21 Works

Data from: Do the antipredator strategies of shared prey mediate intraguild predation and mesopredator suppression?

John D. J. Clare, Daniel W. Linden, Eric M. Anderson & David M. MacFarland
Understanding the conditions that facilitate top predator effects upon mesopredators and prey is critical for predicting where these effects will be significant. Intraguild predation (IGP) and the ecology of fear are hypotheses used to describe the effects of top predators upon mesopredators and prey species, but make different assumptions about organismal space use. The IGP hypothesis predicts that mesopredator resource acquisition and risk are positively correlated, creating a fitness deficit. But if shared prey also...

Data from: Application of a Bayesian weighted surveillance approach for detecting chronic wasting disease in white-tailed deer

Christopher S. Jennelle, Daniel P. Walsh, Michael D. Samuel, Erik E. Osnas, Robert Rolley, Julia Langenberg, Jenny G. Powers, Ryan J. Monello, E. David Demarest, Rolf Gubler & Dennis M. Heisey
SUMMARY 1. Surveillance is critical for the early detection of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases, and weighted surveillance uses heterogeneity in risk of infection to increase the sampling efficiency. 2. We apply a Bayesian approach to estimate weights for 16 surveillance classes of white-tailed deer in Wisconsin, USA, relative to hunter-harvested yearling males. We use these weights to conduct a surveillance program for detecting chronic wasting disease (CWD) in white-tailed deer at Shenandoah National Park...

A recovery network leads to the natural recolonization of an archipelago and a potential trailing edge refuge

Matthew Smith, Jonathan Gilbert, Erik Olson, Kim Scribner, Timothy Van Deelen, Julie Van Stappen, Bronwyn Williams, James Woodford & Jonathan Pauli
Rapid environmental change is reshaping ecosystems and driving species loss globally. Carnivore populations have declined and retracted rapidly and have been the target of numerous translocation projects. Success, however, is complicated when these efforts occur in novel ecosystems. Identifying refuges, locations that are resistant to environmental change, within a translocation framework should improve population recovery and persistence. American martens (Martes americana) are the most frequently translocated carnivore in North America. As elsewhere, martens were extirpated...

Data from: The walk is never random: subtle landscape effects shape gene flow in a continuous white-tailed deer population in the Midwestern United States

Stacie J. Robinson, Michael D. Samuel, Davin L. Lopez & Paul Shelton
One of the pervasive challenges in landscape genetics is detecting gene flow patterns within continuous populations of highly mobile wildlife. Understanding population genetic structure within a continuous population can give insights into social structure, movement across the landscape and contact between populations, which influence ecological interactions, reproductive dynamics, or pathogen transmission. We investigated the genetic structure of a large population of deer spanning the area of Wisconsin and Illinois, USA, affected by chronic wasting disease....

Greater Prairie-chicken data used in \"Responses to land cover and grassland management vary across life-history stages for a grassland specialist\"

Michael Hardy, Matthew Broadway, Christopher Pollentier, Volker Radeloff, Jason Riddle & Scott Hull
Grassland birds have exhibited dramatic and widespread declines since the mid-20th century. Greater Prairie-Chickens (Tympanuchus cupido pinnatus) are considered an umbrella species for grassland conservation and are frequent targets of management, but their responses to land use and management can be quite variable. We used data collected during 2007-2009 and 2014-2015 to investigate effects of land use and grassland management practices on habitat selection and survival rates of Greater Prairie-Chickens in central Wisconsin, USA. We...

Data from: Aging infrastructure creates opportunities for cost-efficient restoration of aquatic ecosystem connectivity

Thomas M. Neeson, Allison T. Moody, Jesse R. O'Hanley, Matthew Diebel, Patrick J. Doran, Michael C. Ferris, Timothy Colling & Peter B. McIntyre
A hallmark of industrialization is the construction of dams for water management and roads for transportation, leading to fragmentation of aquatic ecosystems. Many nations are striving to address both maintenance backlogs and mitigation of environmental impacts as their infrastructure ages. Here, we test whether accounting for road repair needs could offer opportunities to boost conservation efficiency by piggybacking connectivity restoration projects on infrastructure maintenance. Using optimization models to align fish passage restoration sites with likely...

Size-associated energetic constraints on the seasonal onset of reproduction in a species with indeterminate growth

Robert Laroche, Kelly Weinersmith, Mazie Davis, Lisa Angeloni, Jeffrey Baylis, Steven Newman, Scott Egan & Daniel Wiegmann
The seasonal onset of reproduction is constrained in many systems by a need to first accumulate energetic reserves. Consequently, the observation that larger individuals reproduce earlier may be due to a negative relationship between size and mass-specific basal metabolic rate that is shared across diverse taxa. However, an untested prediction of this hypothesis is that individuals should be metabolically efficient enough to escape energetic constraints above a certain size threshold. Seasonally reproducing species, such as...

Data from: Restriction site-associated DNA sequencing generates high-quality single nucleotide polymorphisms for assessing hybridization between bighead and silver carp in the United States and China

James T. Lamer, Gregory G. Sass, Jason Q. Boone, Zarema H. Arbieva, Stefan J. Green & John M. Epifanio
Bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) and silver carp (H. molitrix) are invasive species and listed as US federally injurious species under the Lacy Act. They have established populations in much of the Mississippi River Basin (MRB; Mississippi, Illinois, and Missouri rivers) and are capable of producing fertile hybrids and complex introgression. Characterizing the composition of this admixture requires a large set of high-quality, evolutionarily conserved, diagnostic genetic markers to aid in the identification and management of...

Data from: Climate change surpasses land use change in the contracting range boundary of a winter-adapted mammal

Sean M. Sultaire, Jonathan N. Pauli, Karl J. Martin, Michael W. Meyer, Michael Notaro & Benjamin Zuckerberg
The effects of climate change on biodiversity has emerged as a dominant theme in conservation biology, possibly eclipsing concern over habitat loss in recent years. The extent to which this shifting focus has tracked the most eminent threats to biodiversity is not well documented. We investigated the mechanisms driving shifts in the southern range boundary of a forest and snow cover specialist, the snowshoe hare, to explore how its range boundary has responded to shifting...

Data from: Diagnostic SNPs reveal widespread introgressive hybridization between introduced bighead and silver carp in the Mississippi River Basin

James T. Lamer, Blake C. Ruebush, Zarema H. Arbieva, Michael A. McClelland, John M. Epifanio & Gregory G. Sass
Hybridization among conspecifics in native and introduced habitats has important implications for biological invasions in new ecosystems. Bighead (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) and silver carp (H. molitrix) are genetically isolated and occur in sympatry within their native range. Following their introduction to North America, however, introgressant hybrids have been reported throughout their expanded range within the Mississippi River Basin (MRB). The extent of introgression, both spatially and generationally, is largely unknown. Therefore, we examined mixed-species populations from...

Data from: Genetic source-sink dynamics among naturally structured and anthropogenically fragmented puma populations

Kyle D. Gustafson, Roderick B. Gagne, T. Winston Vickers, Seth P.D. Riley, Christopher C. Wilmers, Vernon C. Bleich, Becky M. Pierce, Marc Kenyon, Tracy L. Drazenovich, Jeff A. Sikich, Walter M. Boyce & Holly B. Ernest
Fragmentation of wildlife populations is increasing on a global scale and understanding current population genetic structure, genetic diversity, and genetic connectivity is key to informing wildlife management and conservation. We genotyped 992 pumas (Puma concolor) at 42 previously developed microsatellite loci and identified 10 genetic populations throughout the states of California and Nevada, USA. Although some genetic populations had large effective population sizes, others were small and inbred. Genetic diversity was extremely variable (heterozygosity, uHe...

Data from: Gobbling across landscapes: Eastern wild turkey distribution and occupancy-habitat associations

Christopher Pollentier, Michael Hardy, R. Scott Lutz, Scott Hull & Benjamin Zuckerberg
Extensive restoration and translocation efforts beginning in the mid-20th century helped to reestablish eastern wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo silvestris) throughout their ancestral range. The adaptability of wild turkeys resulted in further population expansion in regions that were considered unfavorable during initial reintroductions across the northern United States. Identification and understanding of species distributions and contemporary habitat associations are important for guiding effective conservation and management strategies across different ecological landscapes. To investigate differences in wild...

Data from: A toolkit for optimizing fish passage barrier mitigation actions

Steven King, Jesse R. O'Hanley, Lynda R. Newbold, Paul S. Kemp & Matthew W. Diebel
The presence of dams, stream–road crossings and other infrastructure often compromises the connectivity of rivers, leading to reduced fish abundance and diversity. The assessment and mitigation of river barriers is critical to the success of restoration efforts aimed at restoring river integrity. In this study, we present a combined modelling approach involving statistical regression methods and mixed integer linear programming to maximize resident fish species richness within a catchment through targeted barrier mitigation. Compared to...

Data from: Synchronous effects produce cycles in deer populations and deer-vehicle collisions

Thomas Anderson, Lawrence Sheppard, Jon Walter, Robert Rolley & Dan Reuman
Population cycles are fundamentally linked with spatial synchrony, the prevailing paradigm being that populations with cyclic dynamics are easily synchronized. That is, population cycles help give rise to spatial synchrony. Here we demonstrate this process can work in reverse, with synchrony causing population cycles. We show that timescale-specific environmental effects, by synchronizing local population dynamics on certain timescales only, cause major population cycles over large areas in white-tailed deer. An important aspect of the new...

Gene flow influences the genomic architecture of local adaptation in six riverine fish species

Yue Shi, Kristen Bouska, Garrett Mckinney, William Dokai, Andrew Bartels, Megan McPhee & Wes Larson
Understanding how gene flow influences adaptive divergence is important for predicting adaptive responses. Theoretical studies suggest that when gene flow is high, clustering of adaptive genes in fewer genomic regions would protect adaptive alleles from recombination and thus be selected for, but few studies have tested it with empirical data. Here, we used RADseq to generate genomic data for six fish species with contrasting life histories from six reaches of the Upper Mississippi River System,...

Data from: First discovery of the charophycean green alga Lychnothamnus barbatus (Charophyceae) extant in the New World

Kenneth G. Karol, Paul M. Skawinski, Richard M. McCourt, Michelle E. Nault, Reesa Evans, Martha E. Barton, Matthew S. Berg, Donna J. Perleberg, John Hall & John D. Hall
Premise of the study: Although some species of Characeae, known as stoneworts, can be found on every continent except Antarctica, many species and some genera have limited geographic distributions. The genus Lychnothamnus, represented by a single extant species L. barbatus, was known only from scattered localities in Europe and Australasia until it was recently discovered in North America. Methods: Morphological identifications were made from specimens collected in Minnesota and Wisconsin, U.S.A. DNA sequences were obtained...

Data from: Using expert knowledge to incorporate uncertainty in cause-of-death assignments for modeling of cause-specific mortality

Daniel P. Walsh, Andrew S. Norton, Daniel J. Storm, Timothy R. Van Deelen & Dennis M. Heisey
Implicit and explicit use of expert knowledge to inform ecological analyses is becoming increasingly common because it often represents the sole source of information in many circumstances. Thus, there is a need to develop statistical methods that explicitly incorporate expert knowledge, and can successfully leverage this information while properly accounting for associated uncertainty during analysis. Studies of cause-specific mortality provide an example of implicit use of expert knowledge when causes-of-death are uncertain and assigned based...

Sensitivity of multiple vital rates for ruffed grouse in the upper Great Lakes region

Christopher Pollentier, Scott Hull & David MacFarland
Effective management of wildlife requires a full understanding of population dynamics and knowledge of potential drivers that influence population growth. The Ruffed Grouse (Bonasa umbellus) is a popular upland game bird widely distributed across the northern United States and Canada that has experienced population declines within portions of its range in response to forest maturation and habitat loss. Although the species has been extensively studied, few efforts have been made to synthesize demographic data into...

Inland walleye genotypes

Matthew Bootsma, Kristen Gruenthal, Garrett McKinney, Levi Simmons, Loren Miller, Greg Sass & Wes Larson
Targeted amplicon sequencing methods, such as genotyping-in-thousands by sequencing (GT-seq), facilitate rapid, accurate, and cost-effective analysis of hundreds of genetic loci in thousands of individuals. Development of GT-seq panels is non-trivial, but studies describing trade-offs associated with different steps of GT-seq panel development are rare. Here, we construct a dual-purpose GT-seq panel for walleye (Sander vitreus), discuss trade-offs associated with different development and genotyping approaches, and provide suggestions for researchers constructing their own GT-seq panels....

Data from: Effects of land use, topography, climate and socio-economic factors on geographical variation pattern of inland surface water quality in China

Qinghui You, Na Fang, Lingling Liu, Wenjing Yang, Li Zhang & Yeqiao Wang
The deterioration of water quality has become a primary environmental concern worldwide. Understanding the status of water quality and identifying the influencing factors are important for water resources management. However, reported analyses have mostly been conducted in small and focused areas. It is still unclear if factors driving spatial variation in water quality would be different in extended spatial scales. In this paper, we analyzed spatial pattern of inland surface water quality in China using...

Genomic and environmental influences on resilience in a cold‐water fish near the edge of its range

Amanda Ackiss, Madeline R. Magee, Greg G. Sass, Keith Turnquist, Peter B. McIntyre & Wesley A. Larson
Small, isolated populations present a challenge for conservation. The dueling effects of selection and drift in a limited pool of genetic diversity make the responses of small populations to environmental perturbations erratic and difficult to predict. This is particularly true at the edge of a species range, where populations often persist at the limits of their environmental tolerances. Populations of cisco, Coregonus artedi, in inland lakes have experienced numerous extirpations along the southern edge of...

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