56 Works

Dynamic shifts in social network structure and composition within a breeding hybrid population

David Zonana, Jennifer Gee, Michael Breed & Daniel Doak
1. Mating behavior and the timing of reproduction can inhibit genetic exchange between closely related species; however, these reproductive barriers are challenging to measure within natural populations. Social network analysis provides promising tools for studying the social context of hybridization, and the exchange of genetic variation, more generally. 2. We test how social networks within a hybrid population of California (Callipepla californica) and Gambel’s quail (Callipepla gambelii) change over discrete periods of a breeding season....

Reduced water negatively impacts social bee survival and productivity via shifts in floral nutrition

Erin Rankin, Sarah Barney & Giselle Lozano
Pollinators provide a key ecosystem service vital for the survival and stability of the biosphere. Identifying factors influencing the plant-pollinator mutualism and pollinator management is necessary for maintaining a healthy ecosystem. Since healthy bee hives require substantial amounts of carbohydrates (nectar) and protein (pollen) from forage plants such as clover, we must assess how resources offered by plants change under limited water conditions in order to fully understand how drought modifies the pollination mutualism. Here...

Context-dependent variability in the population prevalence and individual fitness effects of plant-fungal symbiosis

Marion Donald, Teresa Bohner, Kory Kolis, Alan Shadow, Jennifer Rudgers & Tom Miller
1. Heritable symbionts, found within a diverse array of flora and fauna, are often observed at intermediate prevalence within host populations, despite expectations that positive fitness feedbacks should drive beneficial symbionts to fixation. Intermediate prevalence may reflect neutral dynamics of symbionts with weak fitness effects, transient dynamics of symbionts trending toward fixation (or elimination), or a stable intermediate outcome determined by the balance of fitness effects and failed symbiont transmission. Theory suggests these outcomes should...

Simulation models from: Can CRISPR-mediated gene drive work in pest and beneficial haplodiploid species?

Jun Li & Bruce Tabashnik
Gene drives based on CRISPR/Cas9 have the potential to reduce the enormous harm inflicted by crop pests and insect vectors of human disease, as well as to bolster valued species. In contrast with extensive empirical and theoretical studies in diploid organisms, little is known about CRISPR gene drive in haplodiploids, despite their immense global impacts as pollinators, pests, natural enemies of pests, and invasive species in native habitats. Here we analyze mathematical models demonstrating that,...

Holy Fire Headwater Sediment Dynamics, Santa Ana Mts, CA - Leach Canyon SfM U-075 PS01 SV04

Andrew Gray, Nicolas Barth & James Guilinger

Holy Fire Headwater Sediment Dynamics, Santa Ana Mts, CA - Leach Canyon TLS U-075 PS01 SV03

Andrew Andrew Gray, Nicolas Barth & James Guilinger

Data from: Recurrent mutualism breakdown events in a legume rhizobia metapopulation

Joel Sachs, Kelsey Gano-Cohen, Camille Wendlandt, Khadija Al Moussawi, Peter Stokes, Kenjiro Quides, Alexandra Weisberg & Jeff Chang
Bacterial mutualists generate major fitness benefits for eukaryotes, reshaping the host phenotype and its interactions with the environment. Yet microbial mutualist populations are predicted to generate mutants that defect from providing costly services to hosts while maintaining the capacity to exploit host resources. Here, we examined the mutualist service of symbiotic nitrogen fixation in a metapopulation of root-nodulating Bradyrhizobium spp. that associate with the native legume Acmispon strigosus. We quantified mutualism traits of 85 Bradyrhizobium...

Data from: Experimental study of species invasion – early population dynamics and role of disturbance in invasion success

David Reznick, Sebastiano De Bona, Andres Lopez-Sepulcre, Mauricio Torres, Ronald Bassar, Paul Bentzen & Joseph Travis
Much of our understanding of natural invasions is retrospective, based on data acquired after invaders become established. As a consequence, we know little about the characteristics of the early population growth and habitat use of the invaders during establishment. Here we report on experimental introductions of guppies into natural streams in which we conducted monthly censuses of each population. Two of the four introductions were in streams with thinned canopies, which mimics a common form...

Data from: Landscape simplification shapes pathogen prevalence in plant-pollinator networks

Laura Figueroa, Heather Grab, Wee Hao Ng, Christopher Myers, Peter Graystock, Quinn McFrederick & Scott McArt
Species interaction networks, which play an important role in determining pathogen transmission and spread in ecological communities, can shift in response to agricultural landscape simplification. However, we know surprisingly little about how landscape simplification-driven changes in network structure impact epidemiological patterns. Here, we combine mathematical modeling and data from eleven bipartite plant-pollinator networks observed along a landscape simplification gradient to elucidate how changes in network structure shape disease dynamics. Our empirical data show that landscape...

Connecting species’ geographical distributions to environmental variables: range maps versus observed points of occurrence

John T Rotenberry & Priya Balasubramaniam
Connecting the geographical occurrence of a species with underlying environmental variables is fundamental for many analyses of life history evolution and for modeling species distributions for both basic and practical ends. However, raw distributional information comes principally in two forms: points of occurrence (specific geographical coordinates where a species has been observed), and expert-prepared range maps. Each form has potential short-comings: range maps tend to overestimate the true occurrence of a species, whereas occurrence points...

Connected Emission Control Technologies for Freight Vehicles

Ji Luo, Kanok Boriboonsomsin & Matthew Barth
This project explores how connected vehicle technology can be used to reduce the impacts of air pollutant emissions from freight vehicles. Specifically, the objective of this project is to develop new vehicle routing algorithms for determining travel routes for heavy-duty diesel trucks that would reduce the exposure of local residents to air pollutant emissions from these trucks. The core of the methodology is to first estimate the total amount of human exposure to pollutant emissions...

Data from: Task partitioning in ants lacking discrete morphological worker subcastes

Mari West & Jessica Purcell
Task partitioning allows for efficient coordination of behavior in social insect colonies. Many task allocation studies focus on social insect species with discrete morphological worker subcastes, such as those possessing major and minor workers with strongly differentiated body plans. Much less is known about task partitioning among size-variable workers lacking discrete morphological subcastes. We investigated task fidelity and its correlation with worker size in Formica species with differing degrees of body size variation. During a...

Data from: The effects of temperature on the defensive strikes of rattlesnakes

Malachi D. Whitford, Grace A. Freymiller, Timothy E. Higham & Rulon W. Clark
Movements of ectotherms are constrained by their body temperature owing to the effects of temperature on muscle physiology. As physical performance often affects the outcome of predator–prey interactions, environmental temperature can influence the ability of ectotherms to capture prey and/or defend themselves against predators. However, previous research on the kinematics of ectotherms suggests that some species may use elastic storage mechanisms when attacking or defending, thereby mitigating the effects of sub-optimal temperature. Rattlesnakes (Crotalus spp.)...

Voles mediate functional trait diversity along a resource gradient

Loralee Larios, Loralee Larios & John Maron
Disentangling the effect of multiple ecological processes on plant trait composition is complicated by the fact that both top-down and bottom-up processes may affect similar traits. We examined the interacting role of resource variation and vole herbivory on functional trait patterns in an annual California grassland. We manipulated vole herbivory via exclosures at eight grassland sites along a steep resource gradient and measured plant composition and functional traits over three years. Plants with resource acquisitive...

Individual differences determine the strength of ecological interactions

Jason I. Griffiths, Dylan Z. Childs, Ronald D. Bassar, Tim Coulson, David N Reznick & Mark Rees
Biotic interactions are central to both ecological and evolutionary dynamics. In the vast majority of empirical studies, the strength of intraspecific interactions is estimated by using simple mea- sures of population size. Biologists have long known that these are crude metrics, with experiments and theory suggesting that interactions between individuals should depend on traits, such as body size. Despite this, it has been difficult to estimate the impact of traits on competitive ability from ecological...

Data from: The edaphic control of plant diversity

Catherine Hulshof & Marko Spasojevic
BACKGROUND: The central thesis of plant ecology is that climate determines the distribution of global vegetation. Within a vegetation type, however, finer-scale environmental features such as the physical and chemical properties of soil (edaphic variation) control plant distributions and diversity patterns. AIMS: Here, we review the literature to provide a mechanistic framework for the edaphic control of plant diversity. First, we review three examples where soils have known, prevalent effects on plant diversity: during soil...

Supplement 1: Challenges Faced by Neurology Trainees in a Neuro-Intervention Career Track

Conrad Liang
Introduction: The widespread adoption of endovascular therapy (EVT) for emergent large vessel occlusion (LVO) has led to increased nationwide demand for neuro-interventionalists, heightened interest among Neurology residents to pursue neuro-intervention (NI) as a career, and increased importance of NI exposure for all Neurologists who care for patients with AIS. Currently, exposure to NI and its career path are not well-defined for Neurology trainees. Methods: The Society for Vascular and Interventional Neurology (SVIN) Education Committee conducted...

Data for: Scaling relationships in Formica ants with continuous worker size variation

Jessica Purcell, Shirley Tawdros & Mari West
Social insects exhibit highly variable body plans at multiple scales: within colonies, between conspecific colonies, and across different species. The interspecific variation in the existence and prevalence of morphologically discrete worker subcastes in social insects raises questions about the ontogeny and functional importance of alternative worker body plans. Here, we examine the allometry of four Formicaspecies. Formica are among the most common ants in the northern hemisphere temperate zone, and species vary greatly in the...

Holy Fire Headwater Sediment Dynamics, Santa Ana Mts, CA - Leach Canyon TLS U-075 PS01 SV05

Andrew Gray, Nicolas Barth & James Guilinger

Holy Fire Headwater Sediment Dynamics, Santa Ana Mts, CA - Leach Canyon SfM U-075 PS01 SV08

Andrew Gray, Nicolas Barth & James Guilinger

Holy Fire Headwater Sediment Dynamics, Santa Ana Mts, CA - Leach Canyon TLS U-075 PS01 SV07

Andrew Gray, Nicolas Barth & James Guilinger

Data from: Mark-recapture experiments reveal foraging behavior and plant fidelity of native bees in plant nurseries

Jacob Cecala & Erin Wilson Rankin
Understanding the spatial and temporal foraging patterns of pollinators is essential to conserving these organisms in human‐modified landscapes, such as agroecosystems (Cranmer et al. 2011). Particularly, understanding foraging fidelity (i.e., returns to a particular plant species or area) is crucial for providing supportive habitats. Numerous approaches have been used to discern the movement and foraging of individual bees (reviewed by Mola and Williams 2019), ranging from highly technological to more traditional methods like mark–release–recapture experiments....

Role of endogenous and exogenous attention in task-relevant visual perceptual learning

Kieu N. Nguyen, Takeo Watanabe & George J. Andersen
The present study examined the role of exogenous and endogenous attention in task relevant visual perceptual learning (TR-VPL). VPL performance was assessed by examining the learning to a trained stimulus feature and transfer of learning to an untrained stimulus feature. To assess the differential role of attention in VPL, two types of attentional cues were manipulated; exogenous and endogenous. In order to assess the effectiveness of the attentional cue, the two types of attentional cues...

Social context, but not individual personality, alters immigrant viability in a spider with mixed social structure

Jessica Purcell, Spencer Ingley, Jonathan Pruitt & Inon Scharf
Immigrant viability is a major determinant of the realized rate of gene flow across populations. For social organisms, the social context in which immigrants disperse across contrasting environments may have important implications for their viability post dispersal. Here, we use social spiders whose individual personalities as well as group personality compositions vary across sites to test whether the strength of selection against immigrants (i.e. mortality rates) differs depending on whether spiders are transplanted (1) as...

Oahu windward beaches microplastics survey

Janet Franklin
We report microplastic densities on windward beaches of Oahu, Hawai`i, USA. Microplastic densities, surveyed on six Oahu beaches, were highest on the beaches with the coarsest sands, associated with high wave energy. On those beaches, densities were very high (700-1700 particles m-2), as high as those recorded on other remote island beaches worldwide.

Registration Year

  • 2020
    56

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    56

Affiliations

  • University of California, Riverside
    56
  • United States Department of Agriculture
    3
  • Imperial College London
    3
  • University of California, Irvine
    3
  • Cornell University
    3
  • University of Montana
    2
  • University of California, Merced
    2
  • University of California, San Diego
    2
  • Dalhousie University
    2
  • San Diego State University
    2