation employed a somewhat coarse sampling of forewing and hindwing outlines and reported results that were at odds in some ways with expectations given the mapping of landscape and water-body preference over the Trithemis...

Photocatalytic behavior of Ba(Sb/Ta)2O6 perovskite for reduction of organic pollutants: Experimental and DFT correlation - data

Madhuri S Patila, Narasimharao Kitchamsetti, Sameena R Mulani, Sachin R. Rondiya, Nishad G Deshpande, Ranjit A Patil, Russell W Cross, Nelson Y Dzade, Kirankumar K Sharma, Pramod S Patil, Yuan-Ron Ma, Hyung Koun Cho & Rupesh S Devan
We have synthesized closely packed hexagonal 2D plates and clustered nanoparticle morphologies of Ba(Sb/Ta)2O6 (BSTO) perovskite via the polymerizable complex method for photocatalyst dye degradation activities. The BSTO crystallized in a hexagonal structure. The presence of Ba2+, Sb5+, Ta5+, and O2− chemical states identified from XPS confirmed the formation of pure Ba(Sb/Ta)2O6 phase accompanied with a minor amount of TaOx. Furthermore, BSTO showed excellent photocatalytic activity for the degradation of various organic dyes. The kinetic...

Cellulolytic decomposition in Welsh upland rivers in response to organic matter addition (2013)

I. Durance, C. Gutierrez-Canovas, D.M. Perkins & G. Woodward
These data are cellulolytic decomposition in eight Welsh upland rivers with contrasting land-use, moorland and exotic conifer, in response to riparian deciduous leaf addition. Eight sampling reaches were chosen at two sites, Llyn Brianne (4 reaches) and Plynlimon (4 reaches). The experiment consisted of adding deciduous leaves to half of the reaches whilst the other half were maintained as a control (no addition of deciduous leaves). To characterise the cellulolytic decomposition of the studied streams,...

Data from: No signs of inbreeding despite long-term isolation and habitat fragmentation in the critically endangered Montseny brook newt (Calotriton arnoldi)

Emilio Valbuena-Ureña, Anna Soler-Membrives, Sebastian Steinfartz, Pablo Orozco-TerWengel & Salvador Carranza
Endemic species with restricted geographic ranges potentially suffer the highest risk of extinction. If these species are further fragmented into genetically isolated subpopulations, the risk of extinction is elevated. Habitat fragmentation is generally considered to have negative effects on species survival, despite some evidence for neutral or even positive effects. Typically, non-negative effects are ignored by conservation biology. The Montseny brook newt (Calotriton arnoldi) has one of the smallest distribution ranges of any European amphibian...

Data from: Biological invasion modifies the co-occurrence patterns of insects along a stress gradient

José Antonio Carbonell, Josefa Velasco, Andres Millan, Andy J. Green, Cristina Coccia, Simone Guareschi & Cayetano Gutiérrez-Cánovas
Biological invasions have become one of the most important drivers of biodiversity loss and ecosystem change world-wide. However, it is still unclear how invasions may interact with local abiotic stressors, which are expected to increase as global change intensifies. Furthermore, we know little about the response to biological invasions of insects, despite their disproportionate contribution to global animal biodiversity. The aim of the present work is to investigate the impact of an invasive aquatic insect...

Suspended organic matter stocks of Welsh upland rivers in response to organic matter addition (2012-2013)

I. Durance, C. Gutierrez-Canovas, M.C. Pye & S.J. Ormerod
These data are suspended organic matter stocks of coarse and fine particulate organic matter in eight Welsh upland rivers with contrasting land-use, moorland and exotic conifer, in response to riparian deciduous leaf addition. Eight sampling reaches were chosen at two sites, Llyn Brianne (4 reaches) and Plynlimon (4 reaches). The experiment consisted of adding deciduous leaves to half of the reaches whilst the other half were maintained as a control (no addition of deciduous leaves)....

Data from: The cost of infection: Argulus foliaceus and its impact on the swimming performance of the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus)

Alexander Stewart, Rhiannon Hunt, Valantine Muhawenimana, Catherine A.M.E. Wilson, Joseph A. Jackson & Joanne Cable
For fish, there can be multiple consequences of parasitic infections, including the physical impacts on swimming and the pathological costs of infection. This study utilised the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) and the ectoparasitic fish louse, Argulus foliaceus, to assess both physical (including form drag and mass) and pathological effects of infection. Both sustained (prolonged swimming within an open channel flume) and burst (C-start) swimming performance were measured on individual fish before (Trials 1-2) and after...

Data from: Phenology of farmland floral resources reveals seasonal gaps in nectar availability for bumblebees

Thomas P. Timberlake, Ian P. Vaughan & Jane Memmott
Floral resources are known to be important in regulating wild pollinator populations and are therefore an important component of agri‐environment and restoration schemes which aim to support pollinators and their associated services. However, the phenology of floral resources is often overlooked in these schemes – a factor which may be limiting their success. Our study characterises and quantifies the phenology of nectar resources at the whole‐farm scale on replicate farms in Southwestern UK throughout the...

Data from: Explaining European fungal fruiting phenology with climate variability

Carrie Andrew, Einar Heegaard, Klaus Høiland, Beatrice Senn-Irlet, Thomas W. Kuyper, Irmgard Krisai-Greilhuber, Paul M. Kirk, Jacob Heilmann-Clausen, Alan C. Gange, Simon Egli, Claus Bässler, Ulf Büntgen, Lynne Boddy & Håvard Kauserud
Here we assess the impact of geographically dependent (latitude, longitude and altitude) changes in bioclimatic (temperature, precipitation and primary productivity) variability on fungal fruiting phenology across Europe. Two main nutritional guilds of fungi, saprotrophic and ectomycorrhizal, were further separated into spring and autumn fruiters. We used a path‐analysis to investigate how biogeographic patterns in fungal fruiting phenology coincided with seasonal changes in climate and primary production. Across central to northern Europe, mean fruiting varied by...

Soil fauna data from Sourhope field experiment site, Scotland, 2002-2003 [NERC Soil Biodiversity Programme]

M.T. Fountain, R.S. Thomas, V.K. Brown, A.C. Gange, P.J. Murray, W.O.C. Symondson, B. Woodcock, S. Granger, V. Chapman & G. Burt-Smith
This data set includes records of soil fauna sampled from the Sourhope experimental site in July and October 2002, and April, June and October 2003. These include collembola, spiders, slugs and beetles and a range of invertebrates captured by a variety of methods. Data were collected during a project funded under the NERC Soil Biodiversity Programme. The NERC Soil Biodiversity Thematic Programme was established in 1999 and was centred upon the intensive study of a...

An indicator-based problem reduction scheme for coupled reactive transport models - dataset

Brubeck L Freeman, Peter Cleall & Anthony D Jefferson
A significant number of transport models have been developed for the simulation of chemical transport in porous media. However, the computational cost can become prohibitively expensive when a problem comprises multiple chemical species; particularly if transport is considered within a significant domain over a long time period. This dataset contains the results produced by a numerical model employing a new indicator-based multi-order problem reduction scheme (PRS) that adresses this issue, as well as those of...

Enhanced Activated Carbon with H2SO4-activation of African Maize Cobs biomass for Supercapacitor electrodes material application

Moses Kigozi, Ravi Kali, Abdulhakeem Bello, Balaji Padya, Godwin Kaulu-Uka, Gabriel N Kasozi, Pawan Kumar Jain, Azikiwe Peter Onwualu & Nelson Y Dzade
The African Maize Cobs (AMC) biomass was converted into activated carbon (AC) for electrode materials for supercapacitor application. The carbonization was carried out with concentrated sulphuric acid and the activation was done in three (3) batches using activation temperatures of 600, 700 and 800oC. The AC materials were characterized by Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA-DSC), N2-adsorption-desorption isotherms, Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Boehm titration, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS),...

Quartz EBSD data used for piezometer calculations

Christopher J Tulley, Ake Fagareng & Duncan Muir
Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) data were acquired from two thin sections of quartz veins which deformed in metapelite at greenschist facies conditions, and metabasalt at epidote-blueschist facies conditions. The dynamically recrystalised quartz grain size, quantified using the EBSD data, forms the basis of our estimates of the strength of oceanic crust during subduction at greenschist to epidote-blueschist facies conditions. The data were collected using a Zeiss Sigma HD Field Emission Gun Analytical Scanning Electron Microscope...

Simulation data from 'The direct synthesis of hydrogen peroxide over Au and Pd nanoparticles: A DFT study'

David J Willock, Nishtha Agarwal, Liam Thomas, Ali Nasrallah & Alhaji Mala
Au and Pd nanoparticles are known to be active catalysts for the transformation of hydrogen and oxygen directly to hydrogen peroxide. This study considered the role of water in this aqueous chemistry and presented a series of calculations to show that protonation of adsorbed oxygen by water is a likely reaction pathway for the observed chemistry. The role of hydrogen is then to reduce the oxidised Au/Pd particles to the metal state to allow a...

Enhanced photocatalytic activity of N, P, co-doped carbon quantum dots: an insight from experimental and computational approach - data

H J Yashwanath, Sachin R Rondiya, Nelson Y Dzade, S D Dhole, D M Phase & K Hareesh
Herein, we demonstrate the single-step microwave radiation assisted approach to develop nitrogen (N) and phosphorous (P) co-doped carbon quantum dots (NP-CQD). The developed NP-CQD showed enhancement in visible light photocatalytic activity towards methylene blue dye degradation than that of N-CQD and P-CQD due to creation of energy states thereby decrease in its work function which is corroborated by Ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy as determined experimentally as well as first principles Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations as...

Privacy Risk Awareness when Sharing Location Information on Online Social Networks

Alia I Abdelmoty & Fatma S Al-Rayes
The result of a study involving 715 anonymous participants. The study is in the form of 10 scenarios in which participants were asked to say how likely they were to share their location. The study also involved the participants' responses to open-ended questions in which they were able to justify their sharing decisions and add additional information about their sharing habits.

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