73 Works

Opposing community assembly patterns for dominant and non-dominant plant species in herbaceous ecosystems globally

Carlos Alberto Arnillas, Elizabeth Borer, Eric Seabloom, Juan Alberti, Selene Baez, Jonathon Bakker, Elizabeth Boughton, Yvonne Buckley, Miguel Bugalho, Ian Donohue, John Dwyer, Jennifer Firn, Riley Gridzak, Nicole Hagenah, Yann Hautier, Aveliina Helm, Anke Jentsch, , Kimberly Komatsu, Lauri Laanisto, Ramesh Laungani, Rebecca McCulley, Joslin Moore, John Morgan, Pablo Peri … & Marc Cadotte
Biotic and abiotic factors interact with dominant plants —the locally most frequent or with the largest coverage— and non-dominant plants differently, partially because dominant plants modify the environment where non-dominant plants grow. For instance, if dominant plants compete strongly, they will deplete most resources, forcing non-dominant plants into a narrower niche space. Conversely, if dominant plants are constrained by the environment, they might not exhaust available resources but instead may ameliorate environmental stressors that usually...

Sensing Science and Engineering Centre (SEC) Vibration Data

Two structural columns host the sensors (named A3 and A8) and sensors are mounted on the ceiling slabs of every second floor, i.e. levels 3,5,7 and 9 for both columns. Most locations measure three axes of acceleration, except for Level 3 Column A8 and Level 7 Column A8 which only measure x axis. Two additional sites are instrumented, a footbridge leading out of the building and a site to monitor the vibration under a Transmission...

Estimating biodiversity using symbolic meta analysis

Huan Lin, Julian Caley & Scott Sisson
Global species richness is a key biodiversity metric. Concerns continue to grow over its decline due to overexploitation and habitat destruction by humans. Despite recent efforts to estimate global species richness, the resulting estimates have been highly uncertain and often logically inconsistent. Estimates lower down either the taxonomic or geographic hierarchies are often larger than those above. Further, these estimates have been typically represented in a wide variety of forms, including intervals (a, b), point...

Dominant native and non-native graminoids differ in key leaf traits irrespective of nutrient availability

Arthur Broadbent, Jennifer Firn, James McGree, Elizabeth Borer, Yvonne Buckley, W. Stanley Harpole, Kimberly Komatsu, Andrew MacDougall, Kate Orwin, Nicholas Ostle, Eric Seabloom, Jonathan Bakker, Lori Biedermann, Maria Caldeira, Nico Eisenhauer, Nicole Hagenah, Yann Hautier, Joslin Moore, Carla Nogueira, Pablo Peri, Anita Risch, Christiane Roscher, Martin Schuetz & Carly Stevens
Aim Nutrient enrichment is associated with plant invasions and biodiversity loss. Functional trait advantages may predict the ascendancy of invasive plants following nutrient enrichment but this is rarely tested. Here, we investigate 1) whether dominant native and non-native plants differ in important morphological and physiological leaf traits, 2) how their traits respond to nutrient addition, and 3) whether responses are consistent across functional groups. Location Australia, Europe, North America and South Africa Time period 2007...

Determining the efficacy of camera traps, live capture traps, and detection dogs for locating cryptic small mammal species

Morgan Thomas, Lynn Baker, James Beattie & Andrew Baker
Metal box (e.g., Elliott, Sherman) traps and remote cameras are two of the most commonly employed methods presently used to survey terrestrial mammals. However, their relative efficacy at accurately detecting cryptic small mammals has not been adequately assessed. The present study therefore compared the effectiveness of metal box (Elliott) traps and vertically oriented, close range, white flash camera traps in detecting small mammals occurring in the Scenic Rim of eastern Australia. We also conducted a...

Hull fouling marine invasive species pose a very low, but plausible, risk of introduction to East Antarctica in climate change scenarios

Oakes Holland, Justine Shaw, Jonathan Stark & Kerrie Wilson
Aims: To identify potential hull fouling marine invasive species that could survive in East Antarctica presently and in the future. Location: Australia's Antarctic continental stations: Davis, Mawson and Casey, East Antarctica; and subantarctic islands: Macquarie Island and Heard and McDonald Islands. Methods: Our study uses a novel machine-learning algorithm to predict which currently known hull fouling MIS could survive in shallow benthic ecosystems adjacent to Australian Antarctic research stations and subantarctic islands, where ship traffic...

Data from: Australian rodents reveal conserved craniofacial evolutionary allometry across 10 million years of murid evolution

Ariel Emily Marcy, Thomas Guillerme, Emma Sherratt, Kevin C. Rowe, Matthew J. Phillips & Vera Weisbecker
Among vertebrates, placental mammals are particularly variable in the covariance between cranial shape and body size (allometry), with rodents a major exception. Australian murid rodents allow an assessment of the cause of this anomaly because they radiated on an ecologically diverse continent notably lacking other terrestrial placentals. Here we use 3D geometric morphometrics to quantify species-level and evolutionary allometries in 38 species (317 crania) from all Australian murid genera. We ask if ecological opportunity resulted...

Data from: Tradeoffs between maize silage yield and nitrate leaching in a Mediterranean nitrate-vulnerable zone under current and projected climate scenarios

Bruno Basso, Pietro Giola, Benjamin Dumont, Massimiliano De Antoni Migliorati, Davide Cammarano, Giovanni Pruneddu, Francesco Giunta & Massimiliano De Antoni Migliorati
Future climatic changes may have profound impacts on cropping systems and affect the agronomic and environmental sustainability of current N management practices. The objectives of this work were to i) evaluate the ability of the SALUS crop model to reproduce experimental crop yield and soil nitrate dynamics results under different N fertilizer treatments in a farmer’s field, ii) use the SALUS model to estimate the impacts of different N fertilizer treatments on NO3- leaching under...

Data from: Climate modifies response of non-native and native species richness to nutrient enrichment

Habacuc Flores-Moreno, Peter B. Reich, Eric M. Lind, Lauren L. Sullivan, Eric W. Seabloom, Laura Yahdjian, Andrew S. MacDougall, Lara G. Reichmann, Juan Alberti, Selene Báez, Jonathan D. Bakker, Marc W. Cadotte, Maria C. Caldeira, Enrique J. Chaneton, Carla M. D'Antonio, Philip A. Fay, Jennifer Firn, Nicole Hagenah, W. Stanley Harpole, Oscar Iribarne, Kevin P. Kirkman, Johannes M. H. Knops, Kimberly J. La Pierre, Ramesh Laungani, Andrew D. B. Leakey … & Elizabeth T. Borer
Ecosystem eutrophication often increases domination by non-natives and causes displacement of native taxa. However, variation in environmental conditions may affect the outcome of interactions between native and non-native taxa in environments where nutrient supply is elevated. We examined the interactive effects of eutrophication, climate variability and climate average conditions on the success of native and non-native plant species using experimental nutrient manipulations replicated at 32 grassland sites on four continents. We hypothesized that effects of...

Data from: Systematic review: unmet supportive care needs in people diagnosed with chronic liver disease

Patricia C. Valery, Elizabeth Powell, Neta Moses, Michael Volk, Steven M. McPhail, Paul Clark & Jennifer Martin
Objective: People with chronic liver disease, particularly those with decompensated cirrhosis, experience several potentially debilitating complications that can have a significant impact on activities of daily living and quality of life. These impairments combined with the associated complex treatment mean that they are faced with specific and high levels of supportive care needs. We aimed to review reported perspectives, experiences and concerns of people with chronic liver disease worldwide. This information is necessary to guide...

Data from: Incidence and fatality of serious suicide attempts in a predominantly rural population in Shandong, China: a public health surveillance study

Jiandong Sun, Xiaolei Guo, Jiyu Zhang, Mei Wang, Cunxian Jia & Aiqiang Xu
Objectives: To estimate the incidence of serious suicide attempts (SSAs, defined as suicide attempts resulting in either death or hospitalisation) and to examine factors associated with fatality among these attempters. Design: A surveillance study of incidence and mortality. Linked data from two public health surveillance systems were analysed. Setting: Three selected counties in Shandong, China. Participants: All residents in the three selected counties. Outcome: measures Incidence rate (per 100 000 person-years) and case fatality rate...

Data from: Has open data arrived at the British Medical Journal (BMJ)? An observational study

Anisa Rowhani-Farid & Adrian G. Barnett
Objective: To quantify data sharing policy compliance at the BMJ by analysing the rate of data sharing practices, and investigate attitudes and examine barriers towards data sharing. Design: Observational study. Setting: The BMJ research archive. Participants: 160 randomly sampled BMJ research articles, excluding meta-analysis and systematic reviews. Main outcome measures: Percentages of research articles that indicated the availability of their raw datasets in their data sharing statements and those that provided their datasets upon request....

Data from: Opsin clines in butterflies suggest novel roles for insect photopigments

Francesca D Frentiu, Furong Yuan, Wesley K Savage, Gary D Bernard, Sean P Mullen & Adriana D Briscoe
Nucleotide Sequence Files Raw DataZip archive of the fasta files containing sequences for each individual used in clinal analyses for 3 opsin genes and wingless and EF1-alpha genes.

Data from: Mixture models of nucleotide sequence evolution that account for heterogeneity in the substitution process across sites and across lineages

Vivek Jayaswal, Thomas K. F. Wong, John Robinson, Leon Poladian, Lars S. Jermiin & Thomas K.F. Wong
Molecular phylogenetic studies of homologous sequences of nucleotides often assume that the underlying evolutionary process was globally stationary, reversible and homogeneous (SRH), and that a model of evolution with one or more site-specific and time-reversible rate matrices (e.g., the GTR rate matrix) is enough to accurately model the evolution of data over the whole tree. However, an increasing body of data suggests that evolution under these conditions is an exception, rather than the norm. To...

Data from: Spatially structured statistical network models for landscape genetics

Erin E. Peterson, Ephraim M. Hanks, Mevin B. Hooten, Jay M. Ver Hoef & Marie-Josée Fortin
A basic understanding of how the landscape impedes, or creates resistance to, the dispersal of organisms and hence gene flow is paramount for successful conservation science and management. Spatially structured ecological networks are often used to represent spatial landscape-genetic relationships, where nodes represent individuals or populations and resistance to movement is represented using non-binary edge weights. Weights are typically assigned or estimated by the user, rather than observed, and validating such weights is challenging. We...

Data from: Are sympatrically speciating Midas cichlid fish special? Patterns of morphological and genetic variation in the closely related species Archocentrus centrarchus

Carmelo Fruciano, Paolo Franchini, Francesca Raffini, Shaohua Fan & Axel Meyer
Established empirical cases of sympatric speciation are scarce, although there is an increasing consensus that sympatric speciation might be more common than previously thought. Midas cichlid fish are one of the few substantiated cases of sympatric speciation, and they formed repeated radiations in crater lakes. In contrast, in the same environment, such radiation patterns have not been observed in other species of cichlids and other families of fish. We analyze morphological and genetic variation in...

Data from: Leaf nutrients, not specific leaf area, are consistent indicators of elevated nutrient inputs

Jennifer Firn, James M. McGree, Eric Harvey, Habacuc Flores-Moreno, Martin Schütz, Yvonne M. Buckley, Elizabeth T. Borer, Eric W. Seabloom, Kimberly J. La Pierre, Andrew M. MacDougall, Suzanne M. Prober, Carly J. Stevens, Lauren L. Sullivan, Erica Porter, Emma Ladouceur, Charlotte Allen, Karine H. Moromizato, John W. Morgan, W. Stanley Harpole, Yann Hautier, Nico Eisenhauer, Justin P. Wright, Peter B. Adler, Carlos Alberto Arnillas, Jonathan D. Bakker … & Anita C. Risch
Leaf traits are frequently measured in ecology to provide a ‘common currency’ for predicting how anthropogenic pressures impact ecosystem function. Here, we test whether leaf traits consistently respond to experimental treatments across 27 globally distributed grassland sites across 4 continents. We find that specific leaf area (leaf area per unit mass)—a commonly measured morphological trait inferring shifts between plant growth strategies—did not respond to up to four years of soil nutrient additions. Leaf nitrogen, phosphorus...

Data from: Age and area predict patterns of species richness in pumice rafts contingent on oceanic climatic zone encountered

Eleanor Velasquez, Scott E. Bryan, Merrick Ekins, Alex G. Cook, Lucy Hurrey & Jennifer Firn
The Theory of Island Biogeography predicts that area and age explain species richness patterns (or alpha diversity) in insular habitats. Using a unique natural phenomenon, pumice rafting, we measured the influence of area, age and oceanic climate on patterns of species richness. Pumice rafts are formed simultaneously when submarine volcanoes erupt, the pumice clasts break-up irregularly, forming irregularly shaped pumice stones which while floating through the ocean are colonised by marine biota. We analyse two...

Data from: Sharing is caring? measurement error and the issues arising from combining 3D morphometric datasets

Carmelo Fruciano, Melina A. Celik, Kaylene Butler, Tom Dooley, Vera Weisbecker & Matthew J. Phillips
Geometric morphometrics is routinely used in ecology and evolution and morphometric datasets are increasingly shared among researchers, allowing for more comprehensive studies and higher statistical power (as a consequence of increased sample size). However, sharing of morphometric data opens up the question of how much nonbiologically relevant variation (i.e., measurement error) is introduced in the resulting datasets and how this variation affects analyses. We perform a set of analyses based on an empirical 3D geometric...

Data from: Sensitivity of global soil carbon stocks to combined nutrient enrichment

Thomas W. Crowther, Charlotte Riggs, Eric M. Lind, Elizabeth T. Borer, Eric W. Seabloom, Sarah E. Hobbie, E. R. Jasper Wubs, Peter B. Adler, Jennifer Firn, Laureano Gherardi, Nicole Hagenah, Kirsten S. Hofmockel, Johannes M. H. Knops, Rebecca L. McCulley, Andrew MacDougall, Pablo L. Peri, Suzanne M. Prober, Carly J. Stevens & Devin Routh
Soil stores approximately twice as much carbon as the atmosphere and fluctuations in the size of the soil carbon pool directly influence climate conditions. We used the Nutrient Network global change experiment to examine how anthropogenic nutrient enrichment might influence grassland soil carbon storage at a global scale. In isolation, enrichment of nitrogen and phosphorous had minimal impacts on soil carbon storage. However, when these nutrients were added in combination with potassium and micronutrients, soil...

Data from: \"NGS based generation of expressed sequence tags for Lymantria dispar and Lymantria monacha, two closely related lepidopteran species with different responses to parasitism by Glyptapanteles liparidis\" in Genomic Resources Notes accepted 1 December 2013 to 31 January 2014

Wolfgang Arthofer, Birgit C. Schlick-Steiner, Florian M. Steiner, Christa Schafellner, Gregor A. Wachter, Anthony R. Clarke, Nagalingam Kumaran & Peter J. Prentis
Introduction: The gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, and the nun moth, Lymantria monacha, are closely related species (Lepidoptera, Lymantriidae), co-seasonal and economically important forest pests on broadleaf and coniferous trees. In Central Europe, gypsy moth larvae are frequently parasitized by the gregarious, endoparasitic wasp Glyptapanteles liparidis (Hymenoptera, Braconidae). At oviposition, the female wasp injects between 10 and up to 100 eggs into the hemocoel of a single host larva, together with venom and calyx fluid containing...

Data from: Can impacts of climate change and agricultural adaptation strategies be accurately quantified if crop models are annually re-initialized?

Bruno Basso, David W. Hyndman, Anthony D. Kendall, Peter R. Grace & G. Philip Robertson
Estimates of climate change impacts on global food production are generally based on statistical or process-based models. Process-based models can provide robust predictions of agricultural yield responses to changing climate and management. However, applications of these models often suffer from bias due to the common practice of re-initializing soil conditions to the same state for each year of the forecast period. If simulations neglect to include year-to-year changes in initial soil conditions and water content...

Data from: More salt, please: global patterns, responses, and impacts of foliar sodium in grasslands

Elizabeth T. Borer, Eric M. Lind, Jennifer Firn, Eric W. Seabloom, T. Michael Anderson, Elizabeth S. Bakker, Lori Biederman, Kimberly J. La Pierre, Andrew S. MacDougall, Joslin L. Moore, Anita C. Risch, Martin Schutz & Carly J. Stevens
Sodium is unique among abundant elemental nutrients, because most plant species do not require it for growth or development, whereas animals physiologically require sodium. Foliar sodium influences consumption rates by animals and can structure herbivores across landscapes. We quantified foliar sodium in 201 locally abundant, herbaceous species representing 32 families and, at 26 sites on four continents, experimentally manipulated vertebrate herbivores and elemental nutrients to determine their effect on foliar sodium. Foliar sodium varied taxonomically...

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