38 Works

Do sexually selected weapons drive diversification?

Zachary Emberts & John J. Wiens
Sexual selection is often thought to promote speciation. This expectation is largely driven by the fact that sexually selected traits can influence mating patterns and contribute to reproductive isolation. Indeed, some comparative studies have shown that clades with sexually selected traits have increased rates of speciation and diversification. However, these studies have almost exclusively focused on one mechanism of sexual selection: female choice. Another widespread mechanism is male-male competition. Few empirical studies (if any) have...

Lowered sensitivity of bitter taste receptors to β-glucosides in bamboo lemurs: An instance of parallel and adaptive functional decline in TAS2R16?

Hiroo Imai, Akihiro Itoigawa, Fabrizio Fierro, Morgan Chaney, M. Elise Lauterbur, Takashi Hayakawa, Anthony Tosi & Masha Y. Niv
Bitter taste facilitates the detection of potentially harmful substances and is perceived via bitter taste receptors (TAS2Rs) expressed on the tongue and oral cavity in vertebrates. In primates, TAS2R16 specifically recognizes β-glucosides, which are important in cyanogenic plants’ use of cyanide as a feeding deterrent. In this study, we performed cell-based functional assays for investigating the sensitivity of TAS2R16 to β-glucosides in three species of bamboo lemurs (Prolemur simus, Hapalemur aureus, and H. griseus), which...

Both source and recipient range phylogenetic community structure can predict the outcome of avian introductions

Brian Maitner, Daniel Park, Brian Enquist & Katrina Dlugosch
Competing phylogenetic models have been proposed to explain the success of species introduced to other communities. Here, we present a study predicting the establishment success of birds introduced to Florida, Hawaii, and New Zealand using several alternative models, considering species’ phylogenetic relatedness to source and recipient range taxa, propagule pressure, and traits. We find consistent support for the predictive ability of source region phylogenetic structure. However, we find that the effects of recipient region phylogenetic...

Data from: Phenotypic plasticity in floral scent in response to nutrient, but not water, availability in the perennial plant Arabis alpina (Brassicaceae)

Victoria Luizzi, Magne Friberg & Hampus Petrén
Floral scent is an important mediator of plant-pollinator interactions. Multiple recent studies report ample intraspecific scent variation among populations and individuals. Yet, few studies have estimated effects of phenotypic plasticity on floral scent in response to differing environmental factors. In this study, we investigated effects of nutrient and water availability on floral scent in self-compatible and self-incompatible populations of the perennial herb Arabis alpina. We subjected greenhouse grown plants to different nutrient and water treatments...

Phylogenetic analysis of HIV-1 shows frequent cross-country transmission and local population expansions

Marc Bennedbæk, Anna Zhukova, Man-Hung Eric Tang, Jaclyn Bennet, Paula Munderi, Kiat Ruxrungtham, Magnus Gisslen, Michael Worobey, Jens D Lundgren & Rasmus L Marvig
Understanding of pandemics depends on characterization of pathogen collections from well-defined and demographically diverse cohorts. Since its emergence in Congo almost a century ago, HIV-1 has geographically spread and genetically diversified into distinct viral subtypes. Phylogenetic analysis can be used to reconstruct the ancestry of the virus to inform on the origin and distribution of subtypes. We sequenced two 3.6 kb amplicons of HIV-1 genomes from 3,197 participants in a clinical trial with consistent and...

Giant clam growth and isotope data

Daniel Killam, Matthew Clapham & Tariq Al-Najjar
The health of reef-building corals has declined due to climate change and pollution. However, less is known about whether giant clams, reef-dwelling bivalves with a photosymbiotic partnership similar to that found in reef-building corals, are also threatened by environmental degradation. To compare giant clam health against a prehistoric baseline, we collected fossil and modern Tridacna shells from the Gulf of Aqaba, Northern Red Sea. After calibrating daily/twice-daily growth lines from the outer shell layer, we...

Closely related tree species support distinct communities of seed-associated fungi in a lowland tropical forest

Paul-Camilo Zalamea, Carolina Sarmiento, Elizabeth Arnold, Adam Davis, Astrid Ferrer & James Dalling
Previous theoretical work has highlighted the potential for natural enemies to mediate the coexistence of species with similar life-histories via density-dependent effects on survivorship. For plant pathogens to play this role, they must differ in their ability to infect or induce disease in different host plant species. In tropical forests characterized by high diversity, these effects must extend to phylogenetically closely related species pairs. Mortality at the seed and seedling stage strongly influences the abundance...

Observational evidence of herbivore-specific associational effects between neighboring conspecifics in natural, dimorphic populations of Datura wrightii

Jay Goldberg, Sonya Sternlieb, Genevieve Pintel & Lynda Delph
Associational effects – in which the vulnerability of a plant to herbivores is influenced by its neighbors – have been widely implicated in mediating plant-herbivore interactions. Studies of associational effects typically focus on interspecific interactions or pest-crop dynamics. However, associational effects may also be important for species with intraspecific variation in defensive traits. In this study, we observed hundreds of Datura wrightii – which exhibits dimorphism in its trichome phenotype – from over 30 dimorphic...

Weapon performance drives weapon evolution

Zachary Emberts, Wei Song Hwang & John Wiens
Many sexually selected traits function as weapons, and these weapons can be incredibly diverse. However, the factors underlying weapon diversity among species remain poorly understood, and a fundamental hypothesis to explain this diversity remains untested. Although weapons can serve multiple functions, an undeniably important function is their role in fights. Thus, a crucial hypothesis is that weapon diversification is driven by the evolution of weapon modifications that provide an advantage in combat (e.g. causing more...

Supplementary data, code, and other information for ‘Global Signatures and Dynamical Origins of the Little Ice Age and Medieval Climate Anomaly’ (Science, Mann et al. 2009)

M.E. Mann, Z. Zhang, S. Rutherford, R.S. Bradley, M.K. Hughes, D. Shindall, C. Ammann, G. Faluvegi & F. Ni
Global temperatures are known to have varied over the past 1500 years, but the spatial patterns have remained poorly defined. We used a global climate proxy network to reconstruct surface temperature patterns over this interval. The Medieval period is found to display warmth that matches or exceeds that of the past decade in some regions, but which falls well below recent levels globally. This period is marked by a tendency for La Niña–like conditions in...

Supplementary data, code, and information for ‘Global-Scale Temperature Patterns and Climate Forcing Over the Past Six Centuries’ (Mann et al. 1998 – the first ‘Hockey Stick’ paper [MBH98])

M.E. Mann, R.S. Bradley & M.K. Hughes
Spatially resolved global reconstructions of annual surface temperature patterns over the past six centuries are based on the multivariate calibration of widely distributed high-resolution proxy climate indicators. Time-dependent correlations of the reconstructions with time-series records representing changes in greenhouse-gas concentrations, solar irradiance, and volcanic aerosols suggest that each of these factors has contributed to the climate variability of the past 400 years, with greenhouse gases emerging as the dominant forcing during the twentieth century. Northern...

Data accompanying manuscript: Allometric analysis of brain cell number in Hymenoptera suggests ant brains diverge from general trends

R Keating Godfrey, Mira Swartzlander & Gronenberg Wulfila
Many comparative neurobiological studies seek to connect sensory or behavioral attributes across taxa with differences in their brain composition. Such studies can only be interpreted in a meaningful way if the general brain-body relationships are known on a larger taxonomic scale. Recent studies in vertebrates suggest cell number and density may be better correlated with behavioral ability than brain mass or volume, but few estimates of such figures exist for insects. Here we use the...

Data for: Human food use increases plant geographic ranges in the Sonoran Desert

Benjamin Blonder, Carolyn Flower, Wendy Hodgson, Andrew Salywon, Brian Maitner, Brian Enquist & Matthew Peeples
Aim. Climate is usually regarded as the main determinant of plant species’ distributions. However, past human use of species for food also may have influenced distributions. We hypothesized that human-mediated dispersal has resulted in food plants occupying more of their potential geographic range. We also hypothesized that key ecological traits could predispose a species to occupy more of its potential climatic geographic range and be selected by humans for food. Location. The Sonoran Desert of...

Sexual Dichromatism is Decoupled from Diversification Over Deep Time in Fishes

Elizabeth C. Miller, Sarah L. Mesnick & John J. Wiens
Sexually selected traits have long been thought to drive diversification, but support for this hypothesis has been persistently controversial. In fishes, sexually dimorphic coloration is associated with assortative mating and speciation among closely related species, as shown in now-classic studies. However, it is unclear whether these results can generalize to explain diversity patterns across ray-finned fishes, which contain the majority of vertebrate species and 96% of fishes. Here, we use phylogenetic approaches to test for...

Individual-based simulations of genome evolution and ancestry: the GENOMEADMIXR R package

Thijs Janzen & Fernando Diaz
Hybridization between populations or species results in a mosaic of the two parental genomes. This and other types of genome admixture have received increasing attention for their implications in speciation, human evolution, Evolve and Resequence (E&R) and genetic mapping. However, a thorough understanding of how local ancestry changes after admixture, and how selection affects patterns of local ancestry remains elusive. The complexity of these questions limits analytical treatment, but these scenarios are specifically suitable for...

Supplementary data, code, and information for ‘Predictability of the recent slowdown and subsequent recovery of large-scale surface warming using statistical methods’ (Geophysical Research Letters, Mann et al. 2016)

M.E. Mann, B.A. Steinman, S.K. Miller, L.H. Frankcombe, M.H. England & A.H. Cheung
The temporary slowdown in large-scale surface warming during the early 2000s has been attributed to both external and internal sources of climate variability. Using semiempirical estimates of the internal low-frequency variability component in Northern Hemisphere, Atlantic, and Pacific surface temperatures in concert with statistical hindcast experiments, we investigate whether the slowdown and its recent recovery were predictable. We conclude that the internal variability of the North Pacific, which played a critical role in the slowdown,...

Supplementary information from: Species interactions have predictable impacts on diversification

Yichao Zeng & John Wiens
A fundamental goal of ecology is to reveal generalities in the myriad types of interactions among species, such as competition, mutualism, and predation. Another goal is to explain the enormous differences in species richness among groups of organisms. Here, we show how these two goals are intertwined: we find that different types of species interactions have predictable impacts on rates of species diversification, which underlie richness patterns. Based on a systematic review, we show that...

Is phylogeographic congruence predicted by historical habitat stability, or ecological co-associations?

Ryan Garrick, Chaz Hyseni, Ísis Arantes, Louis Zachos, Peter Zee & Jeffrey Oliver
Comparative phylogeographic studies can uniquely distinguish idiosyncratic versus community-wide responses to past environmental change. However, to date, impacts of species interactions have been largely overlooked. Here we used non-genetic data to characterize two competing scenarios about expected levels of congruence among five saproxylic invertebrate species (i.e., a wood-feeding cockroach, termite and beetle; a predatory centipede, and a detritivorous millipede) from the southern Appalachians mountains—a topographically complex unglaciated landscape. Under one scenario, abiotic factors primarily drove...

Multicellularity and sex helped shape the Tree of Life

John Wiens
Across the Tree of Life, there are dramatic differences in species numbers among groups. However, the factors that explain the differences among the deepest branches have remained unknown. We tested whether multicellularity and sexual reproduction might explain these patterns, since the most species-rich groups share these traits. We found that groups with multicellularity and sexual reproduction have accelerated rates of species proliferation (diversification), and that multicellularity has a stronger effect than sexual reproduction. Patterns of...

OTU data and analysis files for interspecies comparison of Philippine terrestrial small mammal diets

Anna Petrosky, Dakota Rowsey & Lawrence Heaney
Island radiations represent unique evolutionary histories in unique ecological contexts. These radiations provide opportunities to investigate ecological diversification in groups that typically exhibit niche partitioning among their constituents, including partitioning of food resources. DNA metabarcoding produces finer levels of diet identification than traditional methods, allowing us to examine dietary niche partitioning in communities or clades in which species share superficially similar diets. Here we use DNA metabarcoding to investigate dietary niche partitioning in an endemic...

Supplementary data, code, and information for ‘Long-term variability in the El Niño/Southern Oscillation and associated teleconnections’

M.E. Mann, R.S. Bradley & M.K. Hughes
We analyze global patterns of reconstructed surface temperature for insights into the behavior of the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and related climatic variability during the past three centuries. The global temperature reconstructions are based on calibrations of a large set of globally distributed proxy records, or “multiproxy” data, against the dominant patterns of surface temperature during the past century. These calibrations allow us to estimate large-scale surface temperature patterns back in time. The reconstructed eastern...

Long-read genome sequencing of bread wheat facilitates disease resistance gene cloning

Naveenkumar Athiyannan, Michael Abrouk, Willem H. P. Boshoff, Stéphane Cauet, Nathalie Rodde, David A. Kudrna, Nahed Mohammed, Jan Bettgenhaeuser, Kirsty Botha, Shannon Derman, Rod A. Wing, Renée Prins & Simon G. Krattinger
Cloning agronomically important genes from large, complex crop genomes remains challenging. Here, we generate a 14.7-gigabase chromosome-scale assembly of the South African bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) cultivar Kariega by combining high-fidelity long reads, optical mapping, and chromosome conformation capture. The resulting assembly is an order of magnitude more contiguous than previous wheat assemblies. Kariega shows durable resistance against the devastating fungal stripe rust disease. We identified the race-specific disease resistance gene Yr27, encoding an intracellular...

Interviews with participants in collaborative climate research projects in the SW CASC region 2016-2018

Alison Meadow
The dataset consists of transcriptions of interviews conducted with scientists and stakeholders who were involved in collaborative climate research projects funded by the Southwest Climate Adaptation Science Center between 2014 and 2017. The participants were asked to reflect upon the engagement activities during the projects and provide any examples of use of the research evidence that emerged from the projects. The transcriptions have been stripped of any and all identifiable information, as is standard ethical...

Supplementary data, code, validation statistics, and other information for ‘Proxy-based reconstructions of hemispheric and global surface temperature variations over the past two millennia’ (PNAS, Mann et al. 2008)

M.E. Mann, Z. Zhang, M.K. Hughes, R.S. Bradley, S.K. Miller, S. Rutherford & F. Ni
Following the suggestions of a recent National Research Council report [NRC (National Research Council) (2006) Surface Temperature Reconstructions for the Last 2,000 Years (Natl Acad Press, Washington, DC).], we reconstruct surface temperature at hemispheric and global scale for much of the last 2,000 years using a greatly expanded set of proxy data for decadal-to-centennial climate changes, recently updated instrumental data, and complementary methods that have been thoroughly tested and validated with model simulation experiments. Our...

Supplementary data, code, and information for ‘Northern Hemisphere Temperatures During the Past Millennium: Inferences, Uncertainties, and Limitations’ (Mann et al. 1999 – the second ‘Hockey Stick’ paper [MBH99])

M.E. Mann, R.S. Bradley & M.K. Hughes
Building on recent studies, we attempt hemispheric temperature reconstructions with proxy data networks for the past millennium. We focus not just on the reconstructions, but the uncertainties therein, and important caveats. Though expanded uncertainties prevent decisive conclusions for the period prior to AD 1400, our results suggest that the latter 20th century is anomalous in the context of at least the past millennium. The 1990s was the warmest decade, and 1998 the warmest year, at...

Registration Year

  • 2021

Resource Types

  • Dataset


  • University of Arizona
  • Pennsylvania State University
  • University of Massachusetts Amherst
  • Roger Williams University
  • University of California, Berkeley
  • California Academy of Sciences
  • United States Geological Survey
  • Arizona State University
  • University of California, Santa Cruz
  • Pontifical Catholic University of Peru